called simply Carmel, is a small town in Monterey County,
States, founded in 1902 and incorporated in 1916.
Situated on the Monterey
, the town is known for its natural scenery and rich
artistic history. In 1906, the San Francisco Call
devoted a full
page to the "artists, poets and writers of Carmel-by-the-Sea," and
in 1910 it reported that 60 percent of Carmel's houses were built
by citizens who were "devoting their lives to work connected to the
aesthetic arts." Early City Councils were dominated by artists, and
the town has had several mayors who were poets or actors, including
Herbert Heron, founder of the Forest
, bohemian writer and actor Perry Newberry, and
actor-director Clint Eastwood
was mayor for one term, from 1986 to 1988.
The town is known for being "dog-friendly", with numerous hotels,
restaurants and retail establishments admitting guests with dogs.
Carmel is also known for several unusual laws, including a
prohibition on wearing high-heel shoes without a permit, enacted to
prevent lawsuits arising from tripping accidents caused by
irregular pavement. These laws, however, are currently not
Carmel-by-the-Sea is located on the Pacific
coast, about 330 miles north of Los Angeles and 120 miles south of San Francisco.
As of the 2000 census, the town had a total
population of 4,081.
Carmel-by-the-Sea is permeated by Native American, early Spanish
and American history (Blanks, 1965). Most scholars believe
that the Esselen-speaking people were the
first Native Americans to inhabit the area of Carmel, but the
Ohlone people pushed them south into the
mountains of Big
Sur around the 6th century.
Spanish Mission settlement
Early mission settlement after
relocation to Carmel as depicted by John Sykes in 1794
The first Europeans to see this land were Spanish mariners led by
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo
1542, who sailed up the California coast without landing. Another
sixty years passed before another Spanish explorer and Carmelite Friar Sebastian Vizcaino
"discovered" what is
now known as Carmel Valley in 1602, which he named for his patron saint
, Our Lady of Mount Carmel
The Spanish did not attempt to colonize the area until 1770, when
Gaspar de Portola
, along with
Fathers, Junípero Serra
and Juan Crespi
visited the area in search of a
site. Portola and Crespi
traveled by land while Serra traveled with the Mission supplies
aboard ship, arriving 8 days later. The colony of Monterey was established at
the same time as the second mission in Alta California and soon became the capital of California until
From the late 18th through the early 19th century most
of the Ohlone population died out from European diseases (against
which they had no immunity), as well as overwork and malnutrition
at the missions where the Spanish forced them to live. When Mexico gained
independence from Spain in 1821 Carmel became Mexican
Mission San Carlos and Father Serra
Mission San Carlos Borromeo de
Carmelo was founded on June 3 of 1770 in the nearby
settlement of Monterey, but was
relocated to Carmel by Father Junípero Serra due to the interaction
between soldiers stationed at the nearby Presidio and the native
The Mission at Carmel, circa
In December of 1771, the transfer was complete as the new stockade
of approximately 130x200 became the new Mission Carmel. Simple
buildings of plastered mud were the first church and dwellings
until a more sturdy structure was built of wood from nearby pine
and cypress trees to last through the seasonal rains. This too was
only a temporary church until a permanent stone edifice was
In 1784, Father Serra, after one last tour of all the California
missions, died and was buried at his request at the Mission in the
Sanctuary of the San Carlos Church, next to father Crespi who had
passed the previous year. He was buried with full military
The Mission at Carmel has significance beyond the history of Father
Serra, who is sometimes called the "Father of California". It also
contains the state's first library.
A Scottish immigrant, John Martin
acquired lands surrounding the Carmel mission in 1833, which he
named Mission Ranch. Carmel became part of the United States in
1848, when Mexico ceded California as a result of the Mexican-American War
Known as "Rancho Las Manzanitas", the area that was to become
Carmel-by-the Sea was purchased by French businessman Honore
Escolle in the 1850s. Escolle was well known and prosperous in the
City of Monterey, owning the first commercial bakery, pottery kiln,
and brickworks in Central California.
Ocean Ave, circa
In 1888, Escolle and Santiago Duckworth, a young Catholic developer
from Monterey with dreams of establishing a Catholic retreat near
the Carmel Mission, filed a subdivision map with the County
Recorder of Monterey County. By 1889, 200 lots had been sold.
In 1902 James Frank Devendorf and Frank Powers, on behalf of the
Carmel Development Company, filed a new subdivision map of the core
village that became Carmel. The Carmel post office opened the same
year. In 1910, the Carnegie
established the Coastal Laboratory, and a number of
scientists moved to the area. Carmel incorporated in 1916.
The name "Carmel" was earlier applied to another place on the north
bank of the Carmelo River east-southeast of the present-day Carmel.
A post office called Carmel opened in 1889, closed in 1890,
re-opened in 1893, moved in 1902, and closed for good in
In 1905 the Carmel Arts and Crafts Club was formed to support and
produce artistic works. After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
the village was inundated with musicians, writers, painters other
artists turning to the established artist colony after the bay city
was destroyed. The new residents were offered home lots - ten
dollars down, little or no interest, and whatever they could pay on
a monthly basis.
describes the artists'
colony in his novel, The Valley of the Moon
among the noted artists who lived in or frequented the village
were; Mary Austin
, Armin Hansen
, Ambrose Bierce
, Robinson Jeffers
, Sinclair Lewis
, Sydney Yard, Ferdinand
Burgdorff, William Frederic
, William Keith
, Percy Gray
, and Nora May
The Arts and Crafts Club held exhibitions, lectures, dances, and
produced plays and recitals at numerous locations in Carmel,
including the Pine Inn Hotel, the Old Bath House on Ocean Ave, the
Forest Theater, and a small building in the downtown area donated
by the Carmel Development Company.
In 1911, the town's rich Shakespearean tradition began with a
production of Twelfth Night
, directed by Garnet Holme of
UC Berkeley and featuring future mayors Perry Newberry and Herbert
Heron, with settings designed by artist DeNeale Morgan. Twelfth
was again presented in 1940 at Heron's inaugural Carmel
Shakespeare Festival, and was repeated in 1942 and 1956.
By 1914, the club had achieved national recognition, with an
article in The Mercury Herald commenting "...a fever of activity
seems to have seized the community and each newcomer is immediately
inoculated and begins with great enthusiasm to do something... with
plays, studios and studies...".
Arts and culture
The Arts & Crafts Clubhouse and
Golden Bough Theatre fire of 1949.
In 1907 the town's first cultural center and theatre, the Carmel
Arts and Crafts Clubhouse, was built. Poets Austin and Sterling
performed their "private theatricals" there.
By 1913, The Arts and Crafts Club had begun organizing lessons for
aspiring painters, actors & craftsmen. Some of the most
prominent painters in the United States, such as William Merritt Chase
, Xavier Martinez
, Mary DeNeale Morgan and C.
Chapel Judson offered six weeks of instruction for $15.
In 1924, the Arts and Crafts Hall was built on an adjacent site.
This new facility was renamed numerous times including the Abalone
Theatre, the Filmarte, the Carmel Playhouse and, finally, the
Studio Theatre of the Golden Bough. The original clubhouse, along
with the adjoining theatre, burned down in 1949.
The facilities were rebuilt as a two-theatre complex, opening in
1952 as the Golden Bough Playhouse. A photo of the fire from 1949
was still on file 60 years later at the rebuilt theatre
illustrating the loss to the cities culture and history.
The dramas enacted by the Arts & Crafts Club attracted
considerable attention, with an article in The Clubwoman
"Probably no other women's club in the country has
achieved a more remarkable success in the way of dramatic ventures
than has The Carmel Club of Arts & Crafts".
In 1910, the Forest Theater
first outdoor theater west of the Rockies, was built, with poet
Herbert Heron leading the endeavor. Numerous groups including the
Forest Theater Society (1910) and the Western Drama Society (1911)
presented plays and pageants. Original works and the plays of
Shakespeare were the primary focus. The property was deeded to the
City of Carmel-by-the-Sea in order to qualify for federal funding
and, in 1939, the site became a Works Progress Administration
(WPA) reconstruction project. After several years, the site
re-opened as The Carmel
, with Herbert Heron as its director and,
with the exception of the World War II
years of 1943–44, the festival continued through the 1940s.
The Theatre of the Golden Bough (Ocean
Ave.) fire of 1935, the first of the two coincidental fires to
strike the town's theatrical community.
Theatrical activities in the town grew to such a proportion that
between 1922 and 1924, two competing indoor theatres were built -
the Arts & Crafts Hall and the Theatre of the Golden Bough,
designed and built by Edward G. Kuster and originally located on
Ocean Avenue. Kuster was a musician and lawyer from Los Angeles who
relocated to Carmel to establish his own theatre and school.
In 1935, after a production of By Candlelight
, the Golden
Bough was destroyed by fire. Kuster, who had previously bought out
the Arts and Crafts Theatre, moved his operation to the older
facility and renamed it the Golden Bough Playhouse. In 1949, after
remounting By Candlelight
, the playhouse burned to the
ground. It was rebuilt and reopened in 1952.
In 1931, the Carmel Sunset School constructed a new auditorium,
complete with Gothic-inspired architecture, with seating for 700.
Often doubling as a performing arts venue for the community, the
facility was bought by the City of Carmel-by-the-Sea in 1964,
renaming the venue the Sunset Theatre. In 2003, following a $22
million renovation, the building re-opened with the 66th annual
Carmel Bach Festival, hosting such renowned artists as Lyle Lovett,
k.d.lang, Wynston Marsalis, and the Vienna Boys Choir.
In 1949 the Forest Theater Guild was incorporated, and under the
leadership of Cole Weston, the 60-seat indoor Forest Theater was
created. For most of the 1960s, the outdoor theater lay unused and
neglected. In 1968, Marcia Hovick's Children's Experimental Theater
leased the indoor theater and continues today. In 1972, the Forest
Theater Guild was reactivated and continues to produce musicals,
adding a film series in 1997.
Pacific Repertory Theatre
initiated productions on the outdoor Forest Theater stage,
reactivating Herbert Heron's Carmel Shake-speare Festival in 1990
which, in 1994, expanded to include productions at the Golden Bough
Pacific Repertory Theatre (PacRep), a
regional theatre company, is the only professional (Equity
) company in Carmel and the
. One of the
eight major arts institutions in Monterey County, it was founded in
1982 by Carmel resident Stephen
as the GroveMont Theatre. Its name changed to Pacific
Repertory Theatre in 1994 when the company acquired the Golden
Bough Playhouse, a two-theatre complex housing both the Golden
Bough and the Circle Theatres. PacRep presents a year-round season
of 10-12 plays and musicals in three Carmel theatres: The 330-seat
Golden Bough Theatre, the 120-seat Circle Theatre and the 540-seat
outdoor Forest Theater
outreach programs include PacRep's School of Dramatic Arts
(SoDA) and the Tix4Kids
program that distributes
subsidized theatre tickets to underserved youth.
George Sterling helped establish the
arts colony in Carmel
In 1905, poet George Sterling
to Carmel and helped to establish the town's literary base. He was
associated with Mary Austin
, as well as
, who also spent considerable
time in the Carmel and Monterey area. In San Francisco, Sterling
was known as the "uncrowned King of Bohemia" and, following the
great San Francisco earthquake of 1906 many of his literary
associates followed him in his move. He is often credited with
making Carmel world famous. His aunt Missus Havens purchased a home
for him in Carmel Pines where he lived for six years.
Sterling wrote to his long-time literary mentor, Ambrose Bierce
"Well, you can see why I must raise
vegetables. Belgian hares, hens and the fruit of their
wombs, squabs and goldfish, 'keep a bee,' raid mussel reefs, and
cultivate a taste for rice - not to mention cold water and 'just
one girl.' I'm determined to get into black and white
unnumbered multitudes of lines that romp up and down in my innards,
Mary Austin, c.
Sterling's visitors included poet Joaquin
Miller, writer Charles W.
Stoddard and photographer
Arnold Genthe, known for his
documentary shots of the San Francisco fire that followed the great
earthquake, after which Genthe followed Sterling to Carmel to make
Austin joined the Carmel arts colony in 1906.
In 1906 novelist Mary Austin moved to Carmel. She is best known for
her tribute to the deserts of the American Southwest, The Land
of Little Rain. Her play, Fire, which she also
directed, had its world premiere at the Forest Theater in 1913.
Austin is often credited as suggesting the idea for the outdoor
poet Robinson Jeffers (1887-1962),
and his wife, Una (1884-1950), found their "inevitable
place" when they first saw the Carmel-Big Sur coast south
of California's Monterey Peninsula.
Robinson Jeffers Hawk Tower
Over the next decade, on a windswept, barren promontory, using
granite boulders gathered from the rocky shore of Carmel Bay,
Jeffers built Tor House as a home and refuge for himself and his
family. It was in Tor House that Jeffers wrote all of his major
poetical works: the long narratives of "this coast crying out
for tragedy," the shorter meditative lyrics and dramas on
classical themes, culminating in 1947 with the critically acclaimed
adaptation of Medea for the Broadway
stage, which featured Dame Judith
Anderson in the title role. He called his home Tor House,
naming it for the craggy knoll, the "tor" on which it was built.
Carmel Point, then, was a treeless headland, almost devoid of
buildings. Construction began in 1918. The granite stones were
drawn by horses from the little cove below the house. Jeffers
apprenticed himself to the building contractor, thus learning the
art of making "stone love stone." Construction was completed in
In 1920, the poet-builder began his work on Hawk Tower. Meant as a
retreat for his wife and sons, it was completed in less than four
years. Jeffers built the tower entirely by himself. He used wooden
planks and a block and tackle system to move the stones and to set
them in place. Many influential literary and cultural celebrities
were guests of the Jeffers family. Among them were Sinclair Lewis, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Langston Hughes, Charles Lindbergh, George Gershwin and Charlie Chaplin. Later visitors have
included William Everson, Robert Bly, Czesław Miłosz and Edward Abbey.
In 1906, San Francisco photographer Arnold
Genthe joined the Carmel arts colony, where he was able to
pursue his pioneering work in color photography. His first attempts
were taken in his garden, primarily portraits of his friends,
including the leading Shakespearean actor and actress of the
period, Edward Sothern and Julia Marlowe, who were costumed as
Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Of his new residence, he wrote, ""My
first trials with this medium were made at Carmel where the
cypresses and rocks of Point Lobos, the always varying sunsets and
the intriguing shadows of the sand dunes offered a rich field for
color experiments."" According to the Library of Congress, where
over 18,000 of his negatives and prints are on file, Genthe "became
famous for his impressionistic portrayals of society women,
artists, dancers, and theater personalities."
Renowned photographer Edward Weston
moved to Carmel in 1929 and shot the first of numerous nature
photographs, many set at Point Lobos, on the south side of Carmel
Bay. In 1936, Weston became the first photographer to receive a
Guggenheim Fellowship for his work in experimental photography. In
1948, after the onset of Parkinsons disease, he took his last
photograph, an image of Point Lobos.
Weston had traveled extensively with legendary photographer
Ansel Adams, who moved to Carmel in
1962, several years after receiving his 3rd Gugggenheim award. In
1966 he was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences. The following year he founded the Friends of Photography,
which became the world's largest non-profit creative photography
membership organization. Over the next 18 years, in the studio he
built in the basement of his Carmel Highlands home, he printed and
published a majority of his life's work. In 1982, an eightieth
birthday celebration is presented where Adams received the
Decoration of Commander of the Order of the Arts and Letters, the
French government's highest cultural award given to a foreigner.
Exhibitions, parties and receptions are held including a
performance by pianist Vladimir
Ashkenazy in Adams' Carmel Highlands home. Adams died on April
22, 1984, of heart failure aggravated by cancer, an event that was
reported on front pages worldwide.
Gray Gables, at Lincoln and Seventh was the birthplace of
the Carmel Art Association , founded by artists Josephine
Culbertson and Ida Johnson. This small group supported art,
primarily through the auspices of the Carmel Arts & Crafts
Club, until 1927, when a meeting took place, and the group
committed to building an exhibition gallery to display their works.
Their first show with 41 artists took place in October of the same
year in the Seven Arts building of Herbert Heron. The permanent
gallery was completed in 1933 at its present location on Dolores
the early 1930s the tiny group claimed four members who had
attained the status of membership in the National
Academy of Design.
The Carmel Bach Festival began
in 1935 as a three-day festival of concerts, expanding to 3 weeks
until the 2009 Season which, due to economic concerns, was reduced
to 2 weeks. The Festival is a celebration of music and ideas
inspired by the historical and ongoing influence of J.S. Bach in
the world. In recent years, the Festival was under the management
of Jesse Read, who started as a performer with Carmel Bach in 1980.
As of 2009, the non-profit company is being guided by newly
appointed executive director Camille Kolles. For 72 years the
Festival has brought the music of the Baroque and beyond to
communities of the Monterey Peninsula  and to music lovers from both the
United States and abroad. Comprised of nationally and
internationally renowned performing artists, the Festival orchestra
and chorale, along with a local chorus, perform in a variety of
venues within Carmel including the Sunset Cultural Center and the
Carmel Mission Basilica, and other venues throughout the Monterey
Peninsula. The Festival schedule features full orchestral and
choral works, individual vocal and chamber ensemble concerts,
recitals, master classes, films, lectures and informal talks, in
addition to interactive social and family events. Since 1992,
artistic leadership has been provided by Bruno Weil, Festival Music
Director And Conductor.
The Monterey Symphony provides triple performances of a seven
concert series as well as an extensive education program and
special performances. It was founded in December 1946 in the Carmel
home of its first president Grace Howden. It is currently led by
Spanish conductor Max Bragado Darman who joined the orchestra in
2004. The music directors of the Monterey Symphony are Lorell
McCann (1947-1953) and Clifford Anderson (1947-1954), Gregory
Millar (1954-1959), Earl Bernard Murray (1959-1960), Ronald
Ondrejka (1960-1961), John Gosling (1961-1967), Jan De Jong
(1967-1968), Haymo Taeuber (1968-1985), Clark Suttle (1985-1998),
Kate Tamarkin (1998-2004), and Max Bragado Darman (2004 to
As of the census of 2000, there are 4,081
people, 2,285 households, and 1,108 families residing in the city.
The population density is 3,753.3
people per square mile (1,445.6/km²). There are 3,334 housing units
at an average density of 3,066.3/sq mi (1,181.0/km²). The
racial makeup of the city is 94.58% White, 0.44% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 2.25% Asian, 0.15%
Pacific Islander, 0.91% from
other races, and 1.35% from two
or more races. 2.94% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Typical fairytale cottage-style Carmel
There are 2,285 households out of which 11.6% have children under
the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% are married couples living together, 5.8% have a female
householder with no husband present, and 51.5% are non-families.
44.1% of households are made up of individuals and 20.1% a single
person who is 65 years of age or older. Average household size is
1.79 and the average family size is 2.39.
The age distribution is as follows: 9.9% under the age of 18, 2.9%
from 18 to 24, 18.3% from 25 to 44, 38.1% from 45 to 64, and 30.8%
who are 65 years of age or older, with a median age of 54 years.
For every 100 females there are 77.1 males. For every 100 females
age 18 and over, there are 75.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $58,163, and the
median income for a family is $81,259. Males have a median income
of $52,344 versus $41,150 for females. The per capita income for the city is $48,739.
6.6% of the population and 3.6% of families are below the poverty line. Of the total population, 5.6% of
those under age of 18 and 4.5% of those 65 and older are living
below the poverty line.
A survey done at the behest of the city in 2008 revealed that only
37% of the residences within the city limits had full time
occupancies. The balance are vacation homes.
Planning and environmental factors
The town has historically pursued a vigorous strategy of planned
development to enhance its natural coastal beauty and to retain its
character, which the city's general plan describes as "a village in
a forest overlooking a white sand beach". Carmel was incorporated
in the year 1916 and as early as 1925 the town adopted a clear
vision of its future as "primarily, essentially and predominantly a
residential community" (Carmel City Council, 1929). The city
regularly hosts delegations from cities and towns around the world
seeking to understand how Carmel retains its authenticity in
today's increasingly homogeneous world.
Galleries and shops on Ocean
New buildings must be built around existing trees and new
trees are required on lots that are deemed to have an inadequate
The one-square-mile village has no street lights or parking
meters.. In addition, the businesses, cottages and houses have no
street numbers. (Originally, the early artists who were the first
builders of the homes in the town, named their houses, rather than
having numerical addresses.) Due to this situation, the Postal
Service provides no delivery of mail to individual addresses.
Instead, residents go to the centrally located post office to
receive their mail. Overnight delivery services do deliver to what
are called geographical addresses, such as "NE Ocean and
Lincoln" (Harrison Memorial Library) or "Monte Verde 4SW of 8th"
(Golden Bough Playhouse). The format used for geographical
addressing lists the street, cross street, and the number of houses
from the intersection. For example, in the case of "Monte Verde 4SW
of 8th", the address translates to a building on the West side
Monte Verde Street four properties south of the 8th Ave
Planning has consistently recognized the importance of preserving
the character of these major sociocultural and public facilities:
Sunset Community and Cultural Center, Golden Bough Playhouse,
Forest Theater, Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, Tor House
and Hawk Tower, Harrison Memorial Library, and City Hall.
Carmel-by-the-Sea is situated in a moderate
seismic risk zone, the principal threats
being the San Andreas
Fault, which is approximately thirty miles northeast, and
the Palo Colorado Fault which traces offshore through the Pacific Ocean several miles away. More minor potentially
active faults nearby are the Church Creek Fault and the San
Francisquito Fault (Spangle, 1975).
Carmel is served by the Carmel Unified School
Schools serving Carmel-by-the-Sea include Carmel High School,
Middle School, Tularcitos Elementary School  and Carmel River School
Carmel–by-the-Sea is an exceptionally dog-friendly city. Most
hotels allow dogs to stay with guests. Almost all restaurants that
offer outside dining allow dogs in those areas, with most of them
also offering water. A few have special "doggie menus." Many
retailers allow dogs to accompany their owners in their stores and
many have treats available. Water bowls and dog biscuits can also
be found in front of many stores. Dogs are not permitted, however
in Devendorf Park (on Ocean Ave. between Junipero and Mission
Streets). Dogs must be leashed, except on Carmel City Beach, where
they are allowed unleashed if they are under voice command from
their owners. The police department takes animal welfare seriously
and officers will open cars that contain pets without adequate
ventilation or water and will remove the pets and cite the
Though often erroneously thought of as an urban myth, the municipal code bans the wearing
of shoes having heels greater than 2 inches in height or with
a base of less than 1 square inch unless the wearer has obtained a
permit for them. This seemingly peculiar law was authored by the
city attorney in the 1920s to defend the city from lawsuits
resulting from wearers of high-heeled shoes tripping over irregular
pavement (caused by tree roots pushing up). Permits are available
without charge at City Hall. While the local police do not cite
those in violation of the ordinance, a person wishing to sue for
damages from tripping while wearing such shoes is precluded from
doing so unless a permit had previously been obtained.
Another unusual law, forbidding selling and eating ice cream on
public streets, was a focal point of Clint Eastwood's campaign for
mayor. He, and the new council elected along with him, overturned
the ordinance and other similar laws that they considered to be too
restrictive of businesses.
Carmel Pine Cone
- See also: Media in
The Carmel Pine Cone is the town's weekly newspaper and
has been published since 1915, covering local news, politics, arts,
entertainment, opinions and real estate. The newspaper also has a
section called The Police Log that contains almost every report of
a crime in the Carmel area, often read with a quaint twist of humor
by readers since the contents of the log are fairly innocuous.
Veteran CBS and NBC network news producer Paul Miller became
publisher in 1997. In 2005, after failing to convince city
officials to rezone a potential site for the Pine Cone's operation,
he moved the paper's production offices to Pacific Grove, while
maintaining a reduced news staff in downtown Carmel. In 2007, the
paper began offering an Adobe Acrobat (*.PDF) version of its
complete newspaper on the internet.
- Ansel Adams, photographer
- Jennifer Aniston, actress
- Gus Arriola, cartoonist
- Jean Arthur, actress
- Mary Austin, novelist
- Barbara Babcock, actress
- Eric Berne, psychiatrist
- Gelett Burgess, humorist,
- Beverly Cleary, author
- Roy Chapman Andrews,
naturalist and explorer
- Jerry Colangelo, head of U.S.A.
- Doris Day, actress, singer
- Eldon Dedini, cartoonist
- Clint Eastwood, actor, director
and former mayor of Carmel
- James Ellroy, author
- Sam Farr, US Congressman
- Charlie Fern, former White House
- Joan Fontaine, actress
- Percy Gray, painter
- Harvey Hancock, campaign manager
for Richard Nixon 1949–1952
- Robert A. Heinlein, author
- Peter Hemming, photojounalist
- Reggie Jackson, Hall of Fame
- Robinson Jeffers, poet
- Hank Ketcham, cartoonist
- Sinclair Lewis, novelist
- Jack London, novelist
- Carrie Lucas, R&B singer
- John Madden, sports
- Xavier Martinez, painter
- Rupert Murdoch, businessman
- Patrick McGoohan, actor
- Stephen Moorer, founder/actor
with Pacific Repertory
- Kim Novak, actress
- Brad Pitt, actor
- Jeannette Rankin, first U.S.
- Ira Remsen, chemist
- William Ritschel, painter
- Esther Rose, artist
- Dick Sargent, actor
- Eric Schlosser, writer
- Charles Schwab, businessman
- Upton Sinclair, novelist and
- George Sterling, poet
- Nora May French, poet, committed
suicide in George Sterling's
- Robert Louis Stevenson,
- Rick Still, radio personality
- Joseph Stilwell, U.S. Army
- Rodney Allen Walker, Founder
of Carmel University and first president of Carmel University
- Edward Weston, photographer
- Charis Wilson (Weston), writer,
subject of Edward Weston's nude
- Betty White, actress
- Steven Whyte, sculptor
- Fred Wolf, comedian, writer
Geography and climate
The beach on a foggy afternoon at
Carmel-by-the-Sea experiences a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate
classification Csb). Moderately cool year-round, it
often has foggy mornings and clear afternoons.
- Barbara J. Klein ,The Carmel Monterey Peninsula Art Colony: A
History, accessed at http://www.tfaoi.com/aa/5aa/5aa300.htm
- Harold and Ann Gilliam, Creating Carmel, The Enduring Vision,
Peregrine Smith Books, 1992
- Monica Hudson,Carmel-By-The-Sea, Arcadia Publishing, 2006
- Clarkson, Philip B. "Carmel Shakes-Peare Festival". Shakespeare
companies and festivals, pp. 28–31 (Eds. Ron Engle, Felicia
Hardison Londré and Daniel J. Watermeier). Greenwood Publishing
Group, 1995 ISBN 0313274347
- "Pacific Repertory Theatre", Theatre Bay Area
website, accessed July 23, 2009
- Community Foundation for Monterey County. Grants
Repertory Theatre official website
- Harold and Ann Gilliam, Creating Carmel, The Enduring Vision,
pg 89-90, Peregrine Smith Books, 1992
- Carmel Bach Festival. Press information. Historical Overview.
- Animal control information
- Carmel Pine Cone. Archive
- More Magnificent Mountain Movies, By W. Lee Cozad,Published by
W. Lee Cozad, ISBN 0972337237, 9780972337236, page 352
- Earl Warren Oral History Project. 1975. Amelia Fry interviews John Dinkelspiel, Frank Jorgensen
and Roy Day. Retrieved on July 15, 2009.
- Chicago Tribune Obituary, "Girl Writer Tires of Life," 1907.
- Wildcat Hill page from the official Weston Family Web
- Carmel-by-the-Sea City Council Resolution no. 98, 1929
- Carmel-by-the-Sea Municipal Code Chapter 8.44 Permits For
Wearing Certain Shoes
- Helen Spangenberg, Yesterday's Artists on the Monterey
Peninsula, published by the Monterey Peninsula museum of Art
- Herbert B. Blanks, Carmel-by-the-Sea, yesterday, Today and
- John Ryan, Kay Ransom et al., City of
Carmel-by-the-Sea General Plan
prepared for the town of Carmel-by-the-Sea, Clint Eastwood, Mayor, by Earth Metrics
Inc.,San Mateo, Ca. pursuant to requirements of the State of
- Kay Ransom et al., Environmental Impact Report for
the Carmel-by-the-Sea General Plan, Prepared for the town of
Carmel-by-the-Sea by Earth Metrics Inc., Burlingame, Ca.
- Marjory Lloyd, History of Carmel (1542-1966),
- Seismic Safety Element of the General Plans of Carmel, Del
Rey Oaks, Monterey, Pacific Grove and Seaside, William Spangle
& Associates, 29 September, 1975