The Full Wiki

Chancellor: Map

Advertisements
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Chancellor ( ) is the title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the Cancellarii of Roman courts of justice—ushers who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the audience. A chancellor's office is called a chancellery or chancery. The word is now used in the titles of many various officers in all kinds of settings (government, education, religion etc.) Nowadays the term is most often used to describe:
  • the head of the government
  • a person in charge of foreign affairs
  • a person with duties related to justice.


Head of government

  • The Chancellor of Germany or Bundeskanzler (meaning "Federal Chancellor"), is the title for the head of government in Germanymarker. Bundeskanzlerin is the feminine form. In German politics the Bundeskanzler position is equivalent to that of a prime minister and is elected by the Bundestagmarker, the German Parliament, every four years.
  • The Chancellor of Austria, or Bundeskanzler (German for Federal Chancellor), is the title for the head of government in Austriamarker in a similar political system.
  • In Switzerlandmarker, the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler, Chancelier fédéral, Cancelliere della Confederazione) is elected by the Swiss parliament. He or she heads the Federal Chancellery, the general staff of the seven-member executive Federal Council, the Swiss government. The Chancellor participates in the meetings of the seven Federal Councilors with a consultative vote and prepares the reports on policy and activities of the council to parliament. The chancellery is responsible for the publication of all federal laws.


Foreign minister

In Latin America, the terms Canciller (Spanish) or Chanceler (Portuguese), equivalent to "chancellor", are commonly used informally to refer to the post of foreign minister. Likewise, the ministry of foreign affairs in many Latin American countries is referred to as the Cancillería. However, in Spainmarker the term canciller refers to a civil servant in the Spanish diplomatic service responsible for technical issues relating to foreign affairs.

Functions related to justice



  • In the legal system of the United Kingdom, the term can refer to two officials:
    • The Lord Chancellor (Lord High Chancellor, King's Chancellor) is the occupant of one of the oldest offices of state, dating back to the Kingdom of England, and older than Parliamentmarker itself. Theoretically, the Lord Chancellor is the "Chancellor of Great Britain"; there was formerly an office of "Chancellor of Ireland" which was abolished in 1922, when all but Northern Irelandmarker left the United Kingdom. The Lord Chancellor is the second highest non-royal subject in precedence (after the Archbishop of Canterbury). In addition to various ceremonial duties, he is head of the Ministry of Justice, which was created in May 2007 from the Department for Constitutional Affairs (which was created in 2003 from the Lord Chancellor's Department). In this role, he sits in the Cabinet. Until the Constitutional Reform Act of 2005, the Lord Chancellor had two additional roles:
      • Head of the English, but not Scottish, judiciary. In previous centuries, the Lord Chancellor was the sole judge in the Court of Chancery; when, in 1873, that court was combined with others to form the High Courtmarker, the Lord Chancellor became the nominal head of the Chancery Division. The Lord Chancellor was permitted to participate in judicial sittings of the House of Lords; he also chose the committees that heard appeals in the Lords. The de facto head of the Chancery Division was the Vice-Chancellor, and the role of choosing appelate committees was in practice fulfilled by the Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary.
      • De facto speaker of the House of Lordsmarker. These duties are now undertaken by the Lord Speaker. The current Lord Chancellor, Jack Straw, is the first who is a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords or its predecessor, the Curia Regis, since Sir Christopher Hatton in 1578.
    • The Chancellor of the High Court is the head of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice. Before 2005, the judge occupying this position was known as the Vice-Chancellor, the Lord Chancellor being the nominal head of the Division.




Other

  • Denmark. The office of chancellor (or royal chancellor) seems to have appeared in the 12th century, and until 1660 it was the title of the leader of the state administration (a kind of a "Home Office" but often with foreign political duties). Often he appeared to be the real leader of the government. From 1660–1848, the title continued as "Grand Chancellor" or "President of the Danish Chancellery," and was replaced in 1730 by the title "Minister of Domestic Affairs."


  • Estonia. A Chancellor (Kantsler) directs the work of a ministry and coordinates institutions subject to the ministry. A ministry can also have one or several Vice-Chancellors (Asekantsler), who fulfill the duties of the Chancellor, when he is absent. The Chancellor of Justice (Õiguskantsler, Currently Indrek Teder) supervises the legality of actions taken by the government and monitors the implementation of basic civil liberties.


  • Japan. In the modern Japanese Constitution, the Upper House of the Diet is The House of Chancellors, and is similar to the role and function of the United States Senate, although there are also some significant differences. In another use, the Daijō Daijin or Chancellor of the Realm was the head of the Daijō-kan, or Department of State in Heian Japanmarker and briefly under the Meiji Constitution.


  • United Kingdom.
    • Chancellor of the Exchequer, the minister with overall responsibility for the Exchequer or Treasury. This is an ancient title dating back to the Kingdom of Englandmarker. It is roughly the equivalent of the Minister of Finance or Secretary of the Treasury in other governmental systems. In recent years, when the term chancellor is used in British politics, it is taken as referring to the Chancellor of the Exchequer. As Second Lord of the Treasury, the Chancellor has an official residence at 11 Downing Streetmarker, next door to the First Lord of the Treasury, the Prime Minister, at 10 Downing Street, in Londonmarker.
    • Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, an ancient office of state, the Chancellor being the Minister of the Crown responsible in theory for the running of the Duchy of Lancaster, a duchy in England belonging to the Crown but historically maintained separately from the rest of the kingdom, whose net revenues personally belong to the monarch. In reality, the post of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, effectively like a chairman of trustees, carries minimal work and responsibilities, so it is used in effect as a minister without portfolio position, often given to the chairman of the party in power to give her or him a seat in the cabinet.
    • The Consistory courts of the Church of England are each presided over by a Chancellor of the Diocese: see Chancellor .




Ecclesiastical

The chancellor is the principal record-keeper of a diocese or eparchy, or their equivalent. The chancellor is a notary, so that he may certify official documents, and often has other duties at the discretion of the bishop of the diocese: he may be in charge of some aspect of finances or of managing the personnel connected with diocesan offices, although his delegated authority cannot extend to vicars of the diocesan bishop, such as vicars general, episcopal vicars or judicial vicars. His office is within the "chancery." Vice-chancellors may be appointed to assist the chancellor in busy chanceries. Normally, the chancellor is a priest or deacon, although in some circumstances a layperson may be appointed to the post. In the eparchial curia a chancellor is to be appointed who is to be a presbyter (priest) or deacon and whose principal obligation, unless otherwise established by the particular law, is to see that the acts of the curia are gathered and arranged as well as preserved in the archives of the eparchial curia.

Educational usage

A Chancellor is the leader (either ceremonial or executive) of many public and private universities and related institutions.

The heads of the New York City Department of Education and the District of Columbia Public Schools, who run the municipally-operated public schools in those jurisdictions, carry the title of Chancellor. New York State also has a Chancellor of the University of the State of New York, the body that licenses and regulates all educational and research institutions in the state and many professions (not to be confused with the State University of New York, an actual institution of higher learning).

In a few instances, the term chancellor is used for a student or faculty member within a high school or an institution of higher learning being either appointed or elected as chancellor in order to preside on the highest ranking judicial board or tribunal. They handle non-academic matters such as violations of behavior.

Historical uses

  • The Chancellor of China was the second highest rank after the Emperor of China.
  • There are two ancient Egyptian titles sometimes translated as chancellor. There is the "royal sealer" (xtmtj-bity or xtmw-bity), a title attested since the First Dynasty (about 3000 BC). People holding the post include Imhotep and Hemaka.


The other title translated as chancellor is "Keeper of the Royal Seal" (or overseer of the seal or treasurer—imy-r xtmt). Officials holding the post include Bay or Irsu, Khety Meketre, and Nakhti.


The first title (royal sealer) announced a certain rank at the royal court, the second (supervisor of the sealed goods, i.e. treasurer) was responsible for the state's income. This position appears around 2000 BC.








See also



References

  1. [1]
  2. VABARIIGI VALITSUSE SEADUS
  3. ÕIGUSKANTSLERI SEADUS
  4. CIC 482; CCEO 252—§1.
  5. §2. If it seems necessary the chancellor can be given an assistant whose title is vice-chancellor. §3. The chancellor as well as the vice-chancellor are by the law itself notaries of the eparchial curia. In the 1983 Code of Canon Law for the Latin rite of the Catholic Church, the chancellor may be a layperson, and not necessarily a presbyter or deacon. The office of the Chancellor is mandatory in all diocessan (eparchial) curia. The primary function of the Chancellor is to keep the curial records properly.Beal, New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law, Paulist Press, Mahwah, NJ, 2000, p.635
  6. Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, p.131
  7. Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2001, p.63
  8. pBerlin 10035 in U. Luft, Urkunden zur Chronologie der späten 12. Dynastie, Briefe aus Illahun, Wien 2006, 69 ff.
  9. pLouvre 3230 B in E. Wente, Letters from Ancient Egypt, Atlanta, 1990, 92
  10. Memoirs, Egypt Exploration Society—1958, p.7
  11. Serdab of the Chancellor Meketre
  12. Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2001



Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message