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Cape Horn from the South.
Cape Horn island (Dutch: , ; named after the city of Hoornmarker in the Netherlandsmarker) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuegomarker archipelago of southern Chilemarker.

Cape Horn is widely considered to be the most southerly point of South America, and marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passagemarker; for many years it was a major milestone on the clipper route, by which sailing ships carried trade around the world. However, the waters around the cape are particularly hazardous, owing to strong winds, large waves, strong currents and icebergs; these dangers have made it notorious as a sailors' graveyard.

The need for ships to round the Cape Horn was greatly reduced by the opening of the Panama Canalmarker in 1914. However, sailing around the Horn is widely regarded as one of the major challenges in yachting. Thus, a few recreational sailors continue to sail this route, sometimes as part of a circumnavigation of the globe, and almost all of these choosing routes through the canals to the north of the actual Cape (though many take a detour through the islands and anchor to wait for fair weather to actually visit Horn Island or even sail around it to replicate a rounding of this historic point). Several prominent ocean yacht races, notably the Volvo Ocean Race, the VELUX5OCEANS and the Vendée Globe, sail around the world via the Horn, and speed records for round-the-world sailing follow the same route.

Geography and ecology

Cape Horn is the southernmost point of land associated with South America; it is located at , on Isla Hornosmarker in the Hermite Islands group, at the southern end of the Tierra del Fuegomarker archipelago. It marks the north edge of the Drake Passage, the strait between South America and Antarcticamarker. The dividing line between the Atlanticmarker and Pacificmarker oceans runs along the meridian of Cape Horn, from Tierra del Fuego to the Southern Oceanmarker. It is located in Cabo de Hornos National Parkmarker.

Cape Horn was originally given the Dutch name "Kaap Hoorn", in honour of the Dutch city of Hoornmarker; in a typical example of false friends, the Hoorn became known in English as "Cape Horn", and in Spanish as "Cabo de Hornos" (which literally means "Cape of Ovens"). It is commonly known to sailors simply as The Horn.

The cape lies within Chilean territorial waters, and the Chilean Navy maintains a station on Hoorn Island, consisting of a residence, utility building, chapel, and lighthouse; A short distance from the main station is a memorial, including a large sculpture featuring the silhouette of an albatross, in honour of the sailors who died while attempting to "round the Horn".



However, the Chilean Navy station, including the lighthouse and the memorial, are not located on Cape Horn itself (which is very difficult to access either by land or sea), but on another land point about one mile east-northeast. On the real Cape Horn there is a 4 m (13 ft) fiberglass light tower with a focal plane of 40 m (131 ft) and a range of about 21 km (13 mi). This is the authentic Cape Horn lighthouse.

The terrain is entirely treeless, although quite lush owing to the frequent precipitation. Cape Horn is the southern limit of the range of the Magellanic Penguin.

Climate

The climate in the region is generally cool, owing to the southern latitude. There are no weather stations in the group of islands including Cape Horn; however, a study in 1882–1883 found an annual rainfall of 1,357 millimetres (53.42 in), with an average annual temperature of 5.2 °C (41.4 °F). Winds were reported to average 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph), with squalls of over 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) occurring in all seasons.

The real Cape Horn, seen from the Chilean Navy station location


Contemporary weather records for Ushuaiamarker, 146 kilometres (91 mi) north, show that summer (January–February) average temperatures range from highs of 14 °C (57 °F) to lows of 5 °C (42 °F); in winter (July), average temperatures range from 4 °C (40 °F) to −2 °C (29 °F). Cloud cover is generally high, with averages from 5.2 eighths in May and July to 6.4 eighths in December and January. Precipitation is high throughout the year: the weather station on the nearby Diego Ramirez Islands, 109 kilometres (68 mi) south-west in the Drake Passage, shows the greatest rainfall in March, averaging 137.4 millimetres (5.41 in); while October, which has the least rainfall, still averages 93.7 millimetres (3.69 in). Wind conditions are generally severe, particularly in winter. In summer, the wind at Cape Horn is gale force up to 5% of the time, with generally good visibility; however, in winter, gale force winds occur up to 30% of the time, often with poor visibility.

Many stories are told of hazardous journeys "around the Horn," most describing fierce storms. In sea chanteys and other songs, "Cape Horn" is frequently rhymed with "never been born."

Political

The islands around Cape Horn.
Cape Horn is part of the Commune of Cabo de Hornosmarker, whose capital is Puerto Williamsmarker; this in turn is part of Antártica Chilena Province, whose capital is also Puerto Williams. The area is part of the Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region of Chile.

Puerto Toromarker, a few miles south of Puerto Williams, is the closest town to the cape, and the southernmost town in the world.

Sailing routes

There are a number of potential sailing routes around the tip of South America. The Strait of Magellanmarker, between the mainland and Tierra del Fuego, is a major — although narrow — passage, which was in use for trade well before the Horn was discovered; the Beagle Channelmarker, between Tierra del Fuego and Isla Navarinomarker, offers a potential, though difficult route; and there are various passages around the Wollaston and Hermite Islands to the north of Cape Horn.

All of these, however, are notorious for treacherous williwaw winds, which can strike a vessel with little or no warning; given the narrowness of these routes, there is a significant risk of then being driven onto the rocks. The open waters of the Drake Passage, south of Cape Horn, provide by far the widest route, at about 800 kilometres (500 mi) wide; this passage offers ample sea room for maneuvering as winds change, and is the route used by most ships and sailboats, despite the possibility of extreme wave conditions.

Shipping hazards

Several factors combine to make the passage around Cape Horn one of the most hazardous shipping routes in the world: the fierce sailing conditions prevalent in the Southern Ocean generally; the geography of the passage south of the Horn; and the extreme southern latitude of the Horn, at 56° south. (For comparison, Cape Agulhasmarker at the southern tip of Africa is at 35° south; Stewart Island/Rakiuramarker at the south end of New Zealandmarker is 47° south.)

The prevailing winds in latitudes below 40° south can blow from west to east around the world almost uninterrupted by land, giving rise to the "roaring forties" and the even more wild "furious fifties" and "screaming sixties". These winds are hazardous enough in themselves that ships traveling east would tend to stay in the northern part of the forties (i.e. not far below 40° south latitude); however, rounding Cape Horn requires ships to press south to 56° south latitude, well into the zone of fiercest winds. These winds are further exacerbated at the Horn by the funneling effect of the Andes and the Antarctic peninsulamarker, which channel the winds into the relatively narrow Drake Passage.

The strong winds of the Southern Ocean give rise to correspondingly large waves; these waves can attain enormous size as they roll around the Southern Ocean, free of any interruption from land. At the Horn, however, these waves encounter an area of shallow water to the south of the Horn, which has the effect of making the waves shorter and steeper, greatly increasing the hazard to ships. If the strong eastward current through the Drake Passage encounters an opposing east wind, this can have the effect of further building up the waves. In addition to these "normal" waves, the area west of the Horn is particularly notorious for rogue waves, which can attain heights of up to 30 metres (100 ft).

The prevailing winds and currents create particular problems for vessels attempting to round the Horn against them, i.e. from east to west. Although this affects all vessels to some extent, it was a particularly serious problem for traditional sailing ships, which could make very little headway against the wind at the best of times; modern sailing boats are significantly more efficient to windward and can more reliably make a westward passage of the Horn, as they do in the Global Challenge race.

Ice is a hazard to sailors venturing far below 40° south. Although the ice limit dips south around the horn, icebergs are a significant hazard for vessels in the area. In the South Pacific in February (summer in Southern Hemisphere), icebergs are generally confined to below 50° south; but in August the iceberg hazard can extend north of 40° south. Even in February, though, the Horn is well below the latitude of the iceberg limit. These hazards have made the Horn notorious as perhaps the most dangerous ship passage in the world; many ships were wrecked, and many sailors died, attempting to round the Cape.

History

Discovery

Approaching Cape Horn from the south-west.


In 1525 the vessel San Lesmes commanded by Francisco de Hoces, member of the Loaísa Expedition, was blown south by a gale in front of the Atlantic end of Magellan Straitmarker and reached 56° S where they thought to see Land's End.

In September 1578, Sir Francis Drake, in the course of his circumnavigation of the world, passed through the Strait of Magellan into the Pacific Ocean. Before he could continue his voyage north his ships encountered a storm, and were blown well to the south of Tierra del Fuego. The expanse of open water they encountered led Drake to guess that far from being another continent, as previously believed, Tierra del Fuego was an island with open sea to its south. This discovery went unused for some time, as ships continued to use the known passage through the Strait of Magellan.

By the early 1600s the Dutch East India Company was given a monopoly on all Dutch trade via the Straits of Magellan and the Cape of Good Hopemarker, the only known routes at the time to the Far East. To search for an alternate route and one to the unknown Terra Australis, Isaac Le Maire, a wealthy Amsterdam merchant and Willem Schouten, a ship’s master of Hoorn, contributed in equal shares to the enterprise, with additional financial support from merchants of Hoorn. Jacob Le Maire, Isaac’s son, went on the journey as “chiefe Marchant and principall factor,” in charge of trading aspects of the endeavor. The two ships that departed Holland at the beginning of June 1615 were the Eendracht of 360 tons with Schouten and Le Maire aboard, and the Hoorn of 110 tons, of which Schouten’s brother Johan was master. It was Eendracht then, with the crew of the recently wrecked Hoorn aboard, that passed through the Le Maire Straitmarker and Schouten and Le Maire made their great discovery:

“In the evening 25 January 1616 the winde was South West, and that night wee went South with great waves or billowes out of the southwest, and very blew water, whereby wee judged, and held for certaine that ... it was the great South Sea, whereat we were exceeding glad to thinke that wee had discovered a way, which until that time, was unknowne to men, as afterward wee found it to be true.”


“... on 29 January 1616 we saw land againe lying north west and north northwest from us, which was the land that lay South from the straights of Magelan which reacheth Southward, all high hillie lande covered over with snow, ending with a sharpe point which wee called Cape Horne [Kaap Hoorn] ...”


At the time it was discovered, the Horn was believed to be the southernmost point of Tierra del Fuego; the unpredictable violence of weather and sea conditions in the Drake Passage made exploration difficult, and it was only in 1624 that the Horn was discovered to be an island. It is a telling testament to the difficulty of conditions there that Antarcticamarker, only 650 kilometres (400 mi) away across the Drake Passage, was discovered as recently as 1820, despite the passage having been used as a major shipping route for 200 years.

Trade route

The clipper route followed by ships sailing between England and Australia/New Zealand passed around Cape Horn.
From the 1700s to the early 1900s, Cape Horn was a part of the clipper routes which carried much of the world's trade. Clipper ships sailed round the Horn carrying wool, grain, and gold from Australia back to Europe; much trade was carried around the Horn between Europe and the Far East; and trade and passenger ships travelled between the coasts of the United Statesmarker via the Horn. The Horn exacted a heavy toll from shipping, however, owing to the extremely hazardous combination of conditions there.

The only facilities in the vicinity able to service or supply a ship, or provide medical care, were in the Falkland Islandsmarker. The businesses there were so notorious for price-gouging that damaged ships were sometimes abandoned at Port Stanley.

While most companies switched to steamers and later used the Panama canalmarker, German steel-hulled sailing ships like the Flying P-Liners were designed since the 1890s to withstand the weather conditions around the Horn, as they specialized in the South American nitrate trade and later the Australian grain trade. None of them were lost around the Horn, but some, like the mighty Preußenmarker, were victims of collisions in the busy English channel.

Traditionally, a sailor who had rounded the Horn was entitled to wear a gold loop earring — in the left ear, the one which had faced the Horn in a typical eastbound passage — and to dine with one foot on the table; a sailor who had also rounded the Cape of Good Hopemarker could place both feet on the table. A sailor who had sailed around Cape Horn was also able to brag by showing off his tattoo of a full-rigged ship.

One particular historic attempt to round the Horn, that of HMS Bounty in 1788, has been immortalized in history due to the subsequent Mutiny on the Bounty. This abortive Horn voyage has also been portrayed (with various historic accuracy) in three major motion pictures about Captain William Bligh's mission to transport breadfruit plants from Tahitimarker to Jamaicamarker. The mutiny occurred in the South Pacific during the voyage to the West Indiesmarker.

The transcontinental railroads in North America, as well as the Panama Canalmarker that opened in 1914 in Central America, led to the gradual decrease in use of the Horn for trade. As steamship replaced sailing ships, Flying P-Liner Pamirmarker became the last commercial sailing ship to round Cape Horn laden with cargo, carrying grain from Port Victoria, Australia to Falmouth, England in 1949.

Many modern tankers are too wide to fit through the Panama Canal, as are a few passenger ships and several aircraft carriers. But there are no regular commercial routes around the Horn, and modern ships are rarely seen.

Recreational and sport sailing

Despite the opening of the Suezmarker and Panama Canals, the Horn remains part of the fastest sailing route around the world, and so the growth in recreational long-distance sailing has brought about a revival of sailing via the Horn. Owing to the remoteness of the location and the hazards there, a rounding of Cape Horn is widely considered to be the yachting equivalent of climbing Mount Everestmarker, and so many sailors seek it out for its own sake.

Joshua Slocum was the first single-handed yachtsman to successfully pass this way (in 1895) although in the end, extreme weather forced him to use some of the inshore routes between the channels and islands and it is believed he did not actually pass outside the Horn proper. If one had to go by strict definitions, the first small boat to sail around outside Cape Horn was the 42-foot (13 m) yacht Saoirse, sailed by Conor O'Brien with three friends, who rounded it during a circumnavigation of the world between 1923 and 1925. In 1934, the Norwegian Al Hansen was the first to round Cape Horn single-handed from east to west — the "wrong way" — in his boat Mary Jane, but was subsequently wrecked on the coast of Chile. The first person to successfully circumnavigate the world single-handed via Cape Horn was Vito Dumas, who made the voyage in 1942 in his 33-foot (10 m) ketch Lehg II; a number of other sailors have since followed him. including Webb Chiles aboard "EGREGIOUS" who in December 1975 became the first American to round Cape Horn single-handed.

Today, there are several major yacht races held regularly along the old clipper route via Cape Horn. The first of these was the Sunday Times Golden Globe Race, which was a single-handed race; this inspired the present-day Around Alone race, which circumnavigates with stops, and the Vendée Globe, which is non-stop. Both of these are single-handed races, and are held every four years. The Volvo Ocean Race is a crewed race with stops which sails the clipper route every four years. The Jules Verne Trophy is a prize for the fastest circumnavigation of the world by any type of yacht, with no restrictions on the size of the crew (no assistance, non-stop). Finally, the Global Challenge race goes around the world the "wrong way", from east to west, which involves rounding Cape Horn against the prevailing winds and currents.

The Horn remains a major hazard for recreational sailors, however. A classic case is that of Miles and Beryl Smeeton, who attempted to round the Horn in their yacht Tzu Hang. Hit by a rogue wave when approaching the Horn, the boat pitchpoled (ie. somersaulted end-over-end). Although they survived, and were able to make repairs in Talcahuanomarker, Chile, they attempted the passage again, only to be rolled over, and dismasted for a second time, by another rogue wave, which again they miraculously survived.

Literature and culture

Cape Horn has been an icon of sailing culture for centuries; it has featured in sea shanties and in many books about sailing. One of the classic accounts of a working ship in the age of sail is Two Years Before the Mast, by Richard Henry Dana, Jr., in which the author describes an arduous trip from Boston to California via Cape Horn:

Charles Darwin, in The Voyage of the Beagle, a journal of the five-year expedition upon which he based The Origin of Species, described his 1832 encounter with the Horn:

Alan Villiers, a modern-day expert in traditional sailing ships, wrote many books about traditional sailing, including By way of Cape Horn. More recent sailors have taken on the Horn singly, such as Vito Dumas, who wrote Alone Through The Roaring Forties based on his round-the-world voyage; or with small crews.

Bernard Moitessier made two significant voyages round the horn; once with his wife Françoise, described in Cape Horn: The Logical Route, and once single-handed. His book The Long Way tells the story of this latter voyage, and of a peaceful night-time passage of the Horn: "The little cloud underneath the moon has moved to the right. I look... there it is, so close, less than away and right under the moon. And nothing remains but the sky and the moon playing with the Horn. I look. I can hardly believe it. So small and so huge. A hillock, pale and tender in the moonlight; a colossal rock, hard as diamond."

And John Masefield wrote: "Cape Horn, that tramples beauty into wreck / And crumples steel and smites the strong man dumb" [263769]

A memorial presented in Robert FitzRoy's bicentenary (2005) commemorates his landing on Cape Horn on 19 April 1830.

'Rounding the Horn'

Visiting Cabo de Hornos can be done on a day trip by helicopter or more arduously by charter power boat or sailboat - or by cruise ship. "Rounding the Horn" is traditionally understood to involve sailing from 50 degrees south on one coast to 50 degrees south on the other coast, the two benchmark latitudes of a Horn run, a considerably more difficult and time-consuming endeavor.

Further reading

  • Around Cape Horn: A Maritime Artist/Historian's Account of His 1892 Voyage, by Charles G. Davis and Neal Parker. Down East Books, 2004. ISBN 0-89272-646-6
  • Cape Horn. A Maritime History, by Robin Knox-Johnston. London Hodder&Stoughton ISBN 0-340-41527-4
  • Cape Horn: The Story of the Cape Horn Region, by Felix Riesenberg and William A. Briesemeister. Ox Bow Press, 1994. ISBN 1-881987-04-3
  • Cape Horn and Other Stories From the End of the World, by Francisco Coloane. Latin American Literary Review Press, 2003. ISBN 1-891270-17-6
  • Gipsy Moth Circles the World, Sir Francis Chichester; International Marine, 2001. ISBN 0-07-136449-8
  • Haul Away! Teambuilding Lessons from a Voyage around Cape Horn, by Rob Duncan. Authorhouse, 2005. ISBN1-4208-3032-5
  • Rounding the Horn: Being the Story of Williwaws and Windjammers, Drake, Darwin, Murdered Missionaries and Naked Natives - A Deck's-Eye View of Cape Horn, by Dallas Murphy. Basic Books, 2004. ISBN 0-465-04759-9
  • En el Mar Austral, by Fray Mocho. University of Buenos Aires Press (La Serie del Siglo y Medio), 1960. An incredible account of the southern tip of South American by an Argentine Journalist.
  • High Endeavours, by Miles Clark. Greystone, 2002. ISBN 1-55054-058-0 An account of the lives of the author's god-father Miles Smeeton, and his wife Beryl, including a couple of spectacular trips to the Horn.
  • A world of my Own by Robin Knox-Johnston. An account of the first solo non-stop circumnavigation of the world via Cape Horn between 1968 and 1969.
  • Expediciones españolas al Estrecho de Magallanes y Tierra de fuego, by Javier Oyarzun. Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispánica ISBN 84-7232-130-4.
  • Storm Passage by Webb Chiles. Times Books ISBN 10-0812907035
  • The Last of the Cape Horners. Firsthand Accounts from the Final Days of the Commercial Tall Ships, edited by Spencer Apollonio. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, Inc. 2000. ISBN 1-57488-283-x
  • Cape Horn - a maritime history by Robin Knox-Johnston


See also



References

  1. Cape Horn the Terrible, by Paolo Venanzangeli; from Nautical Web. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  2. Cabo de Hornos, by Mariolina Rolfo and Giorgio Ardrizzi. From Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Nautical Guide, Editrice Incontri Nautici, 2004. ISBN 88-85986-34-X
  3. Limits of Oceans and Seas. International Hydrographic Organization Special Publication No. 23, 1953.
  4. Perilous Cape Horn, by P.J. Gladnick; from eSsortment, 2002. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  5. Rounding the Horn, by Dallas Murphy; Basic Books, 2004. ISBN 0-465-04759-9
  6. Isla Hornos Lighthouse, from Lighthouse Depot. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  7. Cape Horn Memorial, by Roberto Benavente; from Fundacion Caphorniers Chile. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  8. C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Magellanic Penguin, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
  9. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago, James C. Cokendolpher and Dolly Lanfranco L.; from Texas Tech University, 1985. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  10. Usuaia: Monthly Normals, from Weather Underground. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  11. Isla Diego Ramirez: Monthly Normals, from Weather Underground. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  12. U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World: Rounding Cape Horn, 1995. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  13. Cabo de Hornos designado Reserva de la Biósfera, from CONAF. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  14. Sailing the Patagonian channels, from Yachting Club CERN, 2005. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  15. Winds of the World: The Williwaw, from Weather Online. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  16. Along the Clipper Way, Francis Chichester; page 134. Hodder & Stoughton, 1966. ISBN 0-340-00191-7
  17. Along the Clipper Way; pages 151–152.
  18. Rogue waves, from Europa Research. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  19. Along the Clipper Way; pages 72–73.
  20. Atlas of Pilot Charts: South Pacific Ocean; Lighthouse Press, 2001. ISBN 1-57785-202-8
  21. Voyage of the Golden Hind, from The Golden Hind. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  22. it seems to have been Le Maire who pursued the idea of such a passage [A History of Geographical Discovery and Exploration by J.N.L.Baker. London: George G. Harrap & Co., Ltd. 1931, p. 149]
  23. THE RELATION OF a Wonderfull Voiage made by Willem Cornelison Schouten of Horne. Shewing how South from the Straights of Magelan in Terra Delfuego: he found and discovered a newe passage through the great South Seaes, and that way sayled round about the world. London: Imprinted by T.D. for Nathanaell Newbery, 1619 [Facsimile of the first edition in English. London: George Rainbird Limited for The World Publishing Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 1966], The Preface. “Translation thereof out of the Dutch, wherein it was written” by William Philip
  24. called Unitie in the Philip translation
  25. Hoorn was accidentally burned and destroyed on December 19, 1615 with no loss of life in Patagonia during a bungled cleaning attempt of the hull
  26. THE RELATION, p. 22
  27. THE RELATION, p. 23
  28. Along the Clipper Way; page 7.
  29. The Circumnavigators, by Don Holm; Around the Three Capes. Prentice-Hall, NY, 1974. ISBN 0131344528 Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  30. North America and the Cape Horn Route, by Captain Harold D. Huycke; from Caphorniers Chile. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  31. A Voyage for Madmen, by Peter Nichols; pages 4–5. Harper Collins, 2001. ISBN 0-06-095703-4
  32. Covey Crump — "cape", Commander A. Covey-Crump, RN, 1955; from the Royal Navy. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  33. 'Vanishing Tattoo'
  34. Rob Duncan's Quest for Cape Horn, by Rob Duncan. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  35. The Modern Cape Horner, from Victory Expeditions. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  36. Cape Horn to Starboard, from Lin and Larry Pardey. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  37. The Circumnavigators, by Don Holm; Chapter 15.
  38. List Of Solo Circumnavigators, from the Joshua Slocum Society International. Retrieved February 12, 2006
  39. Once Is Enough, by Miles Smeeton. International Marine Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-07-141431-2
  40. Around Cape Horn, from Frank Petersohn. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  41. By way of Cape Horn, by Alan John Villiers. (Out of print.)
  42. Alone Through The Roaring Forties, Vito Dumas; McGraw-Hill Education, 2001. ISBN 0-07-137611-9
  43. Cape Horn: The Logical Route; 14,216 Miles Without Port of Call, by Bernard Moitessier. Sheridan House, 2003. ISBN 1-57409-154-9
  44. The Long Way, by Bernard Moitessier; page 141. Sheridan House, 1995. ISBN 0-924486-84-8
  45. The Last Time Around Cape Horn. The Historic 1949 Voyage of the Windjammer Pamir by William F. Stark. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. 2003; p. 147 ISBN 0786712333
  46. the fastest time on record for a commercial sailing ship working westward around the Horn, the roughly one thousand miles from 50 degrees south in the Atlantic to 50 degrees South in the Pacific, was five days and fourteen hours, made in 1938 by the 4-mast barque Priwall of the Flying P-Line under Captain Adolf Hauth [Stark, p. 147]


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