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Central solar heating is the provision of central heating and hot water from solar energy by a system in which the water is heated centrally by arrays of solar thermal collectors (central solar heating plants - CSHPs) and distributed through district heating pipe networks (or 'block heating' systems in the case of smaller installations).

For block systems, the solar collectors are typically mounted on the building roof tops. For district heating systems the collectors may instead be installed on the ground.

Central solar heating can involve large-scale thermal storage, scaling from diurnal storage to seasonal thermal storage. Thermal storage increase the solar fraction - the ratio between solar energy gain to the total energy demand in the system - for solar thermal systems. Ideally, the aim for applying seasonal storage is to store solar energy collected in the summer time to the winter month.

Compared to small solar heating systems (solar combisystems), central solar heating systems have better price-performance ratios due to the lower installation price, the higher thermal efficiency and less maintenance.

Central solar systems can also be used for solar cooling in the form of district cooling. In this case, the overall efficiency is high due to the high correlation between the energy demand and the solar radiation.

Largest CSHPs

No. Name Country Owner Size Power Annual production Installation year Storage tank Storage type Collector manufacturer
1 Marstal DK Marstal Fjernvarme 18,048 12.9 8.2 1996-2002 2,100


Water tank

Sand/water ground pit

Insulated water pond
2 Kungälv SE Kungälv Energi AB 10,048 7.0 4.5 2000 1,000 Water tank ARCON (DK)
3 Brændstup DK Brændstrup Fjernvarme 8,000 5.6 3.6 2007 ARCON (DK)
4 Strandby DK Strandby Varmeværk 8,000 5.6 3.6 2007 ARCON (DK)
5 Nykvärn SE Telge Energi AB 7,500 5.3 3.4 1985 1,500 Water tank Teknoterm (SE)

6 Falkenberg SE Falkenberg Energi AB 5,500 3.9 2.5 1989 1,100 Water tank Teknoterm (SE)

7 Neckarsulm DE Stadtwerke Neckarsulm 5,044 3.5 2.3 1997 25,000 Soil duct heat exchanger Sonnenkraft (DE)

8 Ulsted DK Ulsted Fjernvarme 5,000 3.5 2.2 2006 1,000 Water tank ARCON (DK)
9 Ærøskøping DK Ærøskøping Fjernvarme 4,900 3.4 2.2 1998-2000 1,200 Water tank ARCON (DK)
10 Friederichshafen DE Technische Werke Fried. 4,250 3.0 1.9 1996 12,000 Concrete tan in ground ARCON (DK)

Source: Jan Erik Nielsen, PlanEnergi, DK.

Hereafter you find a plant in Rise (DK) with a new collector producer, Marstal VVS (DK), a plant in Ry (DK), one of the oldest in Europe, a plant in Hamburg and a number of plants below 3,000 m². It may be relevant mentioning, that the island of Ærø in Denmark has three of the major CSHP, Marstal, Ærøskøping and Rise.

History of central solar heating plants

The history of CSHP given here is mainly a Nordic-European perspective on the topic.

Swedenmarker has played a major role in the development of large-scale solar heating. According to (Dalenbäck, J-O., 1993), the first steps were taken in the early seventies in Linköpingmarker, Sweden, followed by a mature revision in 1983 in Lyckebo, Sweden. Inspired by this work, Finlandmarker developed its first plant in Keravamarker, and the Netherlandsmarker built a first plant in Groningenmarker. These plants are reported under the International Energy Agency by (Dalenbäck, J-O., 1990). Note that these plants did already combine CSHPs with large-scale thermal storage.

The first large-scale solar collector fields were made on-site in Torvalle, Sweden, 1982, 2000 m² and Malungmarker, Sweden, 640 m². Prefabricated collector arrays were introduced in Nykvarnmarker, Sweden, 4000 m² in 1985. There was from the beginning a strong international perspective and cooperation within this research field, through investigation with the European Communities (Dalenbäck, J-O., 1995) and the International Energy Agency (Dalenbäck, J-O., 1990). Denmark did enter this research area parallel to the Swedish activities with a plant in Vester Nebel in 1987, one plant in Saltum in 1988 and one in Rymarker in 1989, taking over the know-how for prefabricated solar collectors of large size by the Swedish company Teknoterm by the dominating company ARCON, Denmark. In the later 1990s Germanymarker and Switzerlandmarker were active among others with plants in Stuttgartmarker and Chemnitzmarker.

Due to cheap land prices, in the Nordic countries the collector arrays could be ground-mounted in agricultural areas. Countries with high ground prices tend to place solar collectors on building roofs, following the 'block plant' variant of CSHPs.

By 1999 40 CSHPs were in operation in Europe generating about 30 MW of thermal power [409070].

Related systems

Central solar heating is a sub-class of 'large-scale solar heating' systems - a term applied to systems with solar collector areas greater than 500 m².

See also

External links

Further reading

  • Central Solar Heating Plants with Seasonal Storage: A Status Report, ISBN 91-540-5201-7, Swedish Council for Building Research, June 1990 [409071].

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