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The Catholic sex abuse cases were a series of scandals in various countries that surfaced in the late 20th and early 21st century regarding abuse and alleged abuse of minors under the age of 18 by certain Roman Catholic clergy. The scandals covered events over a period ranging from the middle to late 20th century. Incidents and alleged incidents involved parish priests under diocesan control and members of Roman Catholic religious orders.

Progressive discovery of the problem

The issue of sexual abuse by Catholic priests rose to US national attention in 1985 when Gilbert Gauthe plead guilty to 11 counts of molestation of boys. In the 1990s, the issue was again brought to the national attention when a number of books on the topic were published. However, it was not until early 2002 that the Boston Globe coverage of a series of criminal prosecutions of five Roman Catholic priests thrust the issue of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic priests into the national limelight on an ongoing basis. The coverage of these cases encouraged other victims to come forward with their allegations of abuse resulting in more lawsuits and criminal cases.

Ultimately, it became clear that, over several decades in the 20th century, some priests and lay members of religious orders in the Catholic Church had sexually abused minors (those under 18) on a scale such that the accusations eventually reached into the thousands. Although the majority of cases were reported to have occurred in the United States, victims have come forward in other nations such as Ireland, Canada and Australia.A major aggravating factor was the actions of Catholic bishops in responding to allegations of clerical abuse. It was revealed that some bishops had facilitated compensation payments to alleged victims on condition that the allegations remained secret. In addition, rather than being dismissed, the accused were often instructed to undergo psychological counseling and, on completion of counseling, reassigned to other parishes where, in some cases, they continued to abuse minors.

In response to these allegations, both ecclesiastical and civil authorities have implemented procedures to prevent sexual abuse of minors by clergy and to report and punish it if and when it occurs.

Awareness of the problem

Some date the current sexual abuse scandal to an article published in the National Catholic Reporter in 1985. The topic became the focus of intense scrutiny and debate after the Boston Globe published a series of articles covering cases of sexual abuse.

Global extent

Approximately 80% of the priests involved in sexual abuse of minors were located in the United States.(4,392 priests, as Church's estimate that no more than 5,000 priests worldwide) Although allegations of clergy sexual abuse have surfaced in several countries around the world, there have been no comprehensive studies which compare the relative incidence of sexual abuse in different areas. However, there is a general perception that the issue has been most prominent in the United States, and then in Australia, Canada and Ireland.

Number of allegations

The number of alleged abuses increased in the 1960s, peaked in the 1970s, declined in the 1980s and by the 1990s had returned to the levels of the 1950s.

Of the 11,000 allegations reported by bishops in the John Jay study, 3300 were not investigated because the allegations were made after the accused priest had died. 6700 allegations were substantiated, leaving 1000 which could not be substantiated.

According to the John Jay report, one-third of the accusations were made in the years 2002-3. Another third of the allegations were reported between 1993 and 2001.

Profile of the victims

An overwhelming majority of the victims, 81 percent, were males. A majority of the victims were post-pubescent adolescents with a small percentage of the priests accused of abusing children who had not reached puberty.

The John Jay Report determined that just under 6% of victims were 7 years of age or younger. 16% of the victims were between age 8 and age 10.

Some sources have asserted that most of the victims were between the ages of 16 and 17, making the sexual abuse instances of hebephilia rather than pedophilia. These sources argue that, by failing to make this distinction, the media has fostered a misconception of the problem. The vast majority of the victims (78%) were between age 11 and age 17. Only 15 percent of the victims were 16 to 17 years of age; 51 percent were between the ages of 11 and 14.

Profile of the abusers

Half the priests were 35 years of age or younger at the time of the first instance of alleged abuse. Fewer than 7 percent of the priests were reported to have experienced physical, sexual or emotional abuse as children. Although 19 percent of the accused priests had alcohol or substance abuse problems, only 9 percent used drugs or alcohol during the alleged instances of abuse. Almost 70 percent of the abusive priests were ordained before 1970, after attending pre-Vatican II seminaries or seminaries that had had little time to adapt to the reforms of Vatican II.

Of the priests who were accused of sexual abuse, 59% were accused of a single allegation. 41% of the priests were the subject of more than one allegation. Just under 3% of the priests were the subject of ten or more allegations. The 149 priests who had more than 10 allegations against them accounted for 2,960 of the total number of allegations.

Response of the Church

The Catholic Church responded to the scandal at three levels: the diocesan level, the episcopal conference level and the Vatican. Responses to the scandal proceeded at all three levels in parallel with the higher levels becoming progressively more involved as the gravity of the problem became more apparent.

Before the Boston Globe coverage of the sexual abuse scandal in the Boston archdiocese, handling of sexual abuse allegations was largely left up to the discretion of individual bishops. After the number of allegations exploded following the Globe's series of articles, U.S. bishops felt compelled to formulate a coordinated response at the episcopal conference level.

Although the Vatican did not respond immediately to the series of articles published by the Boston Globe in 2002, it has been reported that Vatican officials were, in fact, monitoring the situation in the U.S. closely. Over time, it became more apparent that the problem warranted greater Vatican involvement.

Diocesan responses to the problem

Section: #Resignations, retirements and defrockings

For the most part, responding to allegations of sexual abuse in a diocese was left to the jurisdiction of the bishop or archbishop. Many of the accused priests were forced to resign or were defrocked. In addition, several bishops who had participated in the cover-up were also forced to resign or retire.

The dioceses in which abuse was committed or in which abuse allegations were settled out of court found it necessary to make financial settlements with the victims totaling over $1.5 billion as of March 2006. The number and size of these settlements made it necessary for the dioceses to reduce their ordinary operating expenses by closing churches and schools. Several dioceses chose to declare chapter 11 bankruptcy as a way to litigate settlements while protecting some church assets to insure it continues to operate.

Initial response of the Vatican

On April 30, 2001, John Paul II, issued a letter stating that "a sin against the Sixth Commandment of the Decalogue by a cleric with a minor under 18 years of age is to be considered a grave sin, or 'delictum gravius.'"

John F. Allen Jr., Vatican correspondent for the National Catholic Reporter, has commented that many American Catholics saw the Vatican’s initial silence on the Boston Globe stories as showing a lack of concern or awareness about the issue. However, Allen said that, he doesn't know anyone in the Roman Curia, who was not, in the least, horrified "by the revelations that came out of the Globe and elsewhere" or "would defend Cardinal Law’s handling of the cases in Boston" or "would defend the rather shocking lack of oversight that revealed itself" though "they might have different analyses of what should have happened to him". Allen described the Vatican's perspective as being somewhat skeptical of the media handling of the scandal. In addition, he asserted that the Vatican viewed American cultural attitudes toward sexuality as being somewhat hysterical as well as exhibiting a lack of understanding of the Catholic Church.
No one [in the Vatican] thinks the sexual abuse of kids is unique to the States, but they do think that the reporting on it is uniquely American, fueled by anti-Catholicism and shyster lawyers hustling to tap the deep pockets of the church. And that thinking is tied to the larger perception about American culture, which is that there is a hysteria when it comes to anything sexual, and an incomprehension of the Catholic Church. What that means is that Vatican officials are slower to make the kinds of public statements that most American Catholics want, and when they do make them they are tentative and halfhearted. It's not that they don't feel bad for the victims, but they think the clamor for them to apologize is fed by other factors that they don't want to capitulate to.


Relations between the Vatican and American Catholics

According to John Allen Jr., Vatican correspondent for the National Catholic Reporter, cultural differences between the Vatican and American Catholics complicated the process of formulating a comprehensive response to the sexual abuse scandal. Allen asserted that the sexual abuse crisis illustrated that "there is a lot about the American culture and the American Church that puzzles people in the Vatican, and there is much about the Vatican that puzzles Americans and English speakers generally."

Response of the US Conference of Catholic Bishops

As the breadth and depth of the scandals became apparent in dioceses across the United States, it became apparent to the American bishops that a joint response was warranted at the episcopal conference level. John F. Allen Jr. characterized the reaction of the USCCB as calling for “swift, sure and final punishment for priests who are guilty of this kind of misconduct.” In contrast to this, Allen characterized the Vatican's primary concern as wanting to make sure “that everyone’s rights are respected, including the rights of accused clergy" and wanting to affirm that it is not acceptable to "remedy the injustice of sexual abuse with the injustice of railroading priests who may or may not be guilty.”

In June 2002, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) unanimously approved a Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People that pledged the Catholic Church in the U.S. to providing a "safe environment" for all children in Church-sponsored activities The thrust of the charter was the adoption of a "zero tolerance" policy for sexual abuse. The USCCB instituted reforms to prevent future abuse by requiring background checks for Church employees. They now require dioceses faced with an allegation to alert the authorities, conduct an investigation and remove the accused from duty.

A study conducted by Georgetown University Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA) in 2006 found that, although many Catholics are unaware of the specific steps that the church as taken, when informed of them, large majorities approve these actions. 78 percent strongly approved of reporting allegations of sexual abuse by clergy to civil authorities and cooperating in civil investigations. 76 percent strongly approved of removing from ministry people credibly accused of sexual abuse of a minor.

While the Church in the United States claims to have addressed the issue, some disagree. In 2005, Dr. Kathleen McChesney of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops said that the crisis was not yet over because hundreds of victims across the country were still reporting past episodes of abuse. She said: "In 2004, at least 1,092 allegations of sexual abuse were made against at least 756 Catholic priests and deacons in the United States. Most of the alleged incidents occurred between 1965 and 1974. What is over is the denial that this problem exists, and what is over is the reluctance of the Church to deal openly with the public about the nature and extent of the problem."

John Jay study

In June 2002 the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops met in Dallas and approved the Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People. The Charter created a National Review Board, which was assigned responsibility to commission a descriptive study, with the full cooperation of the dioceses/eparchies, of the nature and scope of the problem of sexual abuse of minors by clergy. The National Review Board engaged the John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York to conduct a study analyzing allegations of sexual abuse in Catholic dioceses in United States. The time period covered by the John Jay study began in 1950 and ended in 2002. The product of the study was a report to the National Review Board titled "The Nature and Scope of the Problem of Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests and Deacons in the United States" and commonly referred to as the "John Jay Report".

Prevalence of the problem

The John Jay report indicated that some 11,000 allegations had been made against 4,392 priests in the USA. This number constituted approximately 4% of the 110,000 priests who had served during the period covered by the survey (1950-2002).The report found that, over the 52-year period covered by the study, "the problem was indeed widespread and affected more than 95 percent of the dioceses and approximately 60 percent of religious communities."

In 2008, the Church asserted that the scandal was a very serious problem but, at the same time, estimated that it was "probably caused by 'no more than 1 per cent' (or 5,000) of the over 500,000 Roman Catholic priests worldwide.

2003 Vatican Conference on Sexual Abuse

In April 2003, the Pontifical Academy for Life organized a three-day conference, entitled "Abuse of Children and Young People by Catholic Priests and Religious", where eight non-Catholic psychiatric experts were invited to speak to near all Vatican dicasteries' representatives. The panel of experts identified the following factors contributing to the sexual abuse problem:
  • Failure by the hierarchy to grasp the seriousness of the problem.
  • Overemphasis on the need to avoid a scandal.
  • Use of unqualified treatment centers.
  • Misguided willingness to forgive.
  • Insufficient accountability.


Diocesan awareness of the problem

In response to criticism that the Catholic hierarchy should have acted more quickly and decisively to remove, laicise and report priests accused of sexual misconduct, contemporary bishops have responded that the hierarchy was unaware until recent years of the danger in shuffling priests from one parish to another and in concealing the priests' problems from those they served. For example, Cardinal Roger Mahony of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, said: "We have said repeatedly that ... our understanding of this problem and the way it's dealt with today evolved, and that in those years ago, decades ago, people didn't realize how serious this was, and so, rather than pulling people out of ministry directly and fully, they were moved."

Diocesan response to allegations of sexual abuse

Some bishops have been heavily criticized for moving offending priests from parish to parish, where they still had personal contact with children, rather than seeking to have them permanently removed from the priesthood by defrocking. The Church was widely criticized when it was discovered that some bishops knew about some of the alleged crimes committed, but reassigned the accused instead of seeking to have them permanently removed from the priesthood. For example, John Geoghan was shifted from one parish to another although Cardinal Bernard Law had been informed of Geoghan's sexual misconduct on a number of occasions.

Similar to this practice, some have pointed out that public school administrators engaged in a likewise manner when dealing with accused teachers, as did the Boy Scouts of America.

Instead of reporting the incidents to police, many dioceses directed the offending priests to seek psychological treatment and assessment. According to the John Jay report, nearly 40 percent of priests alleged to have committed sexual abuse participated in treatment programs. The more allegations a priest had, the more likely he was to participate in treatment. From a legal perspective, the most serious criticism aside from the incidents of child sexual abuse themselves was by the bishops, who failed to report accusations to the police. In response to the failure to report abuse to the police, lawmakers have changed the law to make reporting of abuse to police compulsory. In 2002, Massachusettsmarker passed a law requiring religious officials to report the abuse of children.

In response to these allegations, defenders of the Church's actions have suggested that in re-assigning priests after treatment, bishops were acting on the best medical advice then available, a policy also followed by the US public school system when dealing with accused teachers.Some bishops and psychiatrists have asserted that the prevailing psychology of the times suggested that people could be cured of such behavior through counseling. Many of the abusive priests had received counseling before being reassigned. Critics have questioned whether bishops are necessarily able to form accurate judgments on a priest's recovery. The priests were allowed to resume their previous duties with children only when the bishop was advised by the treating psychologists or psychiatrists that it was safe for them to resume their duties.

According to the John Jay study, 3 percent of all priests against whom allegations were made were convicted and about 2 percent received prison sentences."

UN human rights council in Geneva

In a statement, read out by Archbishop Silvano Maria Tomasi at a meeting of the UN human rights council in Geneva on 22 September 2009, the Holy See stated that the majority of Catholic clergy who had committed acts of sexual abuse against under 18 year olds should not be viewed as paedophiles but homosexuals who are attracted to sex with adolescent males.

The statement said that rather than pedophilia, it would "be more correct" to speak of ephebophilia; being a homosexual attraction to adolescent males ....... "Of all priests involved in the abuses, 80 to 90% belong to this sexual orientation minority which is sexually engaged with adolescent boys between the ages of 11 and 17."

The move angered many gay rights organisations, who claimed it was an attempt by the vatican to redefine the Church's past problems with pedophilia as problems with homosexuality.

Media coverage and public opinion

Differing perspectives and misconceptions contributed to negative public opinion in the U.S. towards the what was perceived as the failure of the Catholic hierarchy to respond adequately to allegations of sexual abuse and the seemingly sluggish response of the Vatican to the unfolding scandal. Some sources argue that the negative public opinion was fueled in part by statements made to the media by various parties with differing agendas including lawyers for those suing the Church for damages resulting the alleged sexual abuse. As the public furor over the scandal grew, some members of the Catholic Church began to see an anti-Catholic agenda behind some of these pronouncements.

Criticism of media coverage by Catholics and others centred on an excessive focus being placed on Catholic incidences of abuse. Such voices argue that equal or greater levels of child sexual abuse in other religious groups or in secular contexts such as the US public school system have been either ignored or given minimal coverage by mainstream media. Commentator Tom Hoopes wrote:
during the first half of 2002, the 61 largest newspapers in California ran nearly 2,000 stories about sexual abuse in Catholic institutions, mostly concerning past allegations. During the same period, those newspapers ran four stories about the federal government’s discovery of the much larger — and ongoing — abuse scandal in public schools. Anglican writer Philip Jenkins supported many of these arguments stating that media coverage of the abuse story had become "..a gross efflorescence of anti-catholic rhetoric."

Response of the Vatican

Sections: #Pope Benedict's apology, #Response of Pope Benedict

In 2003, Pope John Paul II stated that "there is no place in the priesthood and religious life for those who would harm the young".

In addition, Pope Benedict XVI has apologized for the sexual abuse of minors by Catholic clergy and pledged that pedophiles would not be allowed to become priests in the Catholic Church.

New rules regarding ordination

Because a significant majority of victims were teenage boys, the Vatican instituted reforms to prevent future United States abuse by requiring background checks for Church employees and issued new rules disallowing ordination of men with "deep–seated homosexual tendencies". They now require dioceses faced with an allegation to alert the authorities, conduct an investigation and remove the accused from duty.

Crimen Sollicitationis controversy

In 2003, a 1962 document was discovered in the Vatican's archives, titled "Crimen sollicitationis" (Instruction on the Manner of Proceeding in Cases of Solicitation) written by Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, the Secretary of the Holy Office, issued an instruction regarding the disciplinary procedures for dealing with solicitation of penitents for sex by priests during the Sacrament of Penance. The document dealt with any priest who "tempts a penitent... in the act of sacramental confession... towards impure or obscene matters." It directed that investigation of allegations of solicitation in the confessional and the trials of accused priests be conducted in secrecy.

Some parties interpreted the document to be a directive from the Vatican to keep all allegations of sexual abuse secret, leading to widespread media coverage of its contents. Lawyers for some of those making abuse allegations claimed that the document demonstrated a systematic conspiracy to conceal such crimes. The Vatican responded that the document was not only widely misinterpreted, but moreover had been superseded by more recent guidelines in the 1960s and 1970s, and especially the 1983 Code of Canon Law.

Sex abuse cases by country

Argentina

Julio Grassi was found guilty (by a three-judge panel of the Criminal Court Oral 1 Morón) of one count of sexual abuse and one count of corrupting a minor in the “Happy Children’s Foundation” and sentenced to 15 years in prison as the third member of the Roman Catholic Church in Argentina to be convicted of sexually abusing minors.. Prosecutors said they were considering an appeal on behalf of the two plaintiffs whose sexual abuse accusations were dropped. Father Grassi maintained his plea of innocence of the charge and promised to appeal.

Australia

Main: Catholic sexual abuse in Australia and Sexual abuse in archdiocese of Melbourne

Pope Benedict's apology

On July 19, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI made a historic full apology for child sex abuse by priests and clergymen in Australia. Before a 3,400 congregation assembled in Sydney's St. Mary's Cathedralmarker, In Sydney's St. Mary's Cathedralmarker, Pope Benedict called for compensation and demanded punishment for those guilty of the "evil":

"Here I would like to pause to acknowledge the shame which we have all felt as a result of the sexual abuse of minors by some clergy and religious in this country. I am deeply sorry for the pain and suffering the victims have endured and I assure them that, as their pastor, I too share in their suffering. ... Victims should receive compassion and care, and those responsible for these evils must be brought to justice. These misdeeds, which constitute so grave a betrayal of trust, deserve unequivocal condemnation. I ask all of you to support and assist your bishops, and to work together with them in combating this evil. It is an urgent priority to promote a safer and more wholesome environment, especially for young people."


On July 21, he met with two male and two female victims of sex abuse by priests, listened to their stories and celebrated Mass with them.The Australian.2008 [online]. [Accessed 21 July 2008]. Available from World Wide Web:/www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,24049778-601,00.html> The Premier of New South Wales Morris Iemma said "Hopefully it will be a sign of righting the wrongs of the past and of a better future and better treatment by the church of the victims and their families." The victims' rights advocacy group Broken Rites welcomed the Pope's apology, but expressed disappointment that the Pope had not made his apology directly to sexual abuse victims and criticized the selection of the victims as having been hand-picked to be cooperative.
"I'm afraid that what they've done is selected victims who have agreed with what the Church's policies are. The Pope should have met with Anthony Foster, the father of two girls abused by a priest, who cut short a holiday in Britain to return to Australia in the hope of meeting the pontiff."


Austria

Cardinal Hans Hermann Groër resigned from his post as Archbishop of Vienna over allegations of sexual abuse in 1995.

Canada

In 1988, there were allegations of widespread abuse of children at the Mount Cashel Orphanagemarker in Newfoundlandmarker. The religious order that ran the orphanage filed for bankruptcy in the face of numerous lawsuits. Since the Mount Cashel scandal erupted, a number of priests across the country have been accused of sexual abuse. In 1992, the Canadian Catholic bishops unveiled tough guidelines - calling for "responding fairly and openly" to all allegations, stressing the need to "respect" the jurisdiction of outside authorities, and recommending counselling and compassion for the victims.

In February 2009, the Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador ruled that the Roman Catholic Church in St. John’s was responsible ("vicariously liable") for the sexual abuse of eight former altar boys by disgraced priest, Reverend James Hickey.

The Christian Brothers have paid out approximately $35 million (Canadian) in compensation.

Ireland

One of the best known cases of sex abuse in Irelandmarker involved Brendan Smyth, who, between 1945 and 1989, sexually abused and indecently assaulted twenty children in parishes in Belfastmarker, Dublinmarker and the United Statesmarker. The investigation of the Smyth case was allegedly obstructed by the Norbertine Order.

Ferns Report

The Ferns Inquiry was an official Irish government inquiry into the allegations of clerical sexual abuse in the Irish Roman Catholic Diocese of Ferns. The Inquiry recorded its revulsion at the extent, severity and duration of the child sexual abuse allegedly perpetrated on children by priests acting under the aegis of the Diocese of Ferns. The investigation was established in the wake of the broadcast of a BBC Television documentary "Suing the Pope", which highlighted the case of Seán Fortune, one of the most notorious clerical sexual offenders. O'Gorman, through One in Four, the organization he founded to support women and men who have experienced sexual violence, successfully campaigned for the Ferns Inquiry.

Irish Child Abuse Commission 2009

A lengthy report detailing cases of emotional, physical and sexual abuse of hundreds of children over 70 years was published on 20 May 2009. Ireland's national police force announced that they would study the report to see if it provided any new evidence for prosecuting clerics for assault, rape or other criminal offenses. The report, however, did not identify any of the alleged abusers by name because of a right-to-privacy lawsuit by the Christian Brothers order. Dublin Archbishop Diarmuid Martin slammed Irish Catholic orders for concealing their culpability in decades of child abuse and asserted that much more money would be needed to compensate victims..

"Ashamed by the extent, length, and cruelty" of child abuse, Ireland's Prime Minister Brian Cowen apologized to victims for the government's failure to intervene in endemic sexual abuse and severe beatings in schools for much of the 20th century. He also promised to reform the Ireland's social services for children in line with the recommendations of the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse report.

Further motions to start criminal investigation against members of Roman Catholic religious orders in Ireland were made by Irish President Mary McAleese and Prime Minister Cowen.

Report by Commission of Investigation into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin

In November 2009, an independent report commissioned by the Irish government investigated the way in which the church dealt with allegations of sexual abuse of children by priests over the period 1975 to 2004. It concluded that "the Dublin Archdiocese‟s pre-occupations in dealing with cases of child sexual abuse, at least until the mid 1990s, were the maintenance of secrecy, the avoidance of scandal, the protection of the reputation of the Church, and the preservation of its assets. All other considerations, including the welfare of children and justice for victims, were subordinated to these priorities. The Archdiocese did not implement its own canon law rules and did its best to avoid any application of the law of the State".

United States

Public discourse on sexual abuse in the United States had been muted until the 1990s when a series of books on the topic was published. Even then, it was not until early 2002 that the Boston Globe coverage of a series of criminal prosecutions of five Roman Catholic priests thrust the issue of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic priests into the national limelight. The coverage of these cases encouraged other victims to come forward with their allegations of abuse resulting in more lawsuits and criminal cases.

As it became clear that there was truth to many of the allegations and that there was a pattern of sexual abuse and alleged cover-up in a number of large dioceses across the USA, what had originally appeared to be a few isolated cases of abuse grew into a nationwide scandal, resulting in a crisis for the Catholic Church in the United States. The publicity may have encouraged victims in other nations to come forward with their allegations of abuse, thus appearing to spread the crisis.

Ultimately, it became clear that, over several decades in the 20th century, that some priests and lay members of religious orders in the Catholic Church had sexually abused minors (those under 18) on a scale such that the accusations reached into the thousands. Although the majority of cases were reported to have occurred in the United States, victims have come forward in other nations such as Ireland, Canada and Australia. A major aggravating factor was the actions of Catholic bishops to keep these allegations secret and to reassign the accused to other parishes in positions where they often had continued unsupervised contact with youth, allowing them opportunities to continue abusing minors.

Many of the accused priests and several bishops who had participated in the alleged cover-up were forced to resign or were defrocked. Several dioceses made financial settlements with the victims totaling over 1 billion dollars, which had a significant impact on their finances, resulting closure of schools and parishes for many of them to raise the funds to make payments.

Guido's study

Rev. Joseph J. Guido, a psychology professor at Providence Collegemarker, surveyed superiors of a Catholic religious order and found that 83 percent of the North American superiors reported being aware of an accusation of sexual abuse against one or more of their priests. In contrast, 43 percent of superiors in America and the Caribbean reported being aware of such an accusation. Only one-third of the superiors in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. In America magazine, a Jesuit weekly, Guido wrote that research suggests ... that the sexual abuse of children is a problem for the church everywhere." However, he wrote that, outside North America, the religious order superiors were more likely to be aware of sexual misconduct by priests with adults, rather than with minors.

John Jay Report

Section: #Nature of the problem for details


In 2004, The John Jay Report commissioned by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops was based on surveys completed by the Roman Catholic dioceses in the United States. The Report determined that, during the period from 1950-2002, a total of 10,667 individuals had made allegations of child sexual abuse. Of these, the dioceses had been able to substantiate 6700 accusations against 4,392 priests in the USA, about 4% of all 109,694 priests who served during the time period covered by the study. The number of alleged abuses increased in the 1960s, peaked in the 1970s, declined in the 1980s and by the 1990s had returned to the levels of the 1950s. The surveys filtered provided information from diocesan files on each priest accused of sexual abuse and on each of the priest's victims, to the research team so that they did not have access to the names of the accused priests or the dioceses where they worked. The dioceses were encouraged to issue reports of their own based on the surveys that they had completed. Of the 4392 priests who were accused, police were contacted regarding 1021 individuals and of these, 384 were charged resulting in 252 convictions and 100 prison sentences, 3300 were not investigated because the allegations were made after the accused priest had died. Thus, 6% of all priests against whom allegations were made were convicted and about 2% received prison sentences to date. According to the John Jay report, one-third of the accusations were made in the years 2002-3. Another third of the allegations were reported between 1993 and 2001.

Legal cases and effects

Immunity requests
William McMurry, a Louisville, Kentuckymarker lawyer, filed suit against the Vatican in June 2004 on behalf of three men alleging abuse as far back as 1928, accusing Church leaders of organizing a cover-up of cases of sexual abuse of children. In November, 2008, the United States Court of Appeals in Cincinnati denied the Vatican's claim of sovereign immunity and allowed the case to proceed. The Vatican did not appeal the ruling.

However, when Pope Benedict was personally accused in a lawsuit of conspiring to cover up the molestation of three boys in Texas, he sought and obtained diplomatic immunity from prosecution. Some have claimed that this immunity was granted after intervention by then US President George W. Bush. The Department of State "recognize[d] and allow[ed] the immunity of Pope Benedict XVI from this suit."

Compensation payments, bankruptcies and closures
According to Donald Cozzens, "by the end of the mid 1990s, it was estimated that ...more than half a billion dollars had been paid in jury awards, settlement and legal fees." This figure grew to about one billion dollars by 2002. Roman Catholics spent $615 million on sex abuse cases in 2007.

The multi-million dollar payouts to victims, 1 billion dollar in total, have had a significant impact on the finances of many dioceses. Many of them have had to close schools and parishes in order to raise the funds to make these payments.

At least six U.S. dioceses sought bankruptcy protection. In some cases, the dioceses filed bankruptcy just before civil suits against them were about to go to trial. This had the effect of mandating that pending and future lawsuits be settled in bankruptcy court.

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Resignations, retirements and defrockings
Many of the accused priests were forced to resign or were defrocked. In addition, several bishops who had participated in the cover upwere also forced to resign or retire.

Bernard Francis Law, Cardinal and Archbishop of Bostonmarker, Massachusettsmarker, United Statesmarker resigned after Church documents were revealed which suggested he had covered up sexual abuse committed by priests in his archdiocese.December 13, 2002 Pope John Paul II accepted Law's resignation as Archbishop and reassigned him to an administrative position in the Roman Curia naming him archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggioremarker and he presided at one of the Pope's funeral masses.Law's successor, Bishop Séan P.O'Malleyof Capuchin friarfound it necessary to sell substantial real estate properties and close a number of churches in order to pay the $120 million in claims against the archdiocese.

Two bishops of Palm Beach, Florida, resigned due to child abuse allegations, resigned bishop Joseph Keith Symons was replaced by Anthony O'Connell, who later also resigned in 2002.

Prevention efforts
In 2002, the U.S. church claimed to adopt a "zero tolerance" policy for sexual abuse.

By 2008, the U.S. church had trained 5.8 million children to recognize and report abuse. It had run criminal checks on 1.53 million volunteers and employees, 162,700 educators, 51,000 clerics and 4,955 candidates for ordination. It had trained 1.8 million clergy, employees and volunteers in creating a safe environment for children.

Response of Pope Benedict
During a recent visit to the United States Pope Benedictadmitted that he is "deeply ashamed" of the clergy sex abuse scandal that has devastated the American church. Benedict pledged that they would not be priests in the Roman Catholic Church.

Catholic sex abuse cases by orders

As distinct from abuse by some parish priests, under diocesan control, there have also been sexual abuse cases concerning those in Roman Catholic orders, which often care for the sick or teach school.

Debate over the causes of the sexual abuse

Seminary training

Clergy themselves have suggested their seminarytraining offered little to prepare them for a lifetime of celibate sexuality. Rome's Congregation for Catholic Educationissued an official document, the Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders(2005). The document has attracted criticism based on an interpretation that the document implies that homosexualityleads to pedophilia.

Declining standards explanation

In the book, The Courage To Be Catholic: Crisis, Reform, and the Future of the Church, George Weigelholds that it was the infidelity to orthodox Roman Catholic teaching, the "culture of dissent", which was mainly responsible for this problem. By "culture of dissent" he meant priests, women religious, bishops, theologians, catechists, Church bureaucrats, and activists who "believed that what the Church proposed as true was actually false."

Ultra-conservative Roman Catholics have made the charge that the Second Vatican Councilitself (1962–1965) fostered a climate that encouraged priests to abuse children. The council essentially directed an opening of the doors to meet the world. However traditional Roman Catholics believe that this led to a conversion of Roman Catholics to secularism rather than vice versa. In the January 27, 2003 edition of Timemagazine, actorand ultra-conservative Roman Catholic Mel Gibsoncharged that "...Vatican II corrupted the institution of the church. Look at the main fruits: dwindling numbers and pedophilia." Others respond that abuse by priests was occurring long before the start of Vatican II and that many of the Roman Catholic sex abuse cases did not, strictly speaking, involve pedophilia.

Cardinal Theodore E. McCarrick, retired Archbishop of Washington, blamed the declining morals of the late 20th century as a cause of the high number of sexually abusive priests. Other assert that the increased reporting of abuse in child-care institutions during this time was concomitant with rising police interest, investigation and prosecution of such crimes. As such it is not certain that a sudden "crisis of abuse" ever existed, instead the dramatic increase in reported abuse cases may simply have heralded the end of a long-term endemic problem found throughout a number of institutions, both secular and religious, prior to the introduction of quality control measures specifically aimed at preventing such abuses from occurring.

Philip Jenkins claims that the Roman Catholic Church is being unfairly singled out by a secular media which he claims fails to highlight similar sexual accusations in other religious groups, such as the Anglican Communion, Islamand Judaism, and various Protestantchurches, communities.Jenkins later authored the book The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudicein 2003, touching on some of the same issues. Similar experiences are described in e.g. scouting sex abuse casesand Jehovah's Witnesses and child sex abuse.

Supply and demand explanation

It has been argued that the shortage of priestsin North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. caused the Roman Catholic hierarchy to act in such a way to preserve the number of clergy and ensure that sufficient numbers were available to serve the congregation despite serious allegations that these priests were unfit for duty.

Others disagree and assert that the Church hierarchy's mishandling of the sex abuse cases merely reflected their prevailing attitude at the time towards any illegal or immoral activity by clergy.

Celibacy explanation

A 2005 article in the Western People, a conservative Irishmarker newspaper proposed that clerical celibacy contributed to the abuse problem by suggesting that the institution of celibacy has created a "morally superior" status that is easily misapplied by abusive priests.According to this paper, "The Irish Church’s prospect of a recovery is zero for as long as bishops continue blindly to toe the Vatican line of Pope Benedict XVI that a male celibate priesthood is morally superior to other sections of society."

Sexual scandals among priests, the defenders say, are a breach of the Church's discipline, not a result of it, especially since only a small percentage of priests have been implicated. Furthermore there is no data supporting a higher rate of child-oriented sexual activity among the unmarried Roman Catholic clergy than that of the married clergy of other denominations and of schoolteachers.. However, for those cases for which data is available, molestation of pre-pubescent children was found to be rare. Consequently opinion remains divided on whether there is any definite link or connection between the Roman Catholic institution of celibacy and incidences of child abuse by Catholic clergy.

Advocacy for mandatory celibacy

Philip Jenkinsasserts that his "research of cases over the past 20 years indicates no evidence whatever that Catholic or other celibate clergy are any more likely to be involved in misconduct or abuse than clergy of any other denomination—or indeed, than non-clergy. However determined news media may be to see this affair as a crisis of celibacy, the charge is just unsupported." Both supporters and many detractors of clerical celibacystate that Roman Catholic priests suffering sexual temptations are not likely to turn immediately to children simply because Church discipline does not permit clergy to marry.

Abuse in literature and films

Publications

A number of books have been written, see List of books portraying pedophilia or sexual abuse of minors, about the abuse suffered from priests and nuns including Andrew Madden in Altar Boy: A Story of Life After Abuse, Carolyn Lehman's Strong at the Heart: How it feels to heal from sexual abuseand the bestselling Kathy's Storyby Kathy O'Beirne which details physical and sexual abuse suffered in a Magdalene laundryin Ireland. Ed West from Daily Telegraph, claimed Kathy Beirne's story is "largely invented" according to book of Hermann Kelly, who is a Derrymarker born journalist of Irish Daily Mail and former editor of the Irish Catholic, titled Kathy's Real Story from Prefect Press.

Films

The Magdalene laundriescaught the public's attention in the late 1990s as revelations of widespread abuse from former inmates gathered momentum and were made the subject an award-winning film called The Magdalene Sisters(2002). In 2006, a documentary called Deliver Us From Evilwas made about the sex abuse cases and one priest's confession of abuse.

Several other films have been made about sex abuse within the Church, including:

See also





Sexual abuse in other environments


Notes

  1. [1] retrieved March 21, 2009
  2. [2] retrieved March 21, 2009
  3. [3] retrieved March 21, 2009
  4. [4] retrieved March 21, 2009
  5. [5] retrieved March 21, 2009
  6. [6] retrieved March 21, 2009
  7. [7] retrieved March 212, 2009
  8. Bruni, A Gospel of Shame (2002), p. 336
  9. Marziali, Carl (2003-7-18). Interview with former priest and scandal "fixer" Patrick Wall "This American Life."
  10. [8] retrieved February 14, 2009
  11. [9]retrieved February 14, 2009
  12. Mark M. Gray, P. M. Perl. (2006). “’Catholic Reaction to the News of Sexual Abuse Cases Involving Catholic Clergy’” (CARA April 2006 Working Paper 8). Washington, DC: CARA Georgetown University. Retrieved 2009-11-16.
  13. http://www.religioustolerance.org/clergy_sex20.htm
  14. Steinfels, A People Adrift (2003). pp. 40–6
  15. Scout's Honor: Sexual Abuse in America's Most Trusted Institution, Patrick Boyle, 1995
  16. Frawley-ODea, Perversion of Power: Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church (2007), p. 4
  17. http://webcast.un.org/ramgen/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/twelfth/hrc090922pm2-eng.rm?start=01:28:49&end=01:31:56
  18. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/28/sex-abuse-religion-vatican
  19. http://www.queerty.com/the-vatican-would-prefer-you-refer-to-its-molesting-priests-as-gay-molesting-priests-20090930/
  20. Jenkins, Philip, The New Anti-Catholicism - the Last Acceptable Prejudice, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 133-57
  21. Walsh, John Paul II: A Light for the World (2003), p. 62
  22. The Guardian
  23. Crimen sollicitationis (Instruction on the Manner of Proceeding in Cases of Solicitation)
  24. Article on Ottaviani policy of silence
  25. CBS News
  26. Manila Times
  27. The Guardian,"Row over Vatican order to conceal priests' sex abuse" [10]
  28. BBC News, "Vatican 'ordered abuse cover-up'"
  29. America, "Vatican Official Says 1962 Norms on Solicitation No Longer Apply" [11]
  30. Catholic Culture, "CBS news story distorts 1962 Vatican document"
  31. Father Grassi: the sentence will be announced today "Momento 24", June 10 2009
  32. Argentine priest convicted of sexually abusing boy AP, June 10 2009
  33. Argentine priest gets 15 years prison for sex abuse The Star Online, June 11th, 2009
  34. newsinfo.inquirer.net, Pope's Australia sex abuse apology not enough -- critics
  35. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jul/20/catholicism.australia
  36. Sexual abuse apology welcomed
  37. timesonline.co.uk, Pope meets sex abuse victims in secret Sydney mass
  38. nytimes.com, Pope Meets Australian Abuse Victims
  39. afp.google.com, Pope meets sex abuse victims as Australia trip ends
  40. Child and youth sexual abuse by clergy
  41. Suing the Pope BBC News
  42. Archbishop slams Irish Catholic orders over abuse AP, May 25 2009
  43. Shamed by child abuse, Ireland to reform services Reuters, May 26 2009
  44. Irish Church Abusers Should Face Law, McAleese Says Bloomberg, May 30th 2009
  45. [12] retrieved March 21, 2009
  46. [13] retrieved March 21, 2009
  47. [14] retrieved March 21, 2009
  48. [15] retrieved March 21, 2009
  49. [16] retrieved March 21, 2009
  50. [17] retrieved March 21, 2009
  51. [18] retrieved March 21, 2009
  52. [19] retrieved March 212, 2009
  53. A Report on the Crisis in the Catholic Church in the United States National Review Board, February 27, 2004
  54. Lawyers Louisville Kentucky, News on Clergy Sexual Abuse Case against Archdiocese of Louisville Kentucky, William McMurry Lawyers
  55. "Pope seeks immunity in Texas abuse case", Chicago Sun-Times, August 17, 2005.
  56. Deliver Us From Evil .
  57. [20]
  58. [21]
  59. http://www.bishop-accountability.org/tx-dallas/Dallas-2002-04.htm Bishop Accountability
  60. Lawyers Louisville Kentucky, News on Clergy Sexual Abuse Case against Archdiocese of Louisville Kentucky, William McMurry Lawyers
  61. Boston archdiocese agrees to pay a record $85 million to victims of abuse US News and World Report
  62. Tucson Diocese emerges from Chapter 11 protection
  63. US Church offers abuse settlement BBC NEWS
  64. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/11/23/national/main657155.shtml California Diocese Settles Abuse Cases
  65. Orange County Weekly. Nailed? Bishop Tod Brown and His Undisclosed Molestation Accusation April 24, 2007
  66. Los Angeles Times. ‘97 abuse claim named O.C. bishop September 14, 2007
  67. Iowa Diocese Files For Bankruptcy , Davenport Bishop Says Settlements For 24+ Abuse Claims Left It No Choice CBS News
  68. Judge throws out Iowa City Regina priest suit Radio Iowa
  69. LA diocese settles abuse claims BBC NEWS
  70. [22]
  71. http://www.catholic.org/diocese/diocese_story.phpid=22894
  72. http://www.pr-inside.com/parishioners-react-to-los-angeles-archdiocese-s-r172959.htm
  73. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/metro/20070907-1449-bn07diocese3.html S.D. Catholic diocese files for bankruptcy
  74. http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/new.php?n=11791
  75. Jesuits settle abuse claim against late Sacramento priest, by Jennifer Garza, Jun. 5, 2009, The Sacramento Bee
  76. . /boston/news_features/top/features/documents/00882888.htm News/Features |
  77. [23] retrieved February 14, 2009
  78. [24]retrieved February 14, 2009
  79. News24 - Pope apologises for sex abuse
  80. Hundreds of priests shuffled worldwide, despite abuse allegations
  81. "Statement From The Board Of Directors and Staff of the National Association of Catholic Diocesan Lesbian and Gay Ministries" November 29, 2005. Accessed June 18, 2007
  82. George Weigel on the Church Crisis in U.S
  83. Down For Maintenance
  84. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_n15_v34/ai_20324598 retrieved on July 6, 2007
  85. Catholic Priests in India 'Outsourced' to Meet Clergy Shortage in West - 2004-06-11
  86. Western People, 2 Nov. 2005
  87. Indeed an estimate in Protestant clergy of 2 to 3 percent was made Lloyd Rediger, Ministry and Sexuality (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). p55
  88. Philip Jenkins, Pedophiles and Priests: Anatomy of a Contemporary Crisis (Oxford University Press, 2001). p50
  89. [25]
  90. Forum: The myth of the 'pedophile priest'
  91. "Mis lit: Is this the end for the misery memoir?", Daily Telegraph 5 March, 2008.
  92. [26]
  93. [27]
  94. Our Fathers (2005, TV) at imdb.com
  95. http://www.bishop-accountability.org/resources/resource-files/churchdocs/EpistulaEnglish.htm


References

  1. [1] retrieved March 21, 2009
  2. [2] retrieved March 21, 2009
  3. [3] retrieved March 21, 2009
  4. [4] retrieved March 21, 2009
  5. [5] retrieved March 21, 2009
  6. [6] retrieved March 21, 2009
  7. [7] retrieved March 212, 2009
  8. Bruni, A Gospel of Shame (2002), p. 336
  9. Marziali, Carl (2003-7-18). Interview with former priest and scandal "fixer" Patrick Wall "This American Life."
  10. [8] retrieved February 14, 2009
  11. [9]retrieved February 14, 2009
  12. Mark M. Gray, P. M. Perl. (2006). “’Catholic Reaction to the News of Sexual Abuse Cases Involving Catholic Clergy’” (CARA April 2006 Working Paper 8). Washington, DC: CARA Georgetown University. Retrieved 2009-11-16.
  13. http://www.religioustolerance.org/clergy_sex20.htm
  14. Steinfels, A People Adrift (2003). pp. 40–6
  15. Scout's Honor: Sexual Abuse in America's Most Trusted Institution, Patrick Boyle, 1995
  16. Frawley-ODea, Perversion of Power: Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church (2007), p. 4
  17. http://webcast.un.org/ramgen/ondemand/conferences/unhrc/twelfth/hrc090922pm2-eng.rm?start=01:28:49&end=01:31:56
  18. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/28/sex-abuse-religion-vatican
  19. http://www.queerty.com/the-vatican-would-prefer-you-refer-to-its-molesting-priests-as-gay-molesting-priests-20090930/
  20. Jenkins, Philip, The New Anti-Catholicism - the Last Acceptable Prejudice, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 133-57
  21. Walsh, John Paul II: A Light for the World (2003), p. 62
  22. The Guardian
  23. Crimen sollicitationis (Instruction on the Manner of Proceeding in Cases of Solicitation)
  24. Article on Ottaviani policy of silence
  25. CBS News
  26. Manila Times
  27. The Guardian,"Row over Vatican order to conceal priests' sex abuse" [10]
  28. BBC News, "Vatican 'ordered abuse cover-up'"
  29. America, "Vatican Official Says 1962 Norms on Solicitation No Longer Apply" [11]
  30. Catholic Culture, "CBS news story distorts 1962 Vatican document"
  31. Father Grassi: the sentence will be announced today "Momento 24", June 10 2009
  32. Argentine priest convicted of sexually abusing boy AP, June 10 2009
  33. Argentine priest gets 15 years prison for sex abuse The Star Online, June 11th, 2009
  34. newsinfo.inquirer.net, Pope's Australia sex abuse apology not enough -- critics
  35. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jul/20/catholicism.australia
  36. Sexual abuse apology welcomed
  37. timesonline.co.uk, Pope meets sex abuse victims in secret Sydney mass
  38. nytimes.com, Pope Meets Australian Abuse Victims
  39. afp.google.com, Pope meets sex abuse victims as Australia trip ends
  40. Child and youth sexual abuse by clergy
  41. Suing the Pope BBC News
  42. Archbishop slams Irish Catholic orders over abuse AP, May 25 2009
  43. Shamed by child abuse, Ireland to reform services Reuters, May 26 2009
  44. Irish Church Abusers Should Face Law, McAleese Says Bloomberg, May 30th 2009
  45. [12] retrieved March 21, 2009
  46. [13] retrieved March 21, 2009
  47. [14] retrieved March 21, 2009
  48. [15] retrieved March 21, 2009
  49. [16] retrieved March 21, 2009
  50. [17] retrieved March 21, 2009
  51. [18] retrieved March 21, 2009
  52. [19] retrieved March 212, 2009
  53. A Report on the Crisis in the Catholic Church in the United States National Review Board, February 27, 2004
  54. Lawyers Louisville Kentucky, News on Clergy Sexual Abuse Case against Archdiocese of Louisville Kentucky, William McMurry Lawyers
  55. "Pope seeks immunity in Texas abuse case", Chicago Sun-Times, August 17, 2005.
  56. Deliver Us From Evil .
  57. [20]
  58. [21]
  59. http://www.bishop-accountability.org/tx-dallas/Dallas-2002-04.htm Bishop Accountability
  60. Lawyers Louisville Kentucky, News on Clergy Sexual Abuse Case against Archdiocese of Louisville Kentucky, William McMurry Lawyers
  61. Boston archdiocese agrees to pay a record $85 million to victims of abuse US News and World Report
  62. Tucson Diocese emerges from Chapter 11 protection
  63. US Church offers abuse settlement BBC NEWS
  64. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/11/23/national/main657155.shtml California Diocese Settles Abuse Cases
  65. Orange County Weekly. Nailed? Bishop Tod Brown and His Undisclosed Molestation Accusation April 24, 2007
  66. Los Angeles Times. ‘97 abuse claim named O.C. bishop September 14, 2007
  67. Iowa Diocese Files For Bankruptcy , Davenport Bishop Says Settlements For 24+ Abuse Claims Left It No Choice CBS News
  68. Judge throws out Iowa City Regina priest suit Radio Iowa
  69. LA diocese settles abuse claims BBC NEWS
  70. [22]
  71. http://www.catholic.org/diocese/diocese_story.phpid=22894
  72. http://www.pr-inside.com/parishioners-react-to-los-angeles-archdiocese-s-r172959.htm
  73. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/metro/20070907-1449-bn07diocese3.html S.D. Catholic diocese files for bankruptcy
  74. http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/new.php?n=11791
  75. Jesuits settle abuse claim against late Sacramento priest, by Jennifer Garza, Jun. 5, 2009, The Sacramento Bee
  76. . /boston/news_features/top/features/documents/00882888.htm News/Features |
  77. [23] retrieved February 14, 2009
  78. [24]retrieved February 14, 2009
  79. News24 - Pope apologises for sex abuse
  80. Hundreds of priests shuffled worldwide, despite abuse allegations
  81. "Statement From The Board Of Directors and Staff of the National Association of Catholic Diocesan Lesbian and Gay Ministries" November 29, 2005. Accessed June 18, 2007
  82. George Weigel on the Church Crisis in U.S
  83. Down For Maintenance
  84. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_n15_v34/ai_20324598 retrieved on July 6, 2007
  85. Catholic Priests in India 'Outsourced' to Meet Clergy Shortage in West - 2004-06-11
  86. Western People, 2 Nov. 2005
  87. Indeed an estimate in Protestant clergy of 2 to 3 percent was made Lloyd Rediger, Ministry and Sexuality (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). p55
  88. Philip Jenkins, Pedophiles and Priests: Anatomy of a Contemporary Crisis (Oxford University Press, 2001). p50
  89. [25]
  90. Forum: The myth of the 'pedophile priest'
  91. "Mis lit: Is this the end for the misery memoir?", Daily Telegraph 5 March, 2008.
  92. [26]
  93. [27]
  94. Our Fathers (2005, TV) at imdb.com
  95. http://www.bishop-accountability.org/resources/resource-files/churchdocs/EpistulaEnglish.htm


Additional reading

  • Groeschel, F. Benedict, From Scandal to Hope (OSV, 2002)
  • Jenkins, Philip, Pedophiles and Priests: Anatomy of a Contemporary Crisis (Oxford University Press, 2001). ISBN 0-19-514597-6.
  • Lobdell, William, "Missionary's Dark Legacy; Two remote Alaska villages are still reeling from a Catholic volunteer's sojourn three decades ago, when he allegedly molested nearly every Eskimo boy in the parishes. The accusers, now men, are scarred emotionally and struggle to cope. They are seeking justice," Los Angeles Times, Nov 19, 2005, p. A.1
  • Ranan, David, Double Cross: The Code of the Catholic Church (Theo Press Ltd., 2007) ISBN 978-0-95541-330-8.


External links

General





Ireland



United States



Date Diocese Payment Recipients Comments Notes

1997 Dallas $31 million
2003, June Louisville $25.7 million 240
2003, Sept. Boston $85 million 552
2004, July Portland $53 million 100 (over) Filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy hours before two abuse trials were set to begin
2004, Sept. Tucson $22.2 million Filed for bankruptcy, after reaching an agreement with its victims
2004, Dec. Spokane $48 million (at least) Filed for bankruptcy, payment was a part (has to be approved by judge and victims)
2005, Jan. Orange, California $100 million 87
2006, Oct. Davenport, Iowa 15 Filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, alleged victims were 15 students, Soens denied allegations

2006, Dec. Los Angeles $60 million 45 45 of the over 500 pending cases
2007 Los Angeles $16 million 9 ordered to pay
2007, Jan. Charleston $12 million Bishop Robert J. Baker agreed to pay
2007, July Los Angeles $660 million 508 (over) Archbishop Roger Cardinal Mahony and diocese apologized after settlement
2007, Jan. Charleston $12 million
2007, Feb. San Diego $198.1 million 144 Filed for Chapter 11 protection, hours before the first of 144 cases issued
2008, Mar. Fairbanks 130 Filed for bankruptcy, due to monetary concerns over 130 lawsuits made by Alaska natives

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