( ) is the capital city
. With a population of over 345,000, it
is Australia's largest inland city
eighth largest Australian city overall. The city is located at
the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory, south-west of Sydney, and
north-east of Melbourne.
The site of Canberra was selected for the
location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between
rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australia's two largest cities
is unusual among Australian cities, being an entirely planned city
. Following an international contest for the
city's design, a design by the Chicago architects
Walter Burley Griffin and
Marion Mahony Griffin was
selected and construction commenced in 1913.
design was heavily influenced by the garden city movement
significant areas of natural vegetation that have earned Canberra
the title "bush capital". Although the growth and development of
Canberra were hindered by the World Wars and the Great Depression
, it emerged as a thriving
city after World War II
seat of the government of
Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament
House, the High Court of Australia and numerous government departments and
agencies. It is also the location of many social and
cultural institutions of national significance, such as the
Memorial, National Gallery of Australia, National Museum of Australia and the National Library of Australia.
The federal government contributes the
largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single
employer in Canberra.
Before European settlement, the area in which Canberra would
eventually be constructed was seasonally inhabited by the Ngunnawal
and Walgalu tribes
lived south-east of the Canberra
area, the Gundungurra
north, the Yuin
on the coast and the Wiradjuri
to the west. Archaeological evidence
from the Canberra region suggests human habitation in the area for
at least 21,000 years. The word "Canberra" is derived from the word
Kanbarra meaning "meeting place" in the old Ngunnawal language
of the local Ngabri
people. Alternatively the name was reported to mean
"woman's breasts", by journalist John Gale in the 1860s, referring to
the mountains of Mount
Ainslie and Black
The Ngunnawal name was apparently used as a
reference to corroborees
held during the
seasonal migration of the Ngunnawal
to feast on the Bogong moths
that pass through the region each spring.
Blundells' Cottage, built around 1860, is one of the few remaining
buildings built by the first European settlers of Canberra
European exploration and settlement started in the Canberra area as
early as the 1820s. There were four expeditions between 1820 and
1824. White settlement of the area probably dates from 1824, when a
homestead or station was built on what is now the Acton peninsula
by stockmen employed by Joshua John Moore. He formally purchased
the site in 1826, and named the property Canberry. The European
population in the Canberra area continued to grow slowly throughout
the 19th century. Among them was the Campbell family of
"Duntroon"; their imposing stone house is now the officers' mess of
the Royal Military College,
Duntroon. The Campbells sponsored settlement by other
farmer families to work their land, such as the Southwells of
"Weetangera". Other notable early settlers included the
inter-related Murray and Gibbes families, who owned the Yarralumla estate - now the site of the official residence of
the Governor-General of Australia -
from the 1830s through to 1881.
The oldest surviving public
building in the inner-city is the Anglican Church of St John the Baptist
, in the suburb of
Reid, which was consecrated in 1845. St John's churchyard contains
the graves of many of the district's pioneers. As the European
presence increased, the indigenous population dwindled, mainly from
disease such as smallpox and measles.
Opening of Parliament House in May
The district's change from a New South Wales (NSW) rural area to
the national capital started during debates over Federation
in the late 19th century.
a long dispute over whether Sydney or Melbourne should be the national capital, a compromise was
reached: the new capital would be built in New South Wales, so long
as it was no closer than to Sydney, with Melbourne to be the
temporary capital while the new capital was built.
Newspaper proprietor John
circulated a pamphlet titled 'Dalgety or Canberra: Which?
advocating Canberra to every member of the Commonwealth's seven
States Parliaments. By many accounts, it was decisive in the
selection of Canberra as the site in 1908, as was a result of
survey work done by the government surveyor Charles
. The NSW government ceded the Federal Capital
Territory (as it was then known) to the federal government. In an
international design competition conducted by the Department of
Home Affairs, on 24 May 1911, the design by Walter Burley Griffin
Mahony Griffin was chosen for the city, and in 1913 Griffin was
appointed Federal Capital Director of Design and Construction and
construction began. The plans included proposals for railed
transport within the city, however none were to eventuate with
Canberra's single interstate passenger station and goods yard
remaining to the south at Eastlake (now Kingston).
During the construction of the principal
buildings, there were a number of temporary construction railway
lines laid to Civic in central Canberra.
March 1913, the city was officially given its name by Lady Denman, the wife of
the then Governor-General Lord Denman, at a ceremony
at Kurrajong Hill, which has since become Capital Hill and the site
of the present Parliament House. Canberra Day is
a public holiday observed in the city and the surrounding Australian
Capital Territory (ACT) on the second Monday in March to celebrate
the founding of Canberra.
federal government moved to Canberra on 9 May 1927, with the
opening of the Provisional Parliament House. The Prime Minister, Stanley Bruce, had officially taken up
residence in The
Lodge a few days earlier.
Planned development of
the city slowed significantly during the depression
of the 1930s and
during World War II
. Some projects
planned for that time, including Roman Catholic
cathedrals, were never
completed. The development of Canberra gained pace after the Second
World War, and it has grown beyond the original planners'
expectations since then. Several Government departments, together
with public servants, were moved to Canberra from Melbourne following the war. Government
projects were undertaken to accommodate the city's
growing population. Parts of Canberra's north
were further developed in the 1950s, and urban development in the
of Woden Valley
commenced in the mid and late 1960s
respectively. Many of the new suburbs were named after Australian
politicians, such as Barton
. Lake Burley Griffin was completed in 1964.
January 1972 the Aboriginal Tent Embassy was first established on the grounds of Parliament
House; it was created to draw attention to indigenous rights and
land issues and has been continuously occupied since 1992.
On 9 May 1988, a larger and permanent Parliament House was opened
on Capital Hill as part of Australia's bicentenary celebrations,
and the Federal Parliament moved there from the Provisional
Parliament House, now known as Old Parliament House. In December
1988, the ACT was granted full self-government through an Act of
the Commonwealth Parliament. Following the first election on 4 March
1989, a 17-member Legislative Assembly sat at its offices in London Circuit, Civic, on 11
formed the ACT's first government, led by the Chief
Minister Rosemary Follett
, who made
history as Australia's first female head of government.
January 2003, parts of Canberra were engulfed by bushfires that killed four
people, injured 435, and destroyed 487 homes and the major research
telescopes of Australian National
University's Mount Stromlo Observatory.
covers an area of 814.2 square kilometres (314.3 sq. mi) and is located near the Brindabella
Ranges (Brendy Bear Ranges), approximately
150 kilometres (93 mi) inland from Australia's east coast.
located at elevations that range from 550 metres to
700 metres (1,800 to 2,300 ft) AHD
. The highest point is Mount Majura at 888 metres (2,913 ft).
large hills include Mt Taylor, Mt Ainslie, Mount Mugga Mugga and Black Mountain.
The surrounding bushland
and the original bushland that Canberra
was built in is a mixture of eucalyptus savanna
, open grassland, scrubland
environs of the city of Canberra straddle the Ginninderra plain, Molonglo plain, the
Limestone plain, and the Tuggeranong plain (Isabella's Plain). The Molonglo
River which flows across the Molonglo plain has been
dammed to form the National Capital's iconic feature Lake Burley
Griffin. The Molonglo then flows into the Murrumbidgee north-west of Canberra, which in turn flows
north-west toward the New South Wales town of Yass.
River joins the Molonglo River at Oaks Estate just within
A number of creeks, including Jerrabomberra and
Yarralumla Creeks, flow into the Molonglo and Murrumbidgee.
these creeks, the Ginninderra and Tuggeranong, have similarly been
dammed to form Lakes
Ginninderra and Tuggeranong.
Until recently the Molonglo River had a
history of sometimes calamitous floods; the area was a flood plain
prior to the filling of Lake Burley Griffin.
Canberra has a marine west coastal
) with four distinct seasons,
because of its latitude, elevation and distance from the coast.
Whereas the climates of most Australian coastal areas, which
include all the state capital cities, are moderated by the sea.
Canberra experiences hot, quite dry summers, and cold winters with
heavy fog and frequent frosts, with a rare spot of snow in the
but the surrounding
areas get annual snowfall through winter and often the snow capped
mountains can be seen from the CBD. The highest recorded maximum
temperature was 42.2 °C (108 °F) on 1 February 1968. The
lowest recorded minimum temperature was −10.0 °C (14 °F)
on 11 July 1971. Light snow falls in the city in one out of
approximately three winters but is usually not widespread and
quickly dissipates.Canberra is protected from the West by the
Brindabellas which create a slight rain shadow in Canberra's
valleys, however the effect is not as pronounced as in the Monaro region just south of Canberra.
Rainfall is the third lowest of the Capital cities (after Adelaide and Hobart) but is
spread fairly evenly over the seasons, with late spring bringing
the highest rainfall. Thunderstorms
can occur between September and
April, and may occur at any time during the day. However severe
hail and wind producing thunderstorms usually only occur in the
heat of a summer's afternoon or evening. The variability of
rainfall across the city is high in Summer, due to the 'hit and
miss' properties of storms, which are the main producers of rain
for Canberra in Summer.
Climate data for Canberra
Latitude: -35.3049S Longitude: 149.2014E Elevation: 578.4 m
bikepath to Weston Creek
Canberra seen from Spot
Canberra is a planned city
originally designed by Walter
, a major 20th century American architect. Major
roads follow a wheel-and-spoke pattern rather than a grid.
centre is laid out on two perpendicular axes: a water axis
stretching along Lake Burley Griffin, and a ceremonial land axis stretching from
Parliament House on Capital Hill north-eastward along ANZAC
Parade to the Australian War Memorial at the foot of Mt Ainslie. The area known as the Parliamentary Triangle is formed by three of Burley Griffin's axes,
stretching from Capital Hill along Commonwealth Avenue to the
Civic Centre around City Hill, along Constitution Avenue to the
Defence precinct on Russell Hill, and along Kings Avenue back to
larger scheme of Canberra's layout is based on the three peaks
surrounding the city, Mt. Ainslie, Black Mountain, and Red
Hill. The main symmetrical axis of the city is
Parade and roughly on the line between Mt.Ainslie and
Peak. Bimberi Peak being the highest mountain in
the ACT approximately 52 km south west of Canberra
The precise alignment of ANZAC parade is between Mt.
and Capital Hill (formally Kurrajong Hill).
assigned spiritual values to
Mt. Ainslie, Black Mountain, and Red Hill and originally planned to
cover each of these in flowers. That way each hill would be covered
with a single, primary color which represented its spiritual value.
This part of their plan never came to fruition. In fact, WWI
interrupted the construction and some conflicts after the war made
it a difficult process for the Griffins. Nevertheless, Canberra
stands as an exemplary city design and is located halfway between
the ski slopes and the beach. It enjoys a natural cooling from
The urban areas of Canberra are organised into a hierarchy of
districts, town centres, group centres, local suburbs as well as
other industrial areas and villages. There are seven districts,
each of which is divided into smaller suburbs, and most of which
have a town centre which is the focus of commercial and social
activities. The districts were settled in the following
- North Canberra, mostly settled in
the 1920s and '30s, with expansion up to the 1960s, now 14
- South Canberra, settled from the
1920s to '60s, 13 suburbs
- Woden Valley, first settled in
1963, 12 suburbs
- Belconnen, first settled in 1967, 25
- Weston Creek, settled in 1969, 8
- Tuggeranong, settled in 1974, 19 suburbs
- Gungahlin, settled in the early 1990s,
18 suburbs although only 12 are developed or under development
- Molonglo, development to begin in 2009,
12 suburbs planned.
The North and South Canberra districts are substantially based on
Walter Burley Griffin's designs. In 1967 the then National Capital
adopted the "Y Plan" which laid out
future urban development in Canberra around a series of central
shopping and commercial area known as the 'town centres' linked by
freeways, the layout of which roughly resembled the shape of the
letter Y, with Tuggeranong at the base of the Y and Belconnen and
Gungahlin located at the ends of the arms of the Y. Development in
Canberra has been closely regulated by government, both through the
town planning process, but also through the use of crown lease
terms that have tightly limited the use of parcels of land. All
land in the ACT is held on 99 year leases from the national
government, although most leases are now administered by the
Most suburbs have their own local shops, and are located close to a
larger shopping centre serving a group of suburbs. Community
facilities and schools are often also located near local shops or
group shopping centres. Many of Canberra's suburbs
are named after former
Prime Ministers, famous Australians, early settlers, or use
Aboriginal words for their title. Street names
typically follow a particular theme; for example, the streets of
Duffy are named after Australian dams and reservoirs, the
streets of Dunlop are named after Australian inventions, inventors
and artists and the streets of Page are named after biologists and naturalists.
diplomatic missions are located
in the suburbs of Yarralumla, Deakin and O'Malley. There are three light industrial areas: the
suburbs of Fyshwick, Mitchell and Hume.
ACT Legislative Assembly
& the statue Ethos
(Tom Bass, 1961)
Outside Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory has no
settlements larger than a village. The Australian Capital Territory Legislative
Assembly performs the roles of both a city council and territory government.
The Assembly consists of 17 members, elected from three districts
using proportional representation. The three districts are Molonglo
, which elect seven, five
and five members, respectively. The Chief Minister is elected by
the Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) and selects another
four MLAs to serve as Ministers to form, with the Chief Minister,
an Executive (known informally as the cabinet
.) At the 2004 election the
Australian Labor Party, headed by Chief Minister Jon Stanhope
, won nine of the 17 seats and
formed the ACT's first majority government.
The Australian federal government retains some influence over the
ACT government. In the administrative sphere, most frequently this
is through the actions of the National Capital Authority
is responsible for planning and development in areas of Canberra
which are considered to be of national importance or which are
central to Griffin's plan for the city, such as the Parliamentary
Triangle, major approach and processional roads, areas where the
Commonwealth retains ownership of the land or undeveloped hills and
ridge-lines (which form part of the Canberra Nature Park). The
national government also retains a level of control over the
Territory Assembly through the provisions of the Australian
Capital Territory Act 1988
. This Act of the national
Parliament is the constitution for the ACT and limits the range of
matters upon which the Assembly can legislate.
The Australian Federal
(AFP) provides all of the police services of a state
police force under a contractual agreement with the Australian
Capital Territory Government. The AFP is responsible for policing
in Canberra, Australia’s National Capital and the surrounding
Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The AFP provides this service
to the people of the ACT through its community policing arm, ACT
Capital Territory Police
). The Chief Police Officer of the ACT
is Michael Phelan
, Commander Leanne
Close is Deputy Chief Police Officer (Response), Commander Kevin
Zuccato is Deputy Chief Police Officer (Investigation and Support)
and Mr Paul Williams is the Director of Corporate Services.
who have been charged with offences are tried either in the
Magistrates Court or for more severe offences, the ACT Supreme Court.
Prisoners were held in remand
at the Belconnen Remand Centre
in the ACT.
prison, Alexander Maconochie Centre, was officially opened on 11 September 2008 by
Jon Stanhope, the Chief
The total cost for construction was $131 million
and took 22 months to build. The police minister, Simon Corbell
, appointed the first official
visitor as Craig Sams.
Courts such as a Small Claims Tribunal and a Family Court
exist for civil law
actions and other non-criminal legal matters.
Many Canberrans are employed by
Government departments such as the Australian Treasury
As of July 2006, the unemployment rate in Canberra is 2.8%, well
below the national unemployment rate of 4.8%, with labour shortages
reported in some sectors. As a result of low unemployment and
substantial levels of public sector and commercial employment,
Canberra has the highest average disposable income of any
Australian capital city. The gross average weekly wage of a
Canberra resident is $
compared with the Australia wide average of $1,043.10. The median
house price in Canberra as of June 2005 was $352,500, lower than
Sydney, Melbourne and Perth but higher than all other capital
cities. The median house price in September 2006 was $375,000. The
average price in November 2006 was $411,305. The median weekly rent
paid by Canberra residents is higher than rents in all other states
and territories. As at the September quarter of 2006 the median
rent for a 3 bedroom house was $320 per week. This is the highest
of all capital cities in Australia. The median rent for 'other'
dwellings is $300 per week. Factors contributing to this higher
weekly rental market include; higher average weekly incomes,
restricted land supply, and inflationary clauses in the ACT
Residential Tenancies Act.
The city's main industry is government administration and defence,
which accounted for 26.1% of Gross Territory Product in 2003–04 and
employed over 40% of Canberra's workforce. The major public-sector
employers in Canberra include the parliament and government
departments such as Department of Defence, Finance, Foreign Affairs
and Trade, and Treasury. A number of Australian Defence Force
establishments are located in or near Canberra, most notably the
Australian Defence Force headquarters and HMAS Harman, which is a naval communications centre that is
being converted into a tri-service, multi-user depot.
former RAAF Fairbairn
, adjacent to
the Canberra International Airport was sold to the operators of the
Airport, but the base continues to be used for RAAF
A growing number of independent software vendors have based
themselves in Canberra, to capitalise on the concentration of
government customers. Notable among these are QSP, Tower Software
and The Distillery. Property and
business services, construction, health and community services, and
education are other significant contributors to the economy of
As of 2006, the population of Canberra was 323,056 people and the
city has a population density of 1,005.0 persons per square
kilometre (2,602.9/sq mi), which is dense with respect to
other Australian cities. The 2006 census showed that 1.2% of
Canberra's population were of indigenous origin and 21.7% were born
overseas. The largest group of people born overseas came from
English-speaking countries, led by the United Kingdom and then New
Zealand. Significant numbers of immigrants have also
come from Germany, Italy and Vietnam.
Recent immigrants have arrived from
countries in east
and south Asia
. Most locals are native speakers of
; many have a second
language, the most common being Mandarin, Italian, Vietnamese,
Cantonese and Greek
Canberrans are relatively young, highly mobile
, and well educated. The median
age is 34 years, and only 9.8% of the population is aged over 65
years. Between 1996 and 2001, 61.9% of the population either moved
to or from Canberra, which is the second highest mobility rate of
any Australian capital city. As of May 2004, 30% of people in the
ACT aged 15–64 had a level of educational attainment equal to at
least a bachelor's degree
significantly higher that the national average of 19%.
Approximately 60% of Canberra residents describe themselves as
, the most common denominations
; 6% of the population practice a
non-Christian religion and 23% are not religious.
As of 2002 the most common crimes
are property related crimes, unlawful entry with intent and
motor vehicle theft
. They affect
1,961 and 630 of every 100,000 persons respectively. Homicide
and related offences (including Murder,
Attempted Murder, Manslaughter and Driving Causing Death) affect
1.5/100,000 persons which is below the national average of
4.9/100,000. Rates of assault
and sexual assault
are also below the national
main tertiary institutions are the Australian
National University (ANU) in Acton and the University of Canberra (UC) in Bruce.
The ANU was established as a research
university in 1946; it continues to have a strong research focus
and is ranked among the best universities in the world in
Higher Education Supplement
and the Shanghai Jiao Tong
World University Rankings. Using these rankings as a measure, the
ANU continues to be Australia's top ranked University. There are also two
religious university campuses in Canberra: Signadou in the North
Canberra suburb of Watson is a campus of the Australian
Catholic University; St Mark's Theological College adjacent to the
Parliament House is a campus of the secular Charles Sturt
Australian Defence Force
Academy (ADFA) and the Royal
Military College, Duntroon are near the suburb of Campbell in Canberra's inner north-east. ADFA teaches military undergraduates and postgraduates and is officially a
campus of the University
of New South Wales; Duntroon provides Australian Army Officer training. Tertiary level vocational education is
also available through the multi-campus Canberra
Institute of Technology.
In February 2004 there were 140 public and
in Canberra; 96 were operated by the
Government and 44 are non-Government. During 2006 the ACT
Government announced closures of up to 39 schools, to take effect
from the end of the school year and after a series of consultations
the Government announced its "Towards 2020: Renewing Our Schools"
plan that closed some schools at the end of 2006 with more in 2007
and 2008, while consolidating school campuses and opening
'super-schools' (large public schools for kindergarten through to
year 12) through to 2020. Most suburbs are planned to include a
and a nearby
preschool, and schools are usually located near open areas for play
Arts and entertainment
is home to many national monuments and institutions such as the
Memorial, the National Gallery of Australia, the National
Portrait Gallery, the National Library of Australia, the National Archives of
Australia, the Australian Academy of Science and the National Museum of Australia. Many Commonwealth government buildings in
Canberra are open to the public, including Parliament
House, the High Court and the Royal Australian Mint. Lake Burley Griffin is the site of the
Captain Cook Memorial and the
Carillon. Other sites of interest include the Black
Mountain Tower and the Australian
National Botanic Gardens on Black Mountain, the National Zoo and Aquarium on Scrivener Dam, the National
Dinosaur Museum and Questacon – the National Science and
Museum and Gallery in the city is a repository of local history and art.
historic homes are open to the public: Lanyon and Tuggeranong
Homesteads in the Tuggeranong
Valley, Mugga-Mugga in Symonston, and Blundells' Cottage in Parkes all display the lifestyle of the early European
settlers. Calthorpes' House in Red
Hill is a well preserved example of a 1920s house from
Canberra's very early days. Duntroon
House, in the suburb of Campbell, was one of the district's earliest homesteads and
is now the officers' mess at Royal
Military College; it is occasionally open to the public.
Canberra has many venues for live music
and theatre: the Canberra Theatre and Playhouse
many major concerts and productions; and Llewellyn Hall (within the
ANU School of Music), a world-class concert hall are two of the
, also located on Childers Street, operates as a
venue for local professional and amateur production companies, as
well as producing a season of professional shows each year.
Hall was the city's first performing arts venue,
opened in 1928.
It was the original performance venue for
theatre groups such as the Canberra Repertory Society and the
Canberra Philharmonic Society.
at the University of Canberra is
Canberra's largest music festival. Canberra is also the home turf
of an Australian hip-hop
. There are numerous bars and nightclubs which
also offer live entertainment, particularly concentrated in the
areas of Dickson, Kingston and the city.
Most town centres have facilities for a
community theatre and a cinema, and they all have a library.
cultural events include the National
Folk Festival, the Royal Canberra
Show, the Summernats car festival,
the Canberra Multicultural Festival in February and the
Celebrate Canberra festival which is held over 10 days in
March in conjunction with Canberra Day.
Canberra maintains sister-city relationships with both Nara
, (Japan) and Beijing
(China). Canberra has friendship-city relationships
with both Dili (Timor
Leste) and Hangzhou (China).
encourage communities and special interest groups both locally and
abroad to engage in a wide range of exchange activities. The
Canberra Nara Candle Festival held annually in spring, is a
community celebration of the Canberra Nara Sister City
relationship. The Festival is held in Canberra Nara Park on the
shores of Lake Burley Griffin.
Australia's political centre, Canberra is the most important centre
for much of Australia's political reportage and thus all the major
media organisations, including the Australian
Broadcasting Corporation, the commercial television networks, and the
metropolitan newspapers maintain local bureaus.
ABC Canberra studios
organisations are represented in the "press gallery
", a group of
journalists who report on the national parliament
. The National Press
Club of Australia in Barton has regular television broadcasts of its weekly
lunches at which a prominent guest, typically a politician,
delivers a half-hour speech followed by a question-and-answer
Canberra has a daily newspaper, The Canberra Times
, which was
established in 1926, and some free weekly suburban and special
interest publications, one of these being CityNews. Canberra has five
free-to-air television stations (analogue and digital) including
two government funded (ABC and SBS) and three commercial
stations (Prime, WIN and Southern Cross Ten) as well as
four additional free-to-air digital services Prime HD, WIN HD,
ABC2 and SBS News.
Prior to 1989,
Canberra was serviced by just the ABC, SBS and Capital Television,
which later became Southern Cross Ten, with Prime and WIN arriving
as part of the Government's regional aggregation programme in that
year. Subscription (pay) television services are available from
via satellite service, and cable by
local telecommunications company TransACT
who also offer telephone and broadband
internet services on their optical
network covering many suburbs.
of community radio stations broadcast in Canberra, including
FM based in Tuggeranong, and Radio 1RPH which offers broadcasts for the print
handicapped. There are a number of commercial AM and FM
radio stations including those belonging to the Capital Radio Network (2CA and
2CC), the Austereo/ARN owned 104.7 and Mix
106.3, both of which were introduced in 1988 and Raw FM 87.6 MHz a
dance music station. Public radio broadcasters ABC
Radio and SBS Radio operate a
number of stations.
In addition to local sporting leagues, Canberra has a number of
sporting teams that compete in national and international leagues.
The best known teams are the Canberra
and the Brumbies
play rugby league
and rugby union
respectively, and who have both been
champions of their leagues. Both teams play their home games at Canberra
Stadium, which is Canberra's largest stadium and was used
to hold preliminary soccer matches
for the 2000 Summer Olympics
and matches for the 2003 Rugby
Canberra also has a successful basketball
team, the Canberra Capitals
Canberra Capitals won the 2006, 2007 and 2009 women's basketball
There are also teams that participate in national competitions in
, field hockey
, ice hockey
Manuka Oval is another large outdoor sporting facility where
cricket and Australian
Rules football are played.
The Melbourne based AFL
team the Kangaroos
played some home games at
Manuka Oval until July 2006. Following the move of the Kangaroos'
alternative home ground to Carrara in Queensland, Melbourne and the Western Bulldogs will play home games at
Manuka Oval from 2007 against the Sydney
Canberra is also home to the Barassi
International Australian Football Youth Tournament
Minister's XI cricket match is played at Manuka Oval
Other significant annual sporting events include
the Canberra Marathon
and the City
of Canberra Half Ironman Triathlon. The Canberra Women's Tennis
Classic was held in the lead up to the Australian
Open until 2006.
Institute of Sport (AIS) is located in the Canberra suburb of
The AIS is a specialised educational and
training institution providing coaching for elite junior and senior
athletes in a number of sports. The AIS has been operating since
1981 and has achieved significant success in producing elite
athletes, both local and international. The majority of
Australia's team members and medals at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney were won by
It is also a popular tourist
Canberra has numerous sporting ovals, golf courses, skate parks,
tennis courts and swimming pools that are open to the public. A
Canberra-wide series of bicycle paths are available to cyclists for
recreational and sporting purposes. Canberra Nature Parks have a
large range of walking paths, horse and mountain bike trails. Water
sports like sailing, rowing and water skiing are popular activities
on Canberra's lakes. The Rally of Canberra is an annual motor sport
event and a facility for drag racing
currently being planned for construction.
There is also a bid under way for Canberra to receive an A-League
license in the national soccer
competition, see Canberra A-League
has two large public hospitals, the 500-bed Canberra
Hospital - formerly the Woden Valley Hospital - located
in Garran and the smaller 174 bed Calvary Public Hospital
located in Bruce.
The Canberra Hospital
Both public hospitals are also teaching
hospitals. The largest private hospital in Canberra is
the John James Memorial Hospital in Deakin.
Calvary Private Hospital in Bruce and
's National Capital Private
in Garran are also major healthcare providers. The Royal
Canberra Hospital was located on Acton Peninsula on Lake Burley
Griffin; it was closed on 27 November 1991 and was demolished in
1997 in a controversial implosion.
This was to facilitate construction of the
National Museum of Australia. The city has 10 aged care facilities.
Canberra's hospitals receive emergency cases from throughout
southern New South Wales. The ACT
is one of four operational agencies of the
ACT Emergency Services
. NETS ACT & Southern
provides dedicated ambulance service for inter-hospital transport
of sick newborns within the ACT and into surrounding New South
The car is by far the dominant form of transport in Canberra. Past
planning policies have resulted in well developed good quality
roads and a low population density spread over a relatively large
area of the city. Canberra's districts
generally connected by 'parkways' - limited access dual carriageway
roads with speed limits generally set at 80 to 100 km/h. An
example is the Tuggeranong
which links Canberra's CBD and Tuggeranong, and
bypasses Weston Creek. In most districts, discrete residential
suburbs are bounded by access roads.
, the government-operated bus service,
provides public transport
throughout the city. Deane's Transit Group provides bus services
between Canberra and nearby areas of New South Wales through their
Transborder Express (Murrumbateman and Yass) and Deane's
Buslines (Queanbeyan) brands. Deane's Buslines also operates the Airliner
service between Canberra City and the airport.
In the 2006 census, 7.7% of the journeys to
work involved a bus; with 7.4% walking or cycling to work, a higher
proportion than in any other Australian capital city.
There are two local taxi companies, Aerial Capital Group
of the Canberra Elite and Silver Service brands which enjoyed
monopoly status for over four decades, and a recent arrival,
interstate CountryLink railway service
connects Canberra to Sydney.
railway station is in the inner south suburb of Kingston.
Between 1920 and 1922 the train line
crossed the Molonglo River and ran as far north as the city centre,
although the line was closed following major flooding and was never
rebuilt. Train services to Melbourne are provided by way of a CountryLink bus service
which connects with a rail service between Sydney and Melbourne in
Yass, about one hour's drive from Canberra.
to establish a very fast train
like a TGV
service between Melbourne, Canberra and Sydney have
been contemplated, but not implemented by both government and
private enterprise, as various proposals have not been deemed
economically viable. The plan was shelved by former Federal
Transport Minister John Anderson
The original plans for Canberra included proposals for railed
transport within the city, however none were to eventuate with
Canberra's single interstate passenger station and goods yard
remaining to the south at Kingston. During the construction of the
principal buildings, there were a number of temporary construction
railway lines laid to Civic in central Canberra.
is about three hours by road from Sydney on the
(National Highway 23), which connects with the Hume Highway (National Highway 31) near
Goulburn, and seven hours by road from Melbourne on the Barton Highway
(National Highway 25), which joins the Hume Highway at Yass.
It is a
two hour drive on the Monaro Highway
(National Highway 23) to the ski fields of the Snowy
Mountains and the Kosciuszko National Park. Batemans Bay, a popular holiday spot on the New South Wales
coast, is also two hours away via the Kings Highway.
International Airport provides direct domestic services to Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth, with connections to other domestic centres.
There are direct daily flights to Albury and Newcastle in New South Wales.
No regular commercial
international flights operate from the airport. Until 2003 the
civilian airport shared runways with RAAF Base Fairbairn
. On 27 June of that
year, the Air Force base was decommissioned and from that time the
airport was fully under civilian control. Major Australian
cities such as Sydney have a
secondary airport, but in Canberra this airport also provides for
charter operations, general aviation, parachuting and flying
The ACT government owned ACTEW
manages Canberra's water and sewerage
infrastructure. ActewAGL is a joint venture between ACTEW and AGL, and is the retail provider
of Canberra's utility services including water, natural gas,
electricity, and also some telecommunications services via a
Since 2003 all
ACT consumers have been able to choose the electricity retailer of
their choice. Canberra's water is stored in four
reservoirs, the Corin, Bendora and Cotter dams on the Cotter River and the Googong Dam on the Queanbeyan River.
The Googong Dam is in New South Wales but it is managed by the ACT
government. ACTEW Corporation owns Canberra's two
wastewater treatment plants, located at Fyshwick and at Lower Molonglo on the Molonglo
Electricity for Canberra comes from the
national power grid through substations at Holt and Fyshwick (via Queanbeyan).
Some limited local renewable power is
produced via a hydro generator on the main water supply pipeline
for Canberra at Mount Stromlo and methane plants at waste landfill
sites at Belconnen
and Mugga Lane.
domestic power supply in Canberra was in 1913 for the suburb of
Unlike most Australian cities, the power
poles in Canberra's older suburbs are located along the rear
boundaries of residential housing lots rather than on the street
front. In newer areas the power supply and communications cabling
are located underground.
As in other parts of Australia, terrestrial and mobile
telecommunications services are provided by a range of competing
companies. The majority of POTS and ADSL infrastructure belong to
. GSM and 3G mobile telephony and
data services infrastructure has also being established by Telstra
along with Optus, Vodafone, Three and Netspeed. Parts of Central
and Northern Canberra are services by Fibre-optic data connections
established by TransACT
. The ACT has the
highest rate of computer use and internet connection in
Twin towns — Sister cities
Canberra is twinned
- Flood, JM., David, B., Magee, J. and English, B. 1987.
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Full-Time Adult Average Weekly Ordinary Time
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cooled, 9 September 2005
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September Quarter 2006. ACT residential Property Market report
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Housing Australia in Profile A Regional Analysis. (PDF, 20MB)
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CPI index, which is usually significantly higher than CPI. For 2008
this deems an increase up to 10.12% as not excessive on the face of
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