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Capoeira ( ) is an Afro-Brazilian art form that combines elements of martial arts, music, and dance. It was created in Brazilmarker by slaves brought from Africa, especially from present day Angolamarker some time after the 16th century.It was developed in the region of Quilombo dos Palmares, located in the actual Brazilian state of Alagoas and has great influence on the Afro-Brazilian generations, with strong presence at the actual states of Bahia, Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiromarker. Participants form a roda, or circle, and take turns either playing musical instruments (such as the Berimbau), singing, or ritually sparring in pairs in the center of the circle. The sparring is marked by fluid acrobatic play, feints, and extensive use of sweeps, kicks, and headbutts. Less frequently used techniques include elbow strikes, slaps, punches, and body throws. Its origins and purpose are a matter of debate, with theories ranging from views of Capoeira as a uniquely Brazilian folk dance with improvised fighting movements to claims that it is a battle-ready fighting form directly descended from ancient African techniques.Historians are divided between those who believe it is a direct descendant of African fighting styles and those who believe it is a uniquely Brazilian dance form distilled from various African and Brazilian influences. One popular explanation holds that it is an African fighting style that was developed in Brazil, as expressed by a proponent named Salvano, who said, "Capoeira cannot exist without black men but its birthplace is Brazil".

Etymology

It is likely that the name originated as a derisive term used by slave owners to refer to the displays as chicken fights. Another claim is that the word "Capoeira" is derived from the native-American language Tupi-Guarani words kaá ("leaf", "plant") and puéra (past aspect marker), meaning "formerly a forest".

Afro-Brazilian art form

Some interpretations emphasize Capoeira as a fighting style designed for rebellion, but disguised by a façade of dance. Supporting the martial interpretation are renderings in the 1835 Voyage Pittoresque dans le Brésil (Picturesque Voyage to Brazil) ethnographic artist Johann Moritz Rugendas depicted Capoeira or the Dance of War, lending historical credence to the idea that Capoeira is a combative art-form with many dance elements.

Other Pan African-American, combative traditions parallel capoeira. According to Dr. Morton Marks, the island of Martiniquemarker is famous for danymé, also known as ladja. As with capoeira, "there is a ring of spectators into which each contestant enters, moving in a counter-clockwise direction and dancing toward drummers. This move, known as Kouwi Lawon (or ‘Circular Run’ in Creole), is an exact parallel to the capoeira interlude called dá volta ao mundo or ‘take a turn around the world.’" Marks stated that in Cubamarker, a mock-combat dance called Mani was performed to yuka drums. "A dancer (manisero) would stand in the middle of a ring of spectator-participants and, moving to the sound of the songs and drums, would pick someone from the circle and attempt to knock them down." Some of the manisero's moves and kicks were similar to those of Afro-Brazilian capoeira including its basic leg-sweep (rasteira).

In Capoeira : A History of an Afro-Brazilian Martial Art, Matthias Röhrig Assunção compared "three American combat traditions: knocking and kicking in the United States, ladija in Martinique, and capoeira in Brazil." African-derived combat games similar to wrestling and stick fighting were also witnessed and documented in seventeenth-century Barbadosmarker, eighteenth-century Jamaicamarker, and nineteenth century Venezuelamarker. Stick fighting was and still is practiced in Trinidadmarker, Carriacoumarker, Dominicamarker, and Haitimarker.

Maya Talmon-Chvaicer suggested capoeira may have been influenced by a ritual fight-dance called N'golo (the zebra dance) from Southern Angola, which was performed during the "Efundula, a puberty rite for women of the Mucope, Muxilenge, and Muhumbe tribes of southern Angola." Since the 1960s, the N'golo theory has become popular amongst some practitioners of capoeira Angola, although it is not universally accepted.

While many of these games are combative, it is widely accepted that slaves in the New World would have sought both violent and jovial means of coping with their oppression.

Status in Brazil and Development as a Sport

For some time, Capoeira was criminalized and prohibited in Brazil. Assunção provided ample data from police records dating back to the 1800s demonstrating that capoeira was an "important reason" to detain slaves and "free coloured individuals". "From 288 slaves that entered the Calabouço jail during the year 1857-1858, 80 (31 per cent) were arrested for [capoeira], and only 28 (10.7 per cent) for running away. Out of 4,303 arrests in Rio police jail in 1862, 404 detainess --nearly 10 per cent-- had been arrested for capoeira." In 1890, Brazilian president Deodoro da Fonseca signed an act that prohibited the practice of capoeira nationwide, with severe punishment for those caught. It was nevertheless practiced by the poorer population on public holidays, during work-free hours, and on other similar occasions. Riots, also caused by police interference, were common .

In spite of the ban, Manuel dos Reis Machado (Mestre Bimba) created a new style, the "Capoeira Regional." Reis Machado was finally successful in convincing the authorities of the cultural value of capoeira, thus ending the official ban in the 1930s. Reis Machado founded the first capoeira school in 1932, the Academia-escola de Capoeira Regional at the Engenho de Brotas in Salvador-Bahia. He was then considered "the father of modern capoeira". In 1937, he earned the state board of education certificate. In 1942, Reis Machado opened his second school at the Terreiro de Jesus - rua das Laranjeiras. The school is still open today and supervised by his pupil, known as "Vermelho-27" .

According to Assunção, "during the 1930's the traditional Bahian capoeira became increasingly identified as ‘capoeira de Angola,’ in opposition to the ‘capoeira Regional’ developed by Bimba. There were several prominent Angola mestres at this time in Salvador and they held regular rodas together in an area called Gengibirra of Salvador. There were twenty-two mestres in all; among them were Mestre Amorzinho—who commanded the rodas--, Daniel Coutinho--"Mestre Noronha"--, Onça Preta, Geraldo Chapeleiro, Juvenal, and Livino Diogo. Together they founded a center for capoeira Angola. Around the time of Amorzinho's death in 1941-1942 Vicente Ferreira Pastinha, best known as "Mestre Pastinha", took over the center, called the Centro Esportivo de Capoeira Angola. Pastinha worked almost up to his death in 1981 to codify the more traditional Angola style of capoeira and he wrote endlessly on the sport. Because he preserved much of the traditional style of capoeira, in his practice, teachings, and writings, he too is important to modern capoeira.

Outside Brazil

DanceBrazil performs the capoeira Ritmos using choreography by Artistic Director Jelon Vieira.
Capoeira is growing in popularity worldwide. There have been comparisons drawn between the Afro-North American art form of the blues and capoeira . Both were practiced and developed by African-American slaves, both retained distinctive African aesthetics and cultural qualities; both were shunned and looked-down upon by the majority societies within which they developed, and both fostered a deep sense of Afrocentric pride especially amongst poorer and darker-skinned Blacks.

“Artur Emídio was probably the first capoeirista ever to perform abroad;” in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s he went to Argentina, Mexico, the US, and Europe. Groups such as Brasil Tropical, headed by Domingos Campos and M. Camisa Roxa, toured Europe in the 1970’s. Jelon Vieira's Dance Brazil, founded in New York City in 1977, has been particularly influential in popularizing the capoeira among American audiences.

In the mid-1970s masters of the art form—mestre capoeiristas, began to emigrate and teach capoeira in the United States and other countries. At this time capoeira in Brazil was still primarily practiced among the poorest and blackest of Brazilians. With its immigration to the U.S., however, much of the stigma with which it was historically associated in Brazil was shed.

Today there are many capoeira schools all over the world (capoeira is gaining ground in Japan) and throughout the United States, and with its growing popularity in the U.S. it has attracted a broad spectrum of multicultural, multiracial students. Capoeira has gained popularity among non-Brazilian and non-African practitioners for the fluidity of its movements.

In United States, California, Rildo Cordeiro is one of the top masters of capoeira in the world and provides the most technical fighting style of capoeira. Cordeiro has trained in capoeira for 28 years. He has won the last three Brazilain Championship Capoeira contests. Cordeiro is part of "Cordao de Ouro", which is one of the largest groups of capoeira fighters in the world. Cordeiro has also fought MMA professionally. Lastly Cordeiro has a master's degree in physical education.[607]

Music



Music is integral to capoeira. It sets the tempo and style of game that is to be played within the roda. The music is composed of instruments and song. The tempos differ from very slow (Angola) to very fast (são bento regional). Many of the songs are sung in a call and response format while others are in the form of a narrative. Capoeiristas sing about a wide variety of subjects. Some songs are about history or stories of famous capoeiristas. Other songs attempt to inspire players to play better. Some songs are about what is going on within the roda. Sometimes the songs are about life or love lost. Others have lighthearted and playful lyrics. Capoeiristas change their playing style significantly as the songs or rhythm from the berimbau commands. In this manner, it is truly the music that drives capoeira.

There are three basic kinds of songs in capoeira . A ladainha (litany) is a narrative solo usually sung at the beginning of a roda, often by the mestre (master). These ladainhas will often be famous songs previously written by a mestre, or they may be improvised on the spot. A ladainha is usually followed by a chula or louvação, following a call and response pattern that usually thanks God and one's teacher, among other things. Each call is usually repeated word-for-word by the responders. The ladainha and chula are often omitted in regional games. Finally, corridos are songs that are sung while a game is being played, again following the call and response pattern. The responses to each call do not simply repeat what was said, however, but change depending on the song.

The instruments are played in a row called the bateria. The rhythm of the bateria is set by the berimbaus (stringed percussion instruments that look like musical bows). Other instruments in the bateria are: two pandeiros (tambourines), a reco-reco (rasp), and an agogô (double gong bell). The atabaque (conga-like drum), a common feature in most capoeira baterias, is considered an optional instrument, and is not required for a full bateria in some groups.

Ranks

While the variety in styles lead to a variety of ranking systems, there is a standard trend that most systems of capoeira follow. In order of ascension, those ranks are aluno (student), graduado (graduated), formado (formed), professor (teacher), and mestre (master).

Usually at their first batizado (baptism), a capoeirista will be given the rank of aluno. In some styles, this may also come with a cordão (rope) and/or apelido (nickname). Aluno translates to student in English, and so an aluno is a student of capoeira. Their rank is a recognition of their readiness to learn.

After an aluno becomes well versed in the capoeira they are learning, they can be recognized as an aluno graduado (graduated student). This means they've learned enough about capoeira to be trusted to teach others of it. At this point, they would continue to learn not only capoeira, but how to teach capoeira. It could be considered the equivalent of a black belt in eastern martial arts.

An aluno graduado can then become an aluno formado (formed student). They have formed their own capoeira and are now ready to teach others. A formado will usually be an instructor assisting the head of whichever school they are a part of.

The aluno formado goes on to become a professor. There is not much difference between formado and professor. The main difference being a professor might have his own school in which to teach while a formado would usually be an assistant instructor.

The final rank in capoeira would be a mestre (master). As the name states, the mestre is a master of capoeira. Mestres tend to be the true voices of capoeira. All other ranks are usually assigned by a mestre, but this rank is hard to assign. For the most part, a capoeirista becomes a mestre when the capoeira community recognizes them as one.

Roda

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The Roda ( Hoh-Dah ) or "Roda de Capoeira" is the circle of people within which capoeira is played. Its circular shape is maintained to keep focus on the players and musicians and retain the energy created by the capoeira game.

The people who make up the roda's circular shape clap and sing along to the music being played by the musicians in the bateria or drum set for the two partners engaged in a capoeira "game" (jogo). The "mouth" of the roda is located directly in front of the bateria. It is at this point where the players begin every game and generally where any new players must enter. In some capoeira schools an individual in the audience can "buy in" to engage one of the two players and begin another game.

The minimum roda size is usually a circle of about 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter. Though they can be smaller and are often larger, up to 10 meters in diameter (30 feet). The rhythm being played on the berimbau sets the pace and goals of the game played within the roda. Slow music limits the game to slow yet complex ground moves and handstands.

Contact in capoeira is generally not made but rather feigned or done theatrically.

In Capoeira Angola, the game rarely involves contact but the danger and possibility of it is always present. In capoeira contemporanea, during some rhythms (e.g. Benguela, Iuna) strikes are shown but not finished while in others (e.g., São Bento Grande de Regional) the players have more freedom to strike each other and make contact. Often games with contact are played at a fast pace, however it is the specific "toque" played on the berimbau, regardless of its speed, which dictates the type of game to be played.

For the participants, the roda is a microcosm of life and the world around them. Most often in the roda, the capoeirista's greatest opponent is himself and philosophy plays a large part in capoeira. A good teacher will strive to teach respect, safety, Malicia, and freedom.

Modern capoeira is often criticized by more traditional practitioners of capoeira as being in the process of losing its playfulness and dialogue due to the prevalence of impressive acrobatics and martial elements over the playful and intricate interactions of capoeira Angola .

Dominance in the roda is as much psychological and artistic as it is a question of who is taken down. Capoeira is uniquely social. Networking with other groups and students from other teachers can teach a capoeirista more about the art and improve their skills.

The jogo (game/match)

Capoeiristas outside
Capoeira does not focus on injuring the opponent. Rather, it emphasizes skill. Capoeiristas often prefer to show the movement without completing it, enforcing their superiority in the roda. If an opponent cannot dodge a slow attack, there is no reason to use a faster one. Each attack that comes in gives players a chance to practice an evasive technique.

Ginga

The ginga (literally: rocking back and forth; to swing) is the fundamental movement in capoeira. Capoeira Angola and Capoeira Regional have distinctive forms of ginga. Both are accomplished by maintaining both feet approximately shoulder-width apart and then moving one foot backwards and then back to the base, describing a triangular step on the ground. This movement is done to prepare the body for other movements.

The rest of the body is also involved in the ginga: coordination of the arms (in such a way as to prevent the body from being kicked), torso (many core muscles may be engaged depending on the player's style), and the leaning of the body (forward and back in relation to the position of the feet; the body leans back to avoid kicks, and forward to create opportunities to show attacks). The overall movement should match the rhythm being played by the bateria.

Attacks

Capoeira primarily attacks with kicks, sweeps, and head strikes. Some schools teach punches and hand strikes, but they are not as common. A possible explanation for the primary use of feet is the common West African belief that hands are for creation and feet for destruction . Another common explanation is that slaves in Brazil were commonly shackled at the wrists, restricting them from using their hands. Lastly, striking with the hands is often seen as unelegant and disruptive to the flow of the game. Elbow strikes are commonly used in place of hand strikes. "Cabeçadas" or headbutts are as common as they are in many of the fighting arts of the African Diaspora . Knee strikes are sometimes seen. Capoeira also uses acrobatic and athletic movements to maneuver around the opponent. Cartwheels called "" (a very common acrobatic movement), handstands (bananeira), headspins (pião de cabeça), hand-spins (pião de mão), handsprings (gato), sitting movements, turns, jumps, flips (mortal), and large dodges are all very common in capoeira though vary greatly depending on the form and rhythm.Fakes and feints are also an extremely important element in capoeira games and the setting of traps or illusory movements are very common.

Defenses

Capoeira defenses consists of evasive moves and rolls. A series of ducks called esquivas, which literally means "escape", are also staple of a capoeiristas' defensive vocabulary. There are typically different esquivas for every step of the Ginga, depending on the direction of the kick and intention of the defender. A common defense is the rolê, which is a rolling move that combines a duck and a low movement. This move allows the defensive players to quickly evade an attack and position themselves around the aggressor in order to lay up for an attack. It is this combination of attacks and defense which gives a game of capoeira its perceived 'fluidity' and choreography.

Other evasive moves such as rasteira, vingativa, tesoura de mão or queda allow the capoeirista to move away or dangerously close in an attempt to trip up the aggressor in the briefest moment of vulnerability (usually in a mid-kick.)

Combinations

A Capoeira movement (Aú Fechado).
There are also styles of moves that combine both elements of attack and defense. An example is the au batido. The move begins as an evasive cartwheel which then turns into a blocking/kick, either as a reflexive response to a blocking move from the opposing player or when an opportunity to do so presents itself, e.g., at an opponent's drop of guard. Two kicks called meia-lua-de-frente and armada are often combined to create a double spinning kick.

Chamada

The Chamada is a ritual that takes place within the game of Capoeira Angola. Chamada means 'call', and consists of one player 'calling' their opponent to participate in the ritual. There is an understood dialogue of gestures of the body that are used to call the opponent, and to signal the end of the ritual. The ritual consists of one player signaling, or calling the opponent, who then approaches the player and meets the player to walk side by side within the roda. The player who initiated the ritual then decides when to signal an end to the ritual, whereby the two players return to normal play. The critical points of the chamada occur during the approach, and the chamada is considered a 'life lesson', communicating the fact that the approach is a dangerous situation. Approaching people, animals, or life situations is always a critical moment when one must be aware of the danger of the situation. The purpose of the chamada is to communicate this lesson, and to enhance the awareness of people participating in the ritual.

During the ritual, after the opposing player has appropriately approached the caller of the chamada, the players walk side by side inside the circle in which the game is played. This is another critical situation, because both players are now very vulnerable due to the close proximity and potential for surprise attack.

Experienced practitioners and masters of the art will sometimes test a student's awareness by suggesting strikes, head-butts, or trips during a chamada to demonstrate when the student left themselves open to attack. The end of a chamada is called by the player that initiated the ritual, and consists of a gesture inviting the player to return to normal play. This is another critical moment when both players are vulnerable to surprise attack.

The chamada can result in a highly developed sense of awareness and helps practitioners learn the subtleties of anticipating another person's intentions. The chamada can be very simple, consisting solely of the basic elements, or the ritual can be quite elaborate including a competitive dialogue of trickery, or even theatric embellishments.

Volta ao mundo

Volta ao mundo means "around the world".

The volta ao mundo takes place after an exchange of movements has reached a conclusion, or after there has been a disruption in the harmony of the game. In either of these situations, one player will begin walking around the perimeter of the circle, and the other player will join the "around the world" before returning to the normal game.

Malandragem

Malandragem is a word that comes from malandro, which means a person who possesses cunning as well as malicia, which means malice. The word comes from the historical folklore of Brasil, in which men who were marginalized from main stream society and possessed street smarts were called malandros. Malandragem is an attitude derived from the mindset of the malandro and is a unique and distinguishing characteristic of the art of capoeira.

Styles of capoeira

Capoeira has two main classifications: traditional and modern. Angola refers to the traditional form of the game. This is the oldest form, approximately 500 years old , with roots in African traditions that are even older , and is the root form from which all other forms of capoeira are based . Modern forms of capoeira can be classified as regional and contemporanea.

Capoeira Angola

Capoeira Angola is considered to be the more dance-like form of capoeira and is often characterized by deeply held traditions, sneakier movements and with the players playing their games in closer proximity to each other than in regional or contemporanea. Capoeira Angola is often characterized as being slower and lower to the ground than other major forms of capoeira, although in actual practice, the speed varies in accordance with the music. Capoeira Angola is also known for the chamada, a physical call-and-response used to challenge an opponent or to change the style in the roda.

The father of the best known modern Capoeira Angola schools is considered to be Grão-Mestre Pastinha who lived in Salvador, Bahia. Today, many of the Capoeira Angola schools in the United States come from Mestres in Pastinha's lineage. He was not the only Capoeira Angola mestre, but is considered to be the "Father of Capoeira Angola" bringing this style of Capoeira into the modern setting of an academy. He also wrote the first book about Capoeira, Capoeira Angola, now out of print. Capoeira Angola has experienced an explosion of growth during the past 20 years, it can be found in most of the larger cities in Brazil and many larger cities in the USA, Europe, South America, Japan, as well as many other locations.

Capoeira regional

Regional is the more common form of Capoeira, it is practiced much more widely in Brazil. Capoeira Regional was developed by Reis Machado to make capoeira more effective and bring it closer to its fighting origins, and less associated with the criminal elements of Brazil. The Capoeira Regional style is often considered to consist of faster and more athletic play than the more traditional Capoeira Angola.

Later, modern regional came to be (see the next section about capoeira Contemporânea). Developed by other people from Bimba's regional, this type of game is characterized by high jumps, acrobatics, and spinning kicks. This regional should not be confused with the original style created by Reis Machado.

Regional ranks capoeiristas (capoeira players) by ability, denoting different skill with the use of a corda (colored rope, also known as cordel or cordão) worn as a belt. Angola does not use such a formal system of ranking, relying instead upon the discretion of a student's mestre. In both forms, though, recognition of advanced skill comes only after many years of constant practice .

Capoeira Contemporânea

Contemporânea is a term for groups that train multiple styles of capoeira simultaneously. Very often students of Capoeira Contemporânea train elements of Regional and Angola as well as newer movements that would not fall under either of those styles.

The label Contemporânea also applies to many groups who do not trace their lineage through Reis Machado or Pastinha and do not strongly associate with either tradition.

In recent years, the various philosophies of modern capoeira have been expressed by the formation of schools, particularly in North America, which focus on, and continue to develop their specific form of, the modern art. This has become a defining characteristic of many schools, to the point that a seasoned student can sometimes tell what school a person trains from, based solely on the way they play the game. Some schools teach a blended version of the many different styles. Traditionally, rodas in these schools will begin with a period of Angola, in which the school's mestre, or an advanced student, will sing a ladainha, (a long, melancholy song, often heard at the start of an Angola game). After some time, the game will eventually increase in tempo, until, at the mestre's signal, the toque of the berimbaus changes to that of traditional Regional.

Each game, Regional and Angola stresses different strengths and abilities. Regional emphasizes speed and quick reflexes, whereas Angola underscores a great deal of thought given to each move, almost like a game of chess. Schools that teach a blend of these try to offer this mix as a way of using the strengths of both games to influence a player.

Special events

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Capoeira regional groups periodically hold Batizados ("baptisms" into the art of capoeira). Members being "baptized" are normally given a corda (cord belt) and an apelido (capoeira nickname) if they haven't already earned one. Batizados are major events to which a number of groups and masters from near and far are normally invited.

Sometimes a Batizado is also held in conjunction with a Troca de Corda (change of belts), in which students already baptized who have trained hard and been deemed worthy by their teachers are awarded higher-ranking belts as an acknowledgment of their efforts. Such ceremonies provide opportunities to see a variety of different capoeira styles, watch mestres play, and see some of the best of the game.

Batizados and Trocas de Cordoes do not occur in capoeira Angola, which does not have a system of belts. However, some contemporary schools of capoeira have combined the study of both arts and may require their students to be learned in the ways of capoeira Angola before being awarded a higher belt.

Related activities

Samba de roda

Performed by many capoeira groups, samba de roda is a traditional Afro-Brazilian dance that has been associated with capoeira for many years. The orchestra is composed by pandeiro (tambourine), atabaque (drum), berimbau-viola (berimbau with the smallest cabaça and the highest pitch), chocalho (rattle – a percussion instrument), accompanied by singing and clapping.

Maculelê

Maculelê is a dance that tells the story of the enslaved Africans who worked the sugarcane plantations in Brasil. The sugar cane was cut with machetes, and in the Maculele dance, dancers click machete blades rhythmically within the dance. Sometimes sticks are used instead of machete blades, however it is understood the sticks symbolize the machetes used to cut the sugarcane in the time of slavery. Maculele and capoeira share the same history and tell the story of the people who invented these art froms, therefore they are usually taught and performed together.

Puxada de rede

Puxada de Rede is a Brazilian folkloric theatrical play, seen in many capoeira performances. It is based on a traditional Brazilian legend involving the loss of a fisherman in a sea-faring accident

Capoeira in popular culture

As capoeira's popularity spread throughout the world, so too did its use in popular culture. Capoeira players (capoeiristas) have been seen in television commercials, video games and music videos for a number of years.

Movies

  • In the 2007 movie The Protector, Lateef Crowder plays a character simply known as "Capoeira Fighter" who appears once to fight the main character of the movie.
  • The 1993 movie Only the Strong focuses on capoeira.
  • The 2004 movie Ocean's Twelve features a scene towards the end where actor Vincent Cassel performs a form of capoeira dance to get by the laser beams undetected.
  • In the finale of the 2008 movie Never Back Down, Two "Capoeira" type fighters are featured as part of the tournament entitled "The Beat Down". The first wins with a powerful "Martelo"(roundhouse kick), the second loss when he "Au" (cartwheel) into his competitors punch.
  • The 1989 movie Rooftops features the main character 'T' played by Jason Gedrick learning Capoeira to complement his street fighting skills


Video games

  • Capoeira is the dance of the male troll in the online game World of Warcraft.
  • Eddy Gordo, Tiger Jackson and Christie Monteiro, characters in the popular fighting game series Tekken, use the capoeira fighting style. As Mokujin, Tetsujin and Combot randomly copy the fighting styles of other characters, they can use the fighting style too.
  • Elena of the Street Fighter series utilizes the capoeira fighting style to take advantage of her long legs. Blanka also uses a modified version of capoeira, but the similarities are not too obvious.
  • Dancer Nobodies in the game Kingdom Hearts use a form of capoeira for their basic kicks.
  • The game Def Jam: Icon features a capoeira style called Jah Breakah.
  • The indie game Capoeira Legends for PC revolves entirely around the capoeira theme.
  • The PC game Rumble Fighter for PC incorporates capoeira as one of the advanced fighting styles.
  • Echidna from The Bouncer uses capoeira.
  • Raiden from Metal Gear Solid 4 uses a modified version of capoeira during a cut scene in which he fights several robots and even uses it on his sword.
  • Capoeira from Bust a Groove uses the dance style, and is so forth named after it.


Comic books

In the manga novel Another Note, a spin-off of the Death Note series, Naomi Misora tells L that she uses a capoeira fighting style. In the 5th volume of Death Note, L uses a style similar to capoeira when fighting Light Yagami. In the 13th Death Note manga, page 11 makes note of L having "somehow mastered" capoeira.

In WITCH issue 84, the girls' dance instructor sends them to a school where they learn capoeira to aid them in a dance competition.

Important mestres






Schools



See also



Notes

  1. Capoeira, N. (2003, p.10)
  2. Assunção (2005, p. 2)
  3. Marks, Morton. (20 August 2009) http://www.capoeira-infos.org/ressources/textes/t_marks_capoeira_angola.html "Capoeira Angola". Capoeira-Info.org: Ressources: textes & paroles de chansons. Retrieved on 20 August 2009. Orig. notes printed in CD from Grupo de Capoeira Angola Pelourinho (2003). Capoeira Angola 2: Brincando na Roda. Smithsonian Folkways.
  4. Assunção (2005, p.64)
  5. Assunção (2005, p.59-66)
  6. Talmon-Chvaicer (2007, p. 19)
  7. Assunção (2005, p.80, 70-95)
  8. Assunção (2005, p.80)
  9. Assunção (2005, p. 141)
  10. Assunção (2005, p. 154)
  11. Assunção (2005, p. 155)
  12. Assunção (2005, p.155-169)
  13. Assunção (2005, p. 190)
  14. ABADÁ-Capoeira-RPI. (22 August 2009) http://capoeira.union.rpi.edu/history.php?chapter=Pastinha "4. Mestre Pastinha and Angola". Capoeira History. Retrieved on 22 August 2009.


Printed References

  • Assunção, Matthias Röhrig (2005). Capoeira : A History of an Afro-Brazilian Martial Art. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0714680869.
  • Capoeira, Nestor (2003). The Little Capoeira Book. (Alex Ladd, Trans.). Berkeley: North Atlantic. ISBN 1556434405.
  • Talmon-Chvaicer, Maya (2007). The Hidden History of Capoeira: A Collision of Cultures in the Brazilian Battle Dance. ISBN 9780292717237.


Further reading

  • Almeida, Birra "Mestre Acordeon" (1986). Capoeira: A Brazilian Art Form. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-938190-30-X.
  • Merrell, Floyd (2005). Capoeira and Candomblé: Conformity and Resistance in Brazil. Princeton: Markus Wiener. ISBN 155876349X.


External links




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