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Cannibalism (from Caníbalis, the Spanish name for the Carib people), also called anthropophagy, is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh of other human beings.

The term "cannibalism" is also used in zoology to mean the act of any species consuming members of its own kind. The expression "cannibalization" is in addition used metaphorically outside of biological fields to refer to the reuse of parts or ideas or to situations such as when a company's assets eat into its other assets. This article is about human cannibalism.

Cannibalism has recently been both practiced and fiercely condemned in several wars, especially in Liberia and Congo. Today, the Korowai are one of very few tribes still believed to eat human flesh. It is also still known to be practiced as a ritual and in war in various Melanesian tribes.

Cannibalism was widespread in the past among humans throughout the world, continuing into the 19th century in some isolated South Pacific cultures. Neanderthals are believed to have practiced cannibalism.Among modern humans it has been practiced by various groups.In the past, it has been practiced by humans in Europe,South America, Indiamarker, New Zealandmarker,North America,Australia ,the Solomon Islandsmarker, parts of West Africa and Central Africa, some of the islands of Polynesia, New Guineamarker, Sumatramarker,and Fijimarker, usually in rituals connected to tribal warfare. Fiji was once known as the 'Cannibal Isles'. Evidence of cannibalism has been found in the Chaco Canyonmarker ruins of the Anasazi culture.

Reasons for cannibalism

The reasons for cannibalism include the following: There are fundamentally two kinds of cannibalistic social behavior; endocannibalism (eating humans from the same community) and exocannibalism (eating humans from other communities).

A separate ethical distinction can be made to delineate between the practice of killing a human for food (homicidal cannibalism) versus eating the flesh of a person who was already dead (necro-cannibalism).

Overview

The social stigma against cannibalism has been used as an aspect of propaganda against an enemy by accusing them of acts of cannibalism to separate them from their humanity.The Carib tribe in the Lesser Antilles, from whom the word cannibalism derives, for example, acquired a longstanding reputation as cannibals following the recording of their legends by Fr. Breton in the 17th century. Some controversy exists over the accuracy of these legends and the prevalence of actual cannibalism in the culture.

During their period of expansion in the 15th through 17th centuries, Europeans equated cannibalism with evil and savagery. In the 16th century, Pope Innocent IV declared cannibalism a sin deserving to be punished by Christians through force of arms and Queen Isabella of Spain decreed that Spanish colonists could only legally enslave natives who were cannibals, giving the colonists an economic interest in making such allegations. This was used as a justification for employing violent means to subjugate native people. This theme dates back to Columbus' accounts of a supposedly ferocious group of man-eaters who lived in the Caribbean islands and parts of South America called the Caniba, which gave us the word cannibal.

The Korowai tribe of southeastern Papuamarker could be one of the last surviving tribes in the world engaging in cannibalism, although there have been media reports of soldiers/rebels in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Liberia eating body parts to intimidate child soldiers or captives.Marvin Harris has analyzed cannibalism and other food taboos.He argued that it was common when humans lived in small bands, but disappeared in the transition to states, the Aztecs being an exception.

A well known case of mortuary cannibalism is that of the Fore tribe in New Guineamarker which resulted in the spread of the prion disease Kuru. It is often believed to be well-documented, although no eyewitnesses have ever been at hand. Some scholars argue that although postmortem dismemberment was the practice during funeral rites, cannibalism was not. Marvin Harris theorizes that it happened during a famine period coincident with the arrival of Europeans and was rationalized as a religious rite.

In pre-modern medicine, an explanation for cannibalism stated that it came about within a black acrimonious humour, which, being lodged in the linings of the ventricle, produced the voracity for human flesh.

Some now-challenged research received a large amount of press attention when scientists suggested that early humans may have practiced cannibalism. Later reanalysis of the data found serious problems with this hypothesis. According to the original research, genetic markers commonly found in modern humans all over the world suggest that today many people carry a gene that evolved as protection against brain diseases that can be spread by consuming human brains. Later reanalysis of the data claims to have found a data collection bias, which led to an erroneous conclusion: that in some cases blame for incidents claimed as evidence has been given to 'primitive' local cultures, where in fact the cannibalism was practiced by explorers, stranded seafarers or escaped convicts.

As cultural libel

Unsubstantiated reports of cannibalism disproportionately relate cases of cannibalism among cultures that are already otherwise despised, feared, or are little known. In antiquity, Greek reports of cannibalism, (often called anthropophagy in this context) were related to distant non-Hellenic barbarians, or else relegated in Greek mythology to the 'primitive' chthonic world that preceded the coming of the Olympian gods: see the explicit rejection of human sacrifice in the cannibal feast prepared for the Olympians by Tantalus of his son Pelops. All South Sea Islanders were cannibals so far as their enemies were concerned. When the whaleship Essexmarker was rammed and sunk by a whale in 1820, the captain opted to sail 3000 miles upwind to Chilemarker rather than 1400 miles downwind to the Marquesasmarker because he had heard the Marquesans were cannibals. Ironically many of the survivors of the shipwreck resorted to cannibalism in order to survive.

However, Herman Melville happily lived with the Marquesan Typees (Taipi), rumoured to have been the most vicious of the island group's cannibal tribes, but also may have witnessed evidence of cannibalism. In his autobiographical novel Typee, he reports seeing shrunken heads and having strong evidence that the tribal leaders ceremonially consumed the bodies of killed warriors of the neighboring tribe after a skirmish.

William Arens, author of The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology and Anthropophagy (New York : Oxford University Press, 1979; ISBN 0-19-502793-0), questions the credibility of reports of cannibalism and argues that the description by one group of people of another people as cannibals is a consistent and demonstrable ideological and rhetorical device to establish perceived cultural superiority. Arens bases his thesis on a detailed analysis of numerous "classic" cases of cultural cannibalism cited by explorers, missionaries, and anthropologists. His findings were that many were steeped in racism, unsubstantiated, or based on second-hand or hearsay evidence. In combing the literature he could not find a single credible eye-witness account. And, as he points out, the hallmark of ethnography is the observation of a practice prior to description. In the end he concluded that cannibalism was not the widespread prehistoric practice it was claimed to be; that anthropologists were too quick to pin the cannibal label on a group based not on responsible research but on our own culturally-determined pre-conceived notions, often motivated by a need to exoticize. He wrote:

Arens' findings are controversial, and have been cited as an example of postcolonial revisionism. His argument is often mischaracterized as “cannibals do not and never did exist”, when in the end the book is actually a call for a more responsible and reflective approach to anthropological research. At any rate, the book ushered in an era of rigorous combing of the cannibalism literature. By Arens' later admission, some cannibalism claims came up short, others were reinforced.

Conversely, Michel de Montaigne's essay "Of cannibals" introduced a new multicultural note in European civilization. Montaigne wrote that "one calls 'barbarism' whatever he is not accustomed to." By using a title like that and describing a fair indigean society, Montaigne may have wished to provoke a surprise in the reader of his Essays.

During starvation

Cannibalism has been occasionally practiced as a last resort by people suffering from famine. In colonial Jamestown, colonists resorted to cannibalism during a period known as the Starving Time, from 1609-1610. After food supplies were diminished, some colonists began to dig up corpses for food. During this time period, one man confessed to killing his pregnant wife, salting, and eating her, before being burned alive as punishment.

In the US, the group of settlers known as the Donner partymarker resorted to cannibalism while snowbound in the mountains for the winter. The last survivors of Sir John Franklin's Expedition were found to have resorted to cannibalism in their final push across King William Island towards the Back River. There are many claims that cannibalism was widespread during the famine of Ukrainemarker in the 1930s, during the Siege of Leningrad in World War II, and during the Chinese Civil War and the Great Leap Forward in the People's Republic of China. There were also rumors of several cannibalism outbreaks during World War II in the Nazi concentration camps where the prisoners were malnourished. Cannibalism was also practiced by Japanese troops as recently as World War II in the Pacific theater. A more recent example is of leaked stories from North Koreanmarker refugees of cannibalism practiced during and after a famine that occurred sometime between 1995 and 1997.

Lowell Thomas records the cannibalisation of some of the surviving crew members of the Dumaru after the ship exploded and sank during the First World War in his book, The Wreck of the Dumaru (1930). Another case of shipwrecked survivors forced to engage in cannibalism was that of the Medusa, a French vessel which in 1816 ran aground on the Banc d'Arguinmarker (English: The Bank of Arguin) off the coast of Africa, about sixty miles distant from shore.

In 1972, the survivors of Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571marker, consisting of the rugby team from Stella Maris College in Montevideomarker and some of their family members, were resorted to cannibalism during their entrapment at the crash site. They had been stranded since October 13 and rescue operations at the crash site did not commence until December 22. The story of the survivors was chronicled in Piers Paul Read's 1974 book, Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors, in a 1993 film adaptation of the book, called simply Alive, and in a 2008 documentary: Stranded: I’ve Come From a Plane That Crashed on the Mountains.

It is believed that cannibalism took place on Easter Islandmarker after the construction of the Moai caused an ecosystem collapse starting with the inaccessibility of wood to build fishing boats.

Themes in mythology and religion

Cannibalism features in many mythologies, and is most often attributed to evil characters or as extreme retribution for some wrong. Examples include The witch in Hansel and Gretel and Baba Yaga of Slavic folklore.

A number of stories in Greek mythology involve cannibalism, in particular cannibalism of close family members, for example the stories of Thyestes, Tereus and especially Cronus, who was Saturn in the Roman pantheon. The story of Tantalus also parallels this. These mythologies inspired Shakespeare's cannibalism scene in Titus Andronicus.

In the Christian tradition, cannibalism is symbolically represented in the form of communion and the Eucharist. Protestants, in general, consider communion as symbolic, while Catholics teach that the Eucharist is literal, through their belief of transubstantiation.

Hindu mythology describes evil demons called "asura" or "rakshasa" that dwell in the forests and practice extreme violence including devouring their own kind, and possess many evil supernatural powers. These are however the Hindu equivalent of "demons" and do not relate to actual tribes of forest-dwelling people.

The Wendigo (also Windigo, Weendigo, Windago, Windiga, Witiko, Wihtikow, and numerous other variants) is a mythical creature appearing in the mythology of the Algonquian people. It is a malevolent cannibalistic spirit into which humans could transform, or which could possess humans. Those who indulged in cannibalism were at particular risk, and the legend appears to have reinforced this practice as taboo. The name is Wiindigoo in the Ojibwe language (the source of the English word), Wìdjigò in the Algonquin language, and Wīhtikōw in the Cree language; the Proto-Algonquian term was *wi·nteko·wa, which probably originally meant "owl".

Historical accounts

Pre-history

Some anthropologists, such as Tim White, suggest that cannibalism was common in human societies prior to the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period. This theory is based on the large amount of “butchered human" bones found in Neanderthal and other Lower/Middle Paleolithic sites. Cannibalism in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic may have occurred because of food shortages. Aboriginal tribes of Australia were most certainly cannibals. However, it was done as a great honour and "out of pitty for the body."

Early history

Cannibalism is mentioned many times in early history and literature. It is reported in the Bible during the siege of Samariamarker (2 Kings 6:25–30). Two women made a pact to eat their children; after the first mother cooked her child the second mother ate it but refused to reciprocate by cooking her own child. A similar story is reported by Flavius Josephus during the siege of Jerusalem by Rome in 70 AD, and the population of Numantia during the Roman Siege of Numantia in the second century BC was reduced to cannibalism and suicide. Cannibalism was also well-documented in Egyptmarker during a famine caused by the failure of the Nile to flood for eight years (1073-1064 BCE).

As in modern times, though, reports of cannibalism were often told as apocryphal second and third-hand stories, with widely varying levels of accuracy. St. Jerome, in his letter Against Jovinianus, discusses how people come to their present condition as a result of their heritage, and then lists several examples of peoples and their customs. In the list, he mentions that he has heard that Atticoti eat human flesh and that Massagetae and Derbices (a people on the borders of India) kill and eat old people.(---The Tibareni crucify those whom they have loved before when they have grown old---). ; this points to likelihood that St. Jerome's writing came from rumours and does not represent the situation accurately.

Researchers have found physical evidence of cannibalism in ancient times. In 2001, archaeologists at the University of Bristol found evidence of Iron Age cannibalism in Gloucestershire. In Germany, Emil Carthaus and Dr. Bruno Bernhard have observed 1,891 signs of cannibalism in the caves at the Hönnemarker (1000 - 700 BCE).

Middle Ages

During the Muslim-Qurayš wars in the early 7th century, cases of cannibalism have been reported. Following at the Battle of Uhud in 625, it is said that after killing Hamzah ibn Abdu l-Muṭṭalib, his liver was consumed by Hind bint ‘Utbah, the wife of Abû Sufyan ibn Harb (one of the commanders of the Qurayš army). Although she later converted to Islam, and was the mother of Muawiyah I, the founder of the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, Muawiyah was later slandered to be an unacceptable leader and the son of a cannibal.

Reports of cannibalism were also recorded during the First Crusade, as Crusaders fed on the bodies of their dead opponents following the Siege of Ma'arrat al-Numan. It is also possible that the Crusaders staged such incidents as part of psychological warfare. Amin Maalouf also discusses further cannibalism incidents on the march to Jerusalemmarker, and to the efforts made to delete mention of these from western history. During Europe's Great Famine of 1315–1317 there were many reports of cannibalism among the starving populations. In North Africa, as in Europe, there are references to cannibalism as a last resort in times of famine.

The Muslim explorer Ibn Batutta reported that one African king advised him that nearby people were cannibals (this may have been a prank played on Ibn Batutta by the king in order to fluster his guest).

For a brief time in Europe, an unusual form of cannibalism occurred when thousands of Egyptian mummies preserved in bitumen were ground up and sold as medicine. The practice developed into a wide-scale business which flourished until the late 16th century. This "fad" ended because the mummies were revealed to actually be recently killed slaves. Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties against bleeding, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powdered form (see human mummy confection).

References to cannibalizing the enemy has also been seen in poetry written when China was repressed in the Song Dynasty, though the cannibalizing is perhaps poetic symbolism, expressing hatred towards the enemy (see Man Jiang Hong).

While there is universal agreement that some Mesoamerican people practiced human sacrifice, there is a lack of scholarly consensus as to whether cannibalism in pre-Columbian America was widespread. At one extreme, anthropologist Marvin Harris, author of Cannibals and Kings, has suggested that the flesh of the victims was a part of an aristocratic diet as a reward, since the Aztec diet was lacking in proteins. While most pre-Columbian historians believe that there was ritual cannibalism related to human sacrifices, they do not support Harris's thesis that human flesh was ever a significant portion of the Aztec diet.

Early modern era

European explorers and colonizers brought home many stories of cannibalism practiced by the native peoples they encountered. The friar Diego de Landa reported about Yucatánmarker instances, Yucatan before and after the Conquest, translated from Relación de las cosas de Yucatan, 1566 (New Yorkmarker: Dover Publications, 1978: 4), and there have been similar reports by Purchas from Popayán, Colombiamarker, and from the Marquesas Islandsmarker of Polynesia, where human flesh was called long-pig (Alanna King, ed., Robert Louis Stevenson in the South Seas, London: Luzac Paragon House, 1987: 45–50). It is recorded about the natives of the captaincy of Sergipe in Brazilmarker, "They eat human flesh when they can get it, and if a woman miscarries devour the abortive immediately. If she goes her time out, she herself cuts the navel-string with a shell, which she boils along with the secondine, and eats them both.'" (See E. Bowen, 1747: 532.)

Reports of cannibalism among the Texasmarker tribes were often applied to the Karankawa and the Tonkawa. Though cannibals, the fierce Tonkawas were great friends of the white Texasmarker settlers, helping them against all their enemies. Among the North American tribes which practiced cannibalism in some form may be mentioned the Montagnais, and some of the tribes of Mainemarker; the Algonkin, Armouchiquois, Iroquois, and Micmac; in the South the Seminole people who built the mounds in Floridamarker, and the Tonkawa, Attacapa, Karankawa, Kiowa, Caddo, and Comanche (?); in the Northwest and West, portions of the continent, the Thlingchadinneh and other Athapascan tribes, the Tlingit, Heiltsuk, Kwakiutl, Tsimshian, Nootka, Siksika, some of the Californianmarker tribes, and the Ute. There is also a tradition of the practice among the Hopi, and mentions of the custom among other tribes of New Mexicomarker and Arizonamarker. The Mohawk, and the Attacapa, Tonkawa, and other Texasmarker tribes were known to their neighbours as "man-eaters."

As with most lurid tales of native cannibalism, these stories are treated with a great deal of scrutiny, as accusations of cannibalism were often used as justifications for the subjugation or destruction of "savages." However, there were several well-documented cultures that engaged in regular eating of the dead, such as New Zealand's Maori. In one infamous 1809 incident, 66 passengers and crew of the ship the Boyd were killed and eaten by Māori on the Whangaroa peninsula, Northland. (See also: Boyd massacre) Cannibalism was already a regular practice in Māori wars. In another instance, on 11 July 1821 warriors from the Ngapuhi tribe killed 2,000 enemies and remained on the battlefield "eating the vanquished until they were driven off by the smell of decaying bodies". Māori warriors fighting the New Zealand Government in Titokowaru's War in New Zealand's North Island in 1868–69 revived ancient rites of cannibalism as part of the radical Hauhau movement of the Pai Marire religion.

Other islands in the Pacific were home to cultures that allowed cannibalism to some degree. The dense population of Marquesas Islandsmarker, Polynesia, was concentrated in the narrow valleys, and consisted of warring tribes, who sometimes cannibalized their enemies. In parts of Melanesia, cannibalism was still practiced in the early 20th century, for a variety of reasons — including retaliation, to insult an enemy people, or to absorb the dead person's qualities. One tribal chief in Fijimarker is said to have consumed 872 people and to have made a pile of stones to record his achievement. The ferocity of the cannibal lifestyle deterred European sailors from going near Fijian waters, giving Fiji the name Cannibal Isles.

This period of time was also rife with instances of explorers and seafarers resorting to cannibalism for survival. The survivors of the sinking of the French ship Medusa in 1816 resorted to cannibalism after four days adrift on a raft and their plight was made famous by Théodore Géricault's painting Raft of the Medusa. The misfortunes of the Donner Partymarker in the United States are also well-known. After the sinking of the Essexmarker of Nantucketmarker by a whale, on November 20, 1820, (an important source event for Herman Melville's Moby-Dick) the survivors, in three small boats, resorted, by common consent, to cannibalism in order for some to survive. Sir John Franklin's lost polar expedition is another example of cannibalism out of desperation.

The case of R v. Dudley and Stephens (1884) 14 QBD 273 (QB) is an English case which dealt with four crew members of an English yacht, the Mignonette, which were cast away in a storm some from the Cape of Good Hopemarker. After several days one of the crew, a seventeen year old cabin boy, fell unconscious due to a combination of the famine and drinking seawater. The others (one possibly objecting) decided then to kill him and eat him. They were picked up four days later. Two of the three survivors were found guilty of murder. A significant outcome of this case was that necessity was determined to be no defence against a charge of murder.

Roger Casement writing to a consular colleague in Lisbon on 3 August 1903 from Lake Mantumba in the Congo Free State said: “The people round here are all cannibals. You never saw such a weird looking lot in your life. There are also dwarfs (called Batwas) in the forest who are even worse cannibals than the taller human environment. They eat man flesh raw! It’s a fact.” Casement then added how assailants would “bring down a dwarf on the way home, for the marital cooking pot...The Dwarfs, as I say, dispense with cooking pots and eat and drink their human prey fresh cut on the battlefield while the blood is still warm and running. These are not fairy tales my dear Cowper but actual gruesome reality in the heart of this poor, benighted savage land.” (National Library of Ireland, MS 36,201/3)

Modern era

World War II

Many instances of cannibalism by necessity were recorded during World War II. For example, during the 872-day Siege of Leningrad, reports of cannibalism began to appear in the winter of 1941–1942, after all birds, rats and pets were eaten by survivors. Leningrad police even formed a special division to combat cannibalism. Following the Soviet victory at Stalingradmarker it was found that some German soldiers in the besieged city, cut off from supplies, resorted to cannibalism.

Later, in February 1943, roughly 100,000 German soldiers were taken prisoner of war (POW). Almost all of them were sent to POW camps in Siberiamarker or Central Asia where, due to being chronically underfed by their Soviet captors, many resorted to cannibalism. Fewer than 5,000 of the prisoners taken at Stalingrad survived captivity. The majority, however, died early in their imprisonment due to exposure or sickness brought on by conditions in the surrounded army before the surrender.


In parts of Eastern Europe during World War II, there are anecdotal accounts of people finding human fingernails in sausage suggesting the foodstuffs were composed of human flesh.

Many written reports and testimonies collected by the Australian War Crimes Section of the Tokyo tribunal, and investigated by prosecutor William Webb (the future Judge-in-Chief), indicate that Japanese soldiers, in many parts of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, committed acts of cannibalism against Allied prisoners of war. According to historian Yuki Tanaka: "cannibalism was often a systematic activity conducted by whole squads and under the command of officers".

In some cases, flesh was cut from living people. An Indianmarker POW, Lance Naik Hatam Ali (later a citizen of Pakistanmarker), testified that in New Guinea: "the Japanese started selecting prisoners and every day one prisoner was taken out and killed and eaten by the soldiers. I personally saw this happen and about 100 prisoners were eaten at this place by the Japanese. The remainder of us were taken to another spot 50 miles [80 km] away where 10 prisoners died of sickness. At this place, the Japanese again started selecting prisoners to eat. Those selected were taken to a hut where their flesh was cut from their bodies while they were alive and they were thrown into a ditch where they later died."

Another well-documented case occurred in Chichijimamarker in February 1945, when Japanese soldiers killed and consumed five American airmen. This case was investigated in 1947 in a war crimes trial, and of 30 Japanese soldiers prosecuted, five (Maj. Matoba, Gen. Tachibana, Adm. Mori, Capt. Yoshii, and Dr. Teraki) were found guilty and hanged. In his book Flyboys: A True Story of Courage, James Bradley details several instances of cannibalism of World War II Allied prisoners by their Japanese captors. The author claims that this included not only ritual cannibalization of the livers of freshly-killed prisoners, but also the cannibalization-for-sustenance of living prisoners over the course of several days, amputating limbs only as needed to keep the meat fresh.

Other cases

  • The Leopard Society were a West African society active into mid-1900s that practiced cannibalism. They were centred in Sierra Leonemarker, Nigeriamarker, Liberiamarker and Côte d'Ivoiremarker. The Leopard men would dress in leopard skins, waylaying travelers with sharp claw-like weapons in the form of leopards' claws and teeth. The victims' flesh would be cut from their bodies and distributed to members of the society. In Tanganyika, the Lion men committed an estimated 200 murders in a single three-month period.
  • During the 1930s, multiple acts of cannibalism were reported from Ukrainemarker and Russiamarker's Volga, South Siberian and Kuban regions during the Holodomor.
  • Cannibalism was proven to have occurred in China during the Great Leap Forward, when rural China was hit hard by drought and famine. Reports of cannibalism during the Cultural Revolution in China have also emerged. These reports show that cannibalism was practiced for ideological purposes.
  • Prior to 1931, New York Times reporter William Buehler Seabrook, allegedly in the interests of research, obtained from a hospital intern at the Sorbonnemarker a chunk of human meat from the body of a healthy human killed by accident, and cooked and ate it. He reported that, "It was like good, fully developed veal, not young, but not yet beef. It was very definitely like that, and it was not like any other meat I had ever tasted. It was so nearly like good, fully developed veal that I think no person with a palate of ordinary, normal sensitiveness could distinguish it from veal. It was mild, good meat with no other sharply defined or highly characteristic taste such as for instance, goat, high game, and pork have. The steak was slightly tougher than prime veal, a little stringy, but not too tough or stringy to be agreeably edible. The roast, from which I cut and ate a central slice, was tender, and in color, texture, smell as well as taste, strengthened my certainty that of all the meats we habitually know, veal is the one meat to which this meat is accurately comparable."
  • The Sovietmarker writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in his novel The Gulag Archipelago, describes cases of cannibalism in the twentieth-century USSRmarker. Of the famine in Povolzhie (1921–1922) he writes: "That horrible famine was up to cannibalism, up to consuming children by their own parents — the famine, which Russia had never known even in Time of Troubles [in 1601–1603]...". He says of the Siege of Leningrad (1941–1944): "Those who consumed human flesh, or dealt with the human liver trading from dissecting rooms... were accounted as the political criminals...". And of the building of Northern Railway Prisoners Camp ("SevZhelDorLag") Solzhenitsyn writes: "An ordinary hard working political prisoner almost could not survive at that penal camp. In the camp SevZhelDorLag (chief: colonel Klyuchkin) in 1946–47 there were many cases of cannibalism: they cut human bodies, cooked and ate."
  • The Soviet journalist Yevgenia Ginzburg, former long-term political prisoner, who spent time in the Soviet prisons, Gulag camps and settlements from 1938 to 1955, describes in her memoir book "Harsh Route" (or "Steep Route") the case, which she was directly involved in late 1940s, after she had been moved to the prisoners' hospital. "...The chief warder shows me the black smoked pot, filled with some food: 'I need your medical expertize regarding this meat.' I look into the pot, and hardly hold vomiting. The fibers of that meat are very small, and don't resemble me anything I have seen before. The skin on some pieces bristles with black hair (...) A former smith from Poltava, Kulesh worked together with Centurashvili. At this time, Centurashvili was only one month away from being discharged from the camp (...) And suddenly he surprisingly disappeared. The wardens looked around the hills, stated Kulesh's evidence, that last time Kulesh had seen his workmate near the fireplace, Kulesh went out to work and Centurashvili left to warm himself more; but when Kulesh returned to the fireplace, Centurashvili had vanished; who knows, maybe he got frozen somewhere in snow, he was a weak guy (...) The wardens searched for two more days, and then assumed that it was an escape case, though they wondered why, since his imprisonment period was almost over (...) The crime was there. Approaching the fireplace, Kulesh killed Centurashvili with an axe, burned his clothes, then dismembered him and hid the pieces in snow, in different places, putting specific marks on each burial place. (...) Just yesterday, one body part was found under two crossed logs."
  • When Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571marker crashed into the Andes on October 13, 1972, the survivors resorted to eating the deceased during their 72 days in the mountains. Their story was later recounted in the books Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors and Miracle in the Andes as well as the film Alive, by Frank Marshall, and the documentaries Alive: 20 Years Later (1993) and Stranded: I've Come from a Plane that Crashed in the Mountains (2008).
  • Cannibalism was reported by the journalist Neil Davis during the South East Asian wars of the 1960s and 1970s. Davis reported that Cambodianmarker troops ritually ate portions of the slain enemy, typically the liver. However he, and many refugees, also report that cannibalism was practiced non-ritually when there was no food to be found. This usually occurred when towns and villages were under Khmer Rouge control, and food was strictly rationed, leading to widespread starvation. Any civilian caught participating in cannibalism would have been immediately executed.
  • Cannibalism has been reported in several recent African conflicts, including the Second Congo War, and the civil wars in Liberiamarker and Sierra Leonemarker. A U.N. human rights expert reported in July 2007 that sexual atrocities against Congolese women go 'far beyond rape' and include sexual slavery, forced incest, and cannibalism. This may be done in desperation, as during peacetime cannibalism is much less frequent; at other times, it is consciously directed at certain groups believed to be relatively helpless, such as Congo Pygmies, even considered subhuman by some other Congolese. It is also reported by some that witch doctors sometimes use the body parts of children in their medicine. In the 1970s the Ugandan dictator Idi Amin was reputed to practice cannibalism.
  • The self declared Emperor of the Central African Republicmarker, Jean-Bédel Bokassa (Emperor Bokassa I), was tried on 24 October 1986 for several cases of cannibalism although he was never convicted. Between 17 April and 19 April a number of elementary school students were arrested after they had protested against wearing the expensive, government-required school uniforms. Around one-hundred were killed. Bokassa is said to have participated in the massacre, beating some of the children to death with his cane and allegedly ate some of his victims.
  • The Aghoris of northern Indiamarker consume the flesh of the dead floated in the Gangesmarker in pursuit of immortality and supernatural powers. Members of the Aghori drink from human skulls and practice cannibalism in the belief that eating human flesh confers spiritual and physical benefits, such as prevention of aging.
  • It has been reported by defectors and refugees that, at the height of the famine in 1996, cannibalism was sometimes practiced in North Koreamarker.
  • Médecins Sans Frontières, the international medical charity, supplied photographic and other documentary evidence of ritualized cannibal feasts among the participants in Liberiamarker's internecine strife in the 1980s to representatives of Amnesty International who were on a fact-finding mission to the neighboring state of Guineamarker. However, Amnesty International declined to publicize this material; the Secretary-General of the organization, Pierre Sane, said at the time in an internal communication that "what they do with the bodies after human rights violations are committed is not part of our mandate or concern". The existence of cannibalism on a wide scale in Liberia was subsequently verified in video documentaries by Journeyman Pictures of Londonmarker.
  • Dorangel Vargas known as "El comegente", Spanish for "maneater", was a serial killer and cannibal in Venezuela. Vargas killed and ate at least 10 men in a period of two years preceding his arrest in 1999.
  • Another serial killer, Jeffrey Dahmer of the United States, became notorious for murdering his victims and then eating their body parts before his arrest and imprisonment in 1991. Traces of human flesh and bones were found on pots and pans inside his home.
  • In March 2001 in Germany, Armin Meiwes posted an Internet ad asking for "a well built 18 to 30 year old to be slaughtered and consumed". The ad was answered by Bernd Jürgen Brandes. After killing Brandes and eating parts of his body, Meiwes was convicted of manslaughter and later, murder. The song "Mein Teil" by Rammstein and the song "Eaten" by Bloodbath is based on this case.
  • In February 2004, a 39 year old Briton named Peter Bryan from East Londonmarker was caught after he killed and ate his friend. He has been arrested for murder before, but was released shortly before this act was committed.
  • In September 2006, Australian television crews from 60 Minutes and Today Tonight attempted to rescue a six-year-old boy whom they believed would be ritually cannibalized by his tribe, the Korowai, from West Papuamarker, Indonesiamarker.
  • On August 14, 2007, a member of the far-left Maoist Naxalite group engaged in cannibalism. In the Indianmarker state of Orissamarker, the leftist killed a police informant and consumed his flesh in order to terrorize the local villagers against reporting on Naxalite criminal activities.
  • On September 14, 2007, a man named Özgür Dengiz was captured in Ankaramarker, the Turkish capital, after killing and eating a man. Dengiz in his initial testimony said he "enjoyed" eating human flesh. He frequently burst into long laughing sessions during the testimony, police officers said. In 1997, he was jailed for murder of a friend, when he was 17, but he got out of jail on parole after serving three years. Dengiz said he did not know Cafer Er, his 55 year old victim, who worked as a garbage collector. Dengiz shot Er in the head with a firearm, because he felt Er was making the area "too crowded." After cutting slices of flesh from his victim's body, Dengiz distributed the rest to stray dogs on the street, according to his own testimony. He ate some of Er's flesh raw on his way home. Dengiz, who lived with his parents arrived at the family house and placed the remaining parts of Er's body in the fridge without saying a word to his parents. Also in his testimony he said, "I have no regrets, my conscience is free. I constantly thought of killing. I had dreams where I was being sacrificed. I decided to kill, to sacrifice others in place of me."
  • In January 2008, Milton Blahyi, 37, confessed being part of human sacrifices which "included the killing of an innocent child and plucking out the heart, which was divided into pieces for us to eat." He fought versus Liberianmarker president Charles Taylor's militia.
  • During Charles Taylor's war crimes trial on March 13, 2008, Joseph Marzah, Taylor's chief of operations and head of Taylor's alleged "death squad", accused Taylor of ordering his soldiers to commit acts of cannibalism against enemies, including peacekeepers and United Nations personnel.
  • In Tanzania in 2008, President Kikwete publicly condemned witch doctors for killing people with albinism for their body parts which are thought to bring good luck. Twenty-five albinic Tanzanians have been murdered since March 2007.
  • In a documentary by Colombianmarker Journalist Hollman Morris, a demobilized paramilitary confessed that during the mass killings that take place in Colombia's rural areas, many of them performed cannibalism. He also confesses that they were told to drink the blood of their victims on the belief that it would make them want to kill more.
  • In November 2008, a group of 33 illegal immigrants from the Dominican Republicmarker who were en route to Puerto Rico were forced to resort to cannibalism after they were lost at sea for over 15 days before being rescued by a U.S. Coast Guard patrol boat.
  • As of February 9, 2009, five members of the Kulina tribe in Brazilmarker were wanted by Brazilian authorities on the charge of murdering, butchering and eating a farmer in a ritual act of cannibalism.
  • The rap artist Big Lurch was convicted of the murder and partial consumption of an acquaintance while both were under the influence of PCP.
  • In October 2009, a vengeful father in Naawan, Misamis Orientalmarker in the Philippinesmarker killed his son's rival, carved out meat from his body and shared it with his drinking buddies.
  • November 14th 2009, three homeless men in Moscow, Russia were arrested for killing and eating the parts of a twenty-five year old man. The remaining parts were then sold to a local pie/kebab house.


See also



References

  1. Cannibalism in Liberia war - Seen in front of camera and commander boasts about it
  2. UN call against cannibalism on the BBC website.
  3. A cannibal practicing tribe by the BBC recorded on YouTube
  4. Indian doc focuses on Hindu cannibal sect. MSNBC. October 27, 2005.
  5. Lab tests show evidence of cannibalism among ancient Indians
  6. Brief history of cannibal controversies; David F. Salisbury, August 15, 2001, Exploration, Vanderbuilt University.
  7. Child Soldiers, children soldiers, boy soldiers, girl soldiers
  8. Forgotten War — Brownstone magazine http://media.www.nyunews.com/media/storage/paper869/news/2006/02/14/BrownstoneMagazine/Forgotten.War-2397297.shtml
  9. Anthropophagy.
  10. See Cannibalism - Some Hidden Truths for an example documenting escaped convicts in Australia who initially blamed natives, but later confessed to conducting the practice themselves out of desperate hunger.
  11. Timothy Taylor, The Buried Soul: How Humans Invented Death, Pages 58–60, Fourth Estate 2002
  12. Beattie, Owen and Geiger, John (2004). Frozen in Time. ISBN 1-55365-060-3.
  13. Horror of a Hidden Chinese Famine, New York Times
  14. Cannibalistic Celts discovered in South Gloucestershire March 7, 2001
  15. "Cannibalism in Westphalia?" Stefan Enste. Retrieved August 18, 2008.
  16. Ibn Ishaq (1955) 380—388, cited in Peters (1994) p. 218
  17. Cannibalism in Early Modern North Africa, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies
  18. Quotes from John Sanderson's Travels (1586) in That Obscure Object of Desire: Victorian Commodity Culture and Fictions of the Mummy, Nicholas Daly, NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 24–51. doi:10.2307/1345912
  19. To Aztecs, Cannibalism Was a Status Symbol, New York Times
  20. Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano. "Aztec Cannibalism: An Ecological necessity?" Science 200:611=617. 1978
  21. Cannibalism and Human Sacrifice, Global Politician
  22. cannibalism, James WHITE, ed., Handbook of Indians of Canada, Published as an Appendix to the Tenth Report of the Geographic Board of Canada, Ottawa, 1913, 632p., pp. 77–78.
  23. 'Battle rage' fed Maori cannibalism, 08 Sep 2007 - Maori news — NZ Herald
  24. HONGI HIKA (c. 1780–1828) Ngapuhi war chief, the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
  25. James Cowan, The New Zealand Wars: A History of the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period: Volume II, 1922.
  26. "Melanesia Historical and Geographical: the Solomon Islands and the New Hebrides", Southern Cross n°1, London: 1950
  27. Peggy Reeves Sanday. " Divine hunger: cannibalism as a cultural system". p.166.
  28. Beevor, Antony. Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege. Penguin Books, 1999.
  29. Tanaka, Yuki. Hidden horrors: Japanese War Crimes in World War II, Westview Press, 1996, p.127.
  30. Lord Russell of Liverpool (Edward Russell), The Knights of Bushido, a short history of Japanese War Crimes, Greenhill Books, 2002, p.121
  31. Murder by Lion, TIME
  32. William Bueller Seabrook. Jungle Ways London, Bombay, Sydney: George G. Harrap and Company, 1931
  33. Allen, Gary. 1999. What is the Flavor of Human Flesh? Presented at the Symposium Cultural and Historical Aspects of Foods Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
  34. A.Solzhenitsyn "The Gulag Archipelago" part I, chapter 9
  35. A.Solzhenitsyn "The Gulag Archipelago" part I, comments to chapter 5
  36. A.Solzhenitsyn "The Gulag Archipelago" part III, chapter 15
  37. Yevgenia Ginzburg "Harsh Route", part 2, chapter 23 "The Paradise On A Microscope View"
  38. Tim Bowden. One Crowded Hour. ISBN 0-00-217496-0
  39. Congo's Sexual Violence Goes 'Far Beyond Rape', July 31, 2007. The Washington Post.
  40. Paul Salopek, "Who Rules the Forest", National Geographic Sept. 2005, p. 85
  41. .
  42. Papa in the Dock Time Magazine
  43. Indian doc focuses on Hindu cannibal sect, MSNBC
  44. Aghoris, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
  45. The Aghoris, Channel 4
  46. BBC NEWS | Health | NHS 'failed' over cannibal killer
  47. Newspaper Milliyet September 16, 2007
  48. AP:Top Aide testifies Taylor ordered soldiers to eat victims, CNN.com, March 13, 2008 (accessed same date)
  49. Living in fear: Tanzania's albinos, BBC News
  50. Albino Africans live in fear after witch-doctor butchery, The Observer, November 16, 2008
  51. "Confesiones de un Ex-paramilitar" (parte I) //CONTRAVÍA//, YouTube.
  52. Dominican migrant: We ate flesh to survive - A small group turned to cannibalism after being stranded in mid-ocean, MSNBC.com, November 4, 2008
  53. Amazon Indians accused of cannibalizing farmer (9 february 2009), CNN.
  54. Father kills, eats son's rival, October 8, 2009, ABS-CBN via news.yahoo.com


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