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Charing Cross station, also known as London Charing Cross, is a central Londonmarker railway terminus. It is unusual among London's railway termini in that its services connect it to two of the others, Waterloomarker (via Waterloo Eastmarker) and London Bridgemarker. It is one of 18 stations managed by Network Rail, and trains serving it are operated by Southeastern and Southern. It is the fifth busiest rail terminal in London.

The station takes its name from its location next to the central London road junction of Charing Crossmarker. The front of the station faces The Strandmarker, while at the other end is the northern end of Hungerford Bridgemarker, which is crossed by all trains serving the station.

All the platforms are accessed through ticket barriers.

History

The original station building was built on the site of the Hungerford Marketmarker by the South Eastern Railway and opened on 11 January 1864. The station was designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, with a single span wrought iron roof arching over the six platforms on its relatively cramped site. It is built on a brick arched viaduct, the level of the rails above the ground varying from 13 feet at the north-east end to 27 feet at the bridge abutment at the south-east end. A year later the Charing Cross Hotel, designed by Edward Middleton Barry, opened on 15 May 1865 and gave the station an ornate frontage in the French Renaissance style. At the same time, a replica of the Eleanor Cross was erected in the station forecourt, based on the original 13th century Whitehall Cross that had been demolished in 1647. Distances in London are officially measured from the original site of the cross in Whitehall, now the statue of Charles I, and not from this replica cross.

A 77 foot length of the elegant original roof structure, comprising the two end bays at the south of the station, and part of the western wall collapsed at 3.45pm on 5 December 1905. A gang of men were employed at the time in repairing, glazing and painting the section of roof which fell. Shortly after 3.30pm a loud noise was heard in the roof and it was noticed that one of the main tie rods had broken and was hanging down. Part of the roof began to sag and cracks appeared in the western wall. It was another 12 minutes before the collapse occurred, which enabled trains and platforms to be evacuated and incoming trains to be held back. The roof, girders and debris fell across four passenger trains standing in platforms 3, 4, 5 and 6 and all rail lines were blocked. The part of the western wall which fell crashed through the wall and roof of the neighbouring Royal Avenue Theatre (now the Playhouse Theatremarker) in Northumberland Avenue which was being reconstructed at the time. Six lives were lost (two workmen on the roof, a W.H. Smith bookstall vendor and three workmen on the Royal Avenue Theatre site).

At the Board Of Trade Inquiry into the accident doubts were expressed by expert witnesses about the design of the roof, even though the cause of the failure was attributed to a faulty weld in a tie rod. Consequently, the South Eastern and Chatham Railway decided not to repair the roof but to replace it. An enormous travelling timber gantry had to be constructed to take the remainder of the station roof down safely. The replacement was a utilitarian post and girder structure supporting a ridge and furrow roof. The curve of the original roof design can still be seen on the interior brickwork. The station was re-opened on 19 March 1906.

Following bomb damage in World War II, the hotel received extensive repairs in 1951, ten years after being bombed. In general, this comprised of a whole new set of top floors. The elaborate Mansard roof of the upper floors of the hotel was rebuilt in a plain neo-Georgian white brick.

In 1990 most of the area over the platforms was covered by Embankment Place, a post-modern office and shopping complex designed by Terry Farrell and Partners. This development led to the replacement of almost the whole of the 1906 roof. The rear two spans of this structure - immediately adjacent to the existing concourse roof - were retained as part of an enlarged waiting area. In addition the original retaining side walls of the station which once supported it remain in near complete condition. Most of the Embankment Place complex is currently occupied by PricewaterhouseCoopersmarker.

Services

The station concourse.
Trains run a very high frequency service between Charing Cross and London Bridge, there are 18 train departures during the off-peak times. The typical off-peak service from the station is:

Southeastern Southern



From December 2009 Southern will no longer call at Charing Cross .

Connections

Charing Cross is served by two London Underground stations, one at each end: Charing Crossmarker, and Embankmentmarker. Originally Embankment was called Charing Cross, while the present Charing Cross was Trafalgar Squaremarker (Bakerloo line) and Strand (Northern line) stations, combining under the new name when connected by the new Jubilee Line station in 1979. The change of name acknowledged that Strand and Trafalgar Square were closer to the station than Embankment. Note that additionally, for a short time, the stations were signed as "Charing Cross Embankment" and "Charing Cross Strand". The Jubilee line platforms are no longer served, following the 1999 extension of the linemarker in which it was diverted to Westminstermarker and onwards south of the river Thames.

References

  1. http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/documents/BoT_CharingCross1905.pdf
  2. http://www.kentrail.co.uk/london_charing_cross%203.htm
  3. Network rail


External links




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