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Conte Carlo Sforza (January 24, 1872 - September 4, 1952) was an Italianmarker diplomat and anti-Fascist politician.


Sforza was born at Montignosomarker (Lunigiana).

Sforza entered the diplomatic service in 1896. He served in Cairomarker, Parismarker, Constantinoplemarker, Beijing, Bucharestmarker, Madridmarker, Londonmarker, and Belgrademarker, and after the First World War became foreign minister under Giovanni Giolitti. In 1921 Sforza upset right-wing forces by signing the Rapallo Treaty which returned the important port of Fiumemarker to Yugoslavia.

Sforza was ambassador to Francemarker but resigned from office when Benito Mussolini gained power in 1922. He led the anti-fascist opposition in the Senate until being forced into exile in 1926. While living in exile Sforza published the books, European Dictatorships, Contemporary Italy, or Synthesis of Europe. He said that Italy, nation with so long and rich tradition, "can afford luxury - waiting".

Sforza lived in France until the German occupation in June 1940. He then settled in Englandmarker where he lived until moving on to the United Statesmarker.

Sforza finally waited to see Italy surrender in September 1943. He returned to his country and in June 1944 he accepted the offer of Ivanoe Bonomi to join his provisional antifascist government. Sforza in 1946 became member of the Italian Republican Party.

As foreign minister (1947–1951) he supported the European Recovery Program and the settlement of the Triestemarker. He was a convinced advocate and one of the designers of Italy's pro-European policy and with De Gasperi he led Italy into the Council of Europe. On April 18 1951 he signed the Treaty instituting the European Coal and Steel Community, making Italy one of the founder members.

He died in Romemarker in 1952.

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