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Canterbury ( or ) lies at the heart of the City of Canterburymarker, a local government district of Kentmarker, in South East England. It lies on the River Stour.

Originally a Brythonic settlement, it was renamed Durovernum Cantiacorum by the Roman conquerors in the first century AD. After it became the chief Jutish settlement, it gained its English name Canterbury, itself derived from the Old English Cantwareburh ("Kent people's stronghold"). After the Kingdom of Kent's conversion to Christianity in 597, St Augustine founded an episcopal see in the city and became the first Archbishop of Canterbury, a position that now heads the Church of England and the worldwide Anglican Communion (though the modern-day Province of Canterbury covers the entire south of England). Thomas Becket's murder at Canterbury Cathedralmarker in 1170 led to the cathedral becoming a place of pilgrimage for Christians worldwide. This pilgrimage provided the theme for Geoffery Chaucer's 14th-century literary classic the Canterbury Tales. The literary heritage continued with the birth of the playwright Christopher Marlowe in the city in the 16th century.

Many historical structures remain in the city, including a city wall founded in Roman times and rebuilt in the 14th century, the ruins of St Augustine's Abbeymarker and a Norman castlemarker, and perhaps the oldest school in England, The King's Schoolmarker. Modern additions include the University of Kentmarker, Canterbury Christ Church Universitymarker, the Marlowe Theatremarker, and the St Lawrence Groundmarker, home to Kent County Cricket Club.

History

History of Canterbury redirects here. For the history of the regional area of this name in New Zealand, see History of Canterbury, New Zealand.


Early history

The "Big Dig".
The Canterbury area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Lower Paleolithic axes, and Neolithic and Bronze Age pots have been found in the area. Canterbury was first recorded as the main settlement of the Celtic tribe, the Cantiaci, which inhabited most of modern day Kent. In the first century AD, the Romans captured the settlement, and named it Durovernum Cantiacorummarker, meaning "stronghold of the Cantiaci by the alder grove". The Romans rebuilt the city, with new streets in a grid pattern, a theatre, a temple, a forum and public baths. In the late third century, to defend against attack from barbarians, the Romans built around the city an earth bank and a wall with seven gates, which enclosed an area of .

After the Romans left Britain in 410 AD, Durovernum Cantiacorum was abandoned, apart from a few farmers, and gradually decayed. Over the next 100 years, an Anglo-Saxon community formed within the city walls, as Jutish refugees arrived, possibly intermarrying with the locals. The Jutes named the city Cantwaraburh, meaning "Kent people's stronghold". In 597 AD, Pope Gregory the Great sent Augustine to convert King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity. After the conversion, Canterbury, as a Roman town, was chosen by Augustine as the centre for an episcopal see in Kent, and an abbey and cathedral were built. Augustine thus became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. The town's new importance led to its revival, and trades developed in pottery, textiles and leather. By 630, gold coins were being struck at the Canterbury mint. In 672 the Synod of Hertford gave the see of Canterbury authority over the entire English Church.

In 842 and 851, Canterbury suffered great loss of life during Danish raids. In 978, Archbishop Dunstan refounded the abbey built by Augustine, and named it St Augustine's Abbeymarker. A second wave of Danish attacks began in 991, and in 1011 the cathedral was burnt and Archbishop Alphege was killed. Remembering the destruction caused by the Danes, the inhabitants of Canterbury did not resist William the Conqueror's invasion in 1066. William immediately ordered a wooden motte-and-bailey castle to be built by the Roman city wall. In the early 12th century, the castlemarker was rebuilt with stone.

After the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket at the cathedral in 1170, Canterbury became one of the most notable towns in Europe, as pilgrims from all parts of Christendom came to visit his shrine. This pilgrimage provided the framework for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th-century collection of stories, The Canterbury Tales.

Canterbury is associated with several saints from this period who lived in Canterbury:

14th–17th centuries

The Black Death hit Canterbury in 1348. At 10,000, Canterbury had the 10th largest population in England; by the early 16th century, the population had fallen to 3,000. In 1363, during the Hundred Years' War, a Commission of Inquiry found that disrepair, stone-robbing and ditch-filling had led to the Roman wall becoming eroded. Between 1378 and 1402, the wall was virtually rebuilt, and new wall towers were added. In 1381, during the Peasants' Revolt, the castle and Archbishop's Palace were sacked, and Archbishop Sudbury was beheaded in London. Sudbury is still remembered annually by the Christmas mayoral procession to his tomb at Canterbury Cathedral. In 1413 Henry IV became the only sovereign to be buried at the cathedral. In 1448 Canterbury was granted a City Charter, which gave it a mayor and a high sheriff; the city still has a Lord Mayor and Sheriff. In 1504 the cathedral's main towermarker, the Bell Harry Tower, was completed, ending 400 years of building.

During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the city's priory, nunnery and three friaries were closed. St Augustine's Abbey, the 14th richest in England at the time, was surrendered to the Crown, and its church and cloister were levelled. The rest of the abbey was dismantled over the next 15 years, although part of the site was converted to a palace. Thomas Becket's shrine in the Cathedral was demolished and all the gold, silver and jewels were removed to the Tower of Londonmarker, and Becket's images, name and feasts were obliterated throughout the kingdom, ending the pilgrimages.

By the 17th century, Canterbury's population was 5,000; of whom 2,000 were French-speaking Protestant Huguenots, who had begun fleeing persecution and war in the Spanish Netherlands in the mid-16th century. The Huguenots introduced silk weaving into the city, which by 1676 had outstripped wool weaving.

In 1620 Robert Cushman negotiated the lease of the Mayflower at 59 Palace Street for the purpose of transporting the Pilgrims to America.

In 1647, during the English Civil War, riots broke out when Canterbury's puritan mayor banned church services on Christmas Day. The rioters' trial the following year led to a Kent revolt against the Parliamentarian forces, contributing to the start of the second phase of the war. However, Canterbury surrendered peacefully to the Parliamentarians after their victory at the Battle of Maidstonemarker.

18th century–present

The city's first newspaper, the Kentish Post, was founded in 1717. It merged with the newly founded Kentish Gazette in 1768.

By 1770 the castle had come into disrepair, and many parts of the castle were demolished during the late 18th century and early 19th century. In 1787 all the gates in the city wall, except for Westgate - the city jail - were demolished as a result of a commission that found them impeding to new coach travel. By 1820 the city's silk industry had been killed by imported Indian muslins. The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway, the world's first passenger railway, was opened in 1830. Between 1830 and 1900, the city's population grew from 15,000 to 24,000. Canterbury Prisonmarker was opened in 1808 just outside the city limits.

During the First World War, a number of barracks and voluntary hospitals were set up around the city, and in 1917 a German bomber crash-landed near Broad Oak Road. During the Second World War, 10,445 bombs dropped during 135 separate raids destroyed 731 homes and 296 other buildings in the city, including the Simon Langton Grammar Schools, and 115 people were killed. The most devastating raid was on 1 June 1942 during the Baedecker Blitz.

Before the end of the war, architect Charles Holden drew up plans to redevelop the city centre, but locals were so opposed that the Citizens' Defence Association was formed and swept to power in the 1945 municipal elections. Post-war rebuilding of the city centre eventually began 10 years after the war. A ring-road was constructed outside the city walls some time after in stages to alleviate growing traffic problems in the city centre, which was later pedestrianised. The biggest expansion to the city occurred in the 1960s, with the arrival of the University of Kent at Canterburymarker and Christ Church Collegemarker.

The 1980s saw visits from Pope John Paul II and Queen Elizabeth II, and the beginning of the annual Canterbury Festival. Canterbury received its own radio station in CTFM, now KMFM Canterbury, in 1997. Between 1999 and 2005, the Whitefriars shopping centre underwent major redevelopment. In 2000, during the redevelopment, a major archaeological project was undertaken by the Canterbury Archaeological Trust, known as the Big Dig, which was supported by Channel Four's Time Team.

One of Canterbury's other more famous visitors was Gandhi, who famously helped rebuild part of the cathedral after damage cause by fire as a result of a lighting storm.

Governance

Since 1987, the Member of Parliament for the Canterburymarker constituency, which includes Whitstable, has been the Conservative Julian Brazier. At the 2005 general election, the Conservatives won a majority of 7,471 and 44.4% of the vote in the Canterbury constituency. Labour won 28.7% of the vote, Liberal Democrats 21.1%, the Green Party 3.2%, United Kingdom Independence Party 1.9%, and the Legalise Cannabis Alliance 0.7%.

Canterbury, along with Whitstable and Herne Bay, is in the City of Canterburymarker local government district. The city's urban area consists of the six electoral wards of Barton, Harbledown, Northgate, St Stephens, Westgate, and Wincheap. These wards have fifteen of the fifty seats on the Canterburymarker City Council. As of May 2008, eleven of those seats were held by the Liberal Democrats, three by the Conservatives and one was vacant.

The city became a county corporate in 1461, and later a county borough under the Local Government Act 1888. In 1974 it lost its status as the smallest county borough in England, after the Local Government Act 1972, and came under the control of Kent County Council.

Geography

Canterbury is located at (51.275, 1.087) in east Kent, about east-southeast of London. The coastal towns of Herne Bay and Whitstable are to the north, and Favershammarker is to the northwest. Nearby villages include Rough Commonmarker, Sturrymarker and Tyler Hillmarker. The civil parish of Thanington Withoutmarker is to the southwest; the rest of the city is unparished. Harbledownmarker, Wincheapmarker and Hales Place are suburbs of the city.

The city is on the River Stour or Great Stour, flowing from its source at Lenhammarker north-east through Ashfordmarker to the English Channelmarker at Sandwichmarker. The river divides south east of the city, one branch flowing though the city, the other around the position of the former walls. The two branches rejoin or are linked several times, but finally recombine around the town of Fordwichmarker, on the edge of the marshland north east of the city. The Stour is navigable on the tidal section to Fordwich, although above this point canoes and other small craft can be used. Punts are available for hire in Canterbury.

The geology of the area consists mainly of brickearth overlying chalk. Tertiary sands overlain by London clay form St. Thomas's Hill and St. Stephen's Hill about a mile northwest of the city centre.

Demography

Canterbury compared
2001 UK Census Canterbury city Canterbury district England
Total population 43,432 135,278 49,138,831
Foreign born 11.6% 5.1% 9.2%
White 95% 97% 91%
Asian 1.8% 1.6% 4.6%
Black 0.7% 0.5% 2.3%
Christian 68% 73% 72%
Muslim 1.1% 0.6% 3.1%
Hindu 0.8% 0.4% 1.1%
No religion 20% 17% 15%
Unemployed 3.0% 2.7% 3.3%


As of the 2001 UK census, the total population of the city's urban area wards was 43,432.

Residents of the city had an average age of 37.1 years, younger than the 40.2 average throughout the district and the 38.6 average for England. Of the 17,536 households, 35% were one-person households, 39% were couples, 10% were lone parents, and 15% other. Of those aged 16–74 in the city, 27% had a higher education qualification, higher than the 20% national average.

Compared with the rest of England, the city had an above-average proportion of foreign-born residents, at around 12%. Ninety-five percent of residents were recorded as white; the largest minority group was recorded as Asian, at 1.8% of the population. Religion was recorded as 68.2% Christian, 1.1% Muslim, 0.5% Buddhist, 0.8% Hindu, 0.2% Jewish, and 0.1% Sikh. The rest either had no religion, an alternative religion, or did not state their religion.

Population growth in Canterbury since 1901
Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1939 1951 1961 1971 2001
Population 24,899 24,626 23,737 24,446 26,999 27,795 30,415 33,155 43,432
Source: A Vision of Britain through Time


Economy

Canterbury district retains approximately 4,761 businesses, up to 60,000 full- and part-time employees and was worth £1.3 billion in 2001. This makes the district the second largest economy in Kent. Unemployment in the city has dropped significantly since 2001 owing to the opening of the Whitefriars shopping complex which introduced thousands of job opportunities. In April 2008, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Rowan Williams, controversially demanded that salary caps should be implemented to curb the pay of the rich in an attempt to manage to growth of the economy. The city's economy benefits mainly from significant economic projects such as the Canterbury Enterprise Hub, Lakesview International Business Park and the Whitefriars retail development. Tourism contributes £258M to the Canterbury economy and has been a "cornerstone of the local economy" for a number of years; Canterbury Cathedralmarker alone generates over one million visitors a year.

Culture

Landmarks

Canterbury Cathedralmarker is the Mother Church of the Anglican Communion and seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Founded in 597 AD by Augustine, it forms a World Heritage Site, along with the Saxon St. Martin's Churchmarker and the ruins of St Augustine's Abbeymarker. With one million visitors per year, it is one of the most visited places in the country. Services are held at the Cathedral three or more times a day.

Surviving structures from the Roman times include Queningate, a blocked gate in the city wall, and the Dane John Mound, once part of a Roman cemetery. The Dane John Gardens were built beside the mound in the 18th century, and a memorial was placed on the mound's summit. A windmill was on the mound between 1731 and 1839.

The ruins of the Norman Canterbury Castlemarker and St Augustine's Abbey are both open to the public. The medieval St Margaret's Church now houses the "The Canterbury Tales", in which life-sized character models reconstruct Geoffrey Chaucer's stories. The Westgate is now a museum relating to its history as a jail. The medieval church of St Alphege became redundant in 1982 but had a new lease of life as the Canterbury Urban Studies Centre, later renamed the Canterbury Environment Centre; the building is used by the King's Schoolmarker. The Old Synagogue at Canterburymarker, now the King's School Music Room, is one of only two Egyptian Revival synagogues still standing. The city centre contains many timber-framed 16th- and 17th -century houses, including the "Old Weaver's House" used by the Huguenots. St Martin's Mill is the only surviving mill out of the six known to have stood in Canterbury. It was built in 1817 and worked until 1890; it is now a house conversion.

Theatres

The Marlowe Theatre
The city's theatre and concert hall is the Marlowe Theatremarker named after Christopher Marlowe who was born in the city in Elizabethan times. He was baptised in the city's St George's Church, which was destroyed during the Second World War. The old Marlowe Theatre was located in St Margaret's Street and housed a repertory theatre. Another theatre – the Gulbenkian – also serves the city and can be found at the University of Kent. Theatrical performances take place at several areas of the city, for instance the Cathedral and St Augustine's Abbey. The premiere of Murder in the Cathedral by T. S. Eliot took place at Canterbury Cathedral. The oldest surviving Tudor theatre in Canterbury is now Casey's Bar, formerly known as The Shakespeare Pub. There are several theatre groups based in Canterbury, including the University of Kent Students' Union's T24 Drama Society, The Canterbury Players and Kent Youth Theatre. The Marlowe theatre has now been demolished, and is currently being rebuilt. It is expected to re-open in 2011.

Music

The city gave its name to a musical genre known as the Canterbury Sound or Canterbury Scene, a group of progressive rock, avant-garde and jazz musicians based around the city during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Some very notable Canterbury bands were Soft Machine, Caravan and Camel. Over the years, with band membership changes and new bands evolving, the term has been used to describe a musical style or subgenre, rather than a regional group of musicians.

The University of Kent has hosted concerts by bands including Led Zeppelin and The Who. During the late seventies and early eighties the Canterbury Odeon hosted a number of major acts, including The Cure and Joy Division. The Marlowe Theatre is also used for many musical performances, such as Don McLean in 2007, and Fairport Convention in 2008.

Sport

St Lawrence Groundmarker is notable as one of the two grounds used regularly for first-class cricket that have a tree within the boundary (the other is the City Ovalmarker in Pietermaritzburgmarker, South Africa). It is the home ground of Kent County Cricket Club and has hosted several One Day Internationals, including one England match during the 1999 Cricket World Cup.

Canterbury City F.C. reformed in 2007 as a community interest company and the mens team competed in the Kent County League Division Two (East) in 2007/08. The previous incarnation of the club folded in 2001. Canterbury's Rugby Football Club were founded in 1926 and became the first East Kent club to achieve National League status when they were promoted to the National League Division 3 South in 2006.

The Tour de France has visited the city twice. In 1994 the tour passed through, and in 2007 it held the finish for Stage 1. Canterbury Hockey Club is one of the largest clubs in the country, often succeeding to top the English leagues in all age and sex categories. Former Olympic gold medal winner Sean Kerly is one of their coaches.

Sporting activities for the public are provided at the Kingsmead Leisure Centre, which has a swimming pool and a sports hall for football, basketball, and badminton.

Transport

Railway

Canterbury was the terminus of the Canterbury and Whitstable Railway (known locally as the Crab and Winkle line) which was a pioneer line, opened on 3 May 1830, and finally closed in 1953. Despite claims by the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the Canterbury and Whitstable was the first regular passenger steam railway in the world. The first station in Canterbury was at North Lane.

Today, Canterbury has two railway stations, Canterbury Westmarker and Canterbury Eastmarker, both operated by Southeastern. Canterbury West station, on the South Eastern Railway from Ashfordmarker, was opened on 6 February 1846, and on 13 April the line to Ramsgatemarker was completed. Canterbury West is served primarily from London Charing Crossmarker with limited services from Victoria as well as by trains to Ramsgatemarker and Margatemarker. Canterbury East, the more central of the two stations, was opened by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway on 9 July 1860. Services from London Victoriamarker stop at Canterbury East (journey time around 88 minutes) and continue to Dovermarker. A fourth station in Canterbury was Canterbury South on the Elham Valley Railway, which opened in 1890 and closed in 1947. Faster services are promised from 2009 with the introduction of high speed trains. It is expected the journey time will be reduced by 35–40 minutes when travelling to London.

Road

Canterbury is by-passed by the A2 London to Dover Road. It is about from the M25marker London orbital motorway, and from central London. The other main road through Canterbury is the A28 from Ashfordmarker to Ramsgate and Margate. The City Council has invested heavily in Park-and-Ride systems around the City's outskirts and there are three sites: at Wincheap, New Dover Road and Sturry Road. There are plans to build direct access sliproads to and from the London directions of the A2 where it meets the congested Wincheap (at present there are only slips from the A28 to and from the direction of Dover) to allow more direct access to Canterbury from the A2, but these are currently subject to local discussion. The hourly National Express coach service to and from Victoria Coach Station, which leaves from the main bus station, is typically scheduled to take two hours.

Education

The city has many students as it is home to several Higher Education institutions and colleges; at the 2001 census, 22% of the population aged 16–74 were full-time students, compared with 7% throughout England. The University of Kentmarker's main campus is situated over on St. Stephen's Hill, a mile north of Canterbury city centre. Formerly called the University of Kent at Canterbury, it was founded in 1965, with a smaller campus opened in 2000 in the town of Chathammarker. As of 2007, it had around 16,000 students. Canterbury Christ Church Universitymarker was founded as a teacher training college in 1962 by the Church of England. In 1978 its range of courses began to expand into other subjects, and in 1995 it was given the power to become a University college. In 2005 it was granted full university status, and as of 2007 it had around 15,000 students. The University College for the Creative Artsmarker is the oldest higher education institution in the city, having been founded in 1882 by Thomas Sidney Cooper as the Sidney Cooper School of Artmarker. Near the University of Kent is the Franciscan International Study Centre, a place of study for the worldwide Franciscan Order. Chaucer College is an independent college for Japanese and other students within the campus of the University of Kent. Canterbury Collegemarker, formerly Canterbury College of Technology, offers a mixture of vocation, further and higher education courses for school leavers and adults.

Independent secondary schools include Kent Collegemarker, St Edmund's Schoolmarker and, what is often described as the oldest school in England, The King's Schoolmarker. St. Augustine established a school shortly after his arrival in Canterbury in 597, and it is from this that some claim The King’s School grew. Although, the documented history of the school only began after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century, when the school acquired its present name, referring to Henry VIII.

The city's secondary grammar schools are Barton Court Grammar Schoolmarker, Simon Langton Grammar School for Boysmarker and Simon Langton Girls' Grammar Schoolmarker; all of which in 2008 had over 93% of their pupils gain five or more GCSEs at grades A* to C, including English and maths. The non-selective state secondary schools are The Canterbury High Schoolmarker, St Anselm's Catholic Schoolmarker, the Church of England's Archbishop's Schoolmarker, and Chaucer Technology Schoolmarker; all of which in 2008 had more than 30% of their pupils gain five or more GCSEs at grades A* to C including English and maths.

Local media

Newspapers

Canterbury's first newspaper was the Kentish Post, founded in 1717. It changed its name to the Kentish Gazette in 1768 and is still being published, claiming to be the country's second oldest surviving newspaper. It is currently produced as a paid-for newspaper produced by the KM Group, based in nearby Whitstable. This newspaper covers the East Kent area and has a circulation of about 25,000.

Three free weekly newspapers provide news on the Canterbury district: yourcanterbury, the Canterbury Times and Canterbury Extra. The Canterbury Times is owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and has a circulation of about 55,000. The Canterbury Extra is owned by the KM Group and also has a circulation of about 55,000. yourcanterbury is published by KOS Media, which also prints the popular county paper Kent on Sunday. It also runs a website http://www.yourcanterbury.co.uk giving daily updated news and events for the city.

Radio

Canterbury is served by 2 local radio stations, KMFM Canterbury and CSR 97.4FM.

KMFM Canterbury broadcasts on 106FM. It was formerly known as KMFM106, and before the KM Group took control it was known as CTFM, based on the local postcode being CT. Previously based in the city, the station's studios and presenters were moved to Ashford in 2008.

CSR 97.4FM, an acronym for "Canterbury Student Radio", broadcasts on 97.4FM from studios at both the University of Kentmarker and Canterbury Christ Church Universitymarker. The station is run by a collaboration of education establishments in the city including the two universities. The transmitter is based at the University of Kent, offering a good coverage of the city. CSR replaced two existing radio stations: C4 Radio, which served Canterbury Christ Church University, and UKC Radio, which served the University of Kent.

There are 2 other stations that cover parts of the city. Canterbury Hospital Radio (CHR) serves the patients of the Kent and Canterbury Hospital, and Simon Langton Boys School has a radio station, SLBSLive, which can only be picked up on the school grounds.

Notable people

People born in Canterbury include Christopher Marlowe, TV presenter Fiona Phillips, airline entrepreneur Sir Freddie Laker, boy singer and actor Joseph McManners and actor Orlando Bloom. Mary Tourtel, the creator of Rupert Bear, and the Victorian animal painter who taught her, Thomas Sidney Cooper, were both born and lived in the city. The Cricketer David Gower, physician William Harvey, writer W. Somerset Maugham and film director Michael Powell are among the former pupils of The King's Schoolmarker, Canterbury. Notable alumni of the University of Kentmarker include comedian Alan Davies, newspaper editor Rosie Boycott, actor Tom Wilkinson, and Booker Prize winning novelist Kazuo Ishiguro. Comic book artist Jack Lawrence was born in.

Twin town

Canterbury is twinned with the following city:

See also



References

  1. Lyle p. 16.
  2. Lyle p. 29.
  3. Lyle p. 43–44.
  4. Lyle p. 42.
  5. Lyle p. 42, 47.
  6. Lyle p. 47–48.
  7. Lyle p. 48–50.
  8. Lyle p. 53.
  9. Lyle p. 64, 66.
  10. Lyle, pp. 86–87.
  11. Lyle, p. 91.
  12. Lyle, pp. 97–100.
  13. Lyle, p. 107.
  14. Lyle, p. 109.
  15. R. M. Wiles, Freshest advices : early provincial newspapers in England, Ohio State University Press, 1965, p. 397.
  16. David J. Shaw and Sarah Gray, ‘James Abree (1691? – 1768) : Canterbury’s first "modern" printer’, in: The Reach of print : Making, selling and reading books, ed. P. Isaac and B. McKay, Winchester, St Paul’s Bibliographies, 1998. Pp. 21–36. ISBN 1-873040-51-2
  17. Lyle, p. 110.
  18. Butler, p. 11.
  19. HMP Canterbury Retrieved 24/09/08
  20. Butler, p. 13.
  21. Lyle, p. 127.
  22. Butler, p. 14.
  23. Butler, p. 15.
  24. http://www.canterburytrust.co.uk/archive/bigdig01.html
  25. Butler, p. 16.
  26. Lyle, p. 15.
  27. Proposals to the Casino Advisory Panel Culture.gov.uk. Retrieved on 25 May 2008
  28. Economic Profile 2007 - Canterbury Kent County Council. Retrieved on 25 May 2008)
  29. Archbishop of Canterbury demands salary cap for super-rich in scathing attack on Britain's 'spiralling debt economy'. The Daily Mail. Retrieved on 25 May 2008)
  30. Lyle, p. 142.
  31. Tellem, p. 37
  32. Lyle, p. 142–147
  33. Tellem, p. 38
  34. Welcome To The Gulbenkian Theatre. Retrieved on 25 May 2008.
  35. The Marlowe Theatre, Canterbury. Marlowe Theatre. Retrieved on 25 May 2008)
  36. http://www.thecanterburyplayers.co.uk/
  37. About Canterbury Hockey Club. Canterbury Hockey Club. Retrieved on 25 May 2008
  38. Canterbury. Tourist Guide & Directory. Retrieved on 25 May 2008
  39. Graham Martin, From Vision to Reality: the Making of the University of Kent at Canterbury (University of Kent at Canterbury, 1990) pages 225-231 ISBN 0-904938-03-4
  40. Southeastern Railway - High Speed Trains. Southeastern Railway. Retrieved on 25 May 2008)
  41. How to Get Here. www.canterbury.co.uk. Retrieved on 25 May 2008)
  42. Source [1], retrieved on 2008-05-27
  43. Franciscans Franciscans.ac.uk. Retrieved on 25 May 2008)
  44. KM Group - Over 150 years of history
  45. About the team - Kentish Gazette
  46. KMFM 106 KMFM Canterbury Website. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
  47. Co-location request for KMFM
  48. CSR 97.4FM. CSR 97.4FM Website. Retrieved on 2008-05-30
  49. Hospital radio. Canterbury Hospital Radio. Retrieved on 2008-05-30
  50. Simon Langton Grammar School for Boys. Retrieved on 25 May 2008)
  51. Christopher Marlowe - Some biographical facts at Prestel.co.uk. Retrieved on 29 May 2008)
  52. Fiona Phillips. Lycos.com. Retrieved on 29 May 2008
  53. Sir Freddie Laker - British entrepreneur who pioneered low-cost air travel. The Guardian. Retrieved on 29 May 2008
  54. Joseph McManners Biography. JoeMcManners.com Retrieved on 25 May 2008)
  55. MARY TOURTEL (1879-1940). ChrisBeetles.com. Retrieved on 29 May 2008
  56. Tate Gallery Archive, ref. TG 4/2/1126
  57. http://www.canterbury.gov.uk/buildpage.php?id=1133 Canterbury City Council - Twinning contacts. Retrieved on 14 October 2009


Sources

  • Lyle, Marjorie. Canterbury: 2000 Years of History. Tempus, (2002). ISBN 075241948X.
  • Butler, Derek. A Century of Canterbury. Sutton Publishing Ltd, (2002). ISBN 0750932430.
  • Tellem, Geraint. Canterbury and Kent. Jarrold Publishing, (2002). ISBN 0711720797.


External links




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