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Charles Bernard "Charlie" Rangel (born June 11, 1930), ( ) is an Americanmarker politician. He has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1971, representing the Fifteenth Congressional District of New Yorkmarker. Rangel's district, the smallest in the country in geographic size, encompasses Upper Manhattan and includes such neighborhoods as Harlemmarker, Spanish Harlemmarker, Washington Heightsmarker, Inwood, Morningside Heightsmarker, and part of the Upper West Sidemarker, as well as a small portion of Queensmarker in the neighborhood of Astoriamarker. In January 2007, he became chairman of the powerful House Ways and Means Committee. Rangel is the most senior member of New York's congressional delegation. He is the first African-American to chair the committee. Rangel earned a Purple Heart and a Bronze Star for his service in the Korean War.

On September 24, 2008, the House Ethics Committee announced an investigation into Rangel's alleged failure to report hundreds of thousands of dollars in rental income or pay taxes on a beach rental property in the Dominican Republicmarker, allegedly living in multiple rent-stabilized apartments in New York City while claiming his Washington, D.C.marker home as his primary residence for tax purposes, alleged use of congressional stationery to solicit donors for a public policy institute in his name at City College, and other alleged questionable activities.

On June 26, 2009, Bloomberg News reported on Chairman Rangel's role in the Diageo Rum Bailout.

On September 1, 2009, the Chicago Tribune reported on Chairman Rangel's lack of action on pending legislation that would prevent $2.9 billion of U.S. Tax dollars from going to British concern Diageo. On September 2, 2009, the L.A. Times reported on Chairman Rangel's association with a deal to give $2.8 billion of U.S. Tax dollars to Diageo to make rum in the U.S. Virgin Islands. On September 20, 2009, the Associated Press reported on Chairman Rangel's ethics problems. On October 6, 2009, the Washington Times reported on the campaign contributions Chairman Rangel received related to the $2.8 billion rum deal he supports.

On November 12th, 2009, The Hill reported on Chairman Rangel's involvement in stopping legislation (H.R. 2122) that prevents $3.9 billion in rum bailouts from being voted on in the Ways and Means Committee.

Early life, military service, and education

Charles Bernard Rangel was born in Harlemmarker in New York Citymarker, the second of three children. His family was Roman Catholic. His father Ralph Rangel , Sr. (January 6, 1900–?) was born in Ponce, Puerto Ricomarker. His mother Blanche Mary Wharton (March 20, 1904–March 6, 1995) worked as a maid and as a seamstress in a factory in New York's Garment District. Rangel's father was a frequently absent, unemployed man who was abusive to his wife and who left the family when his son was six years old. Rangel did well in elementary and middle school, and began working at a neighorhood drug store at the age of eight. Rangel then attended DeWitt Clinton High School, but was often truant and was sometimes driven home by the police. An early role model, his maternal grandfather who worked in a courthouse and knew many judges and lawyers, kept him from getting into more serious trouble. Rangel dropped out at age 16 during his junior year and worked in various menial jobs, including selling shoes.

Rangel then enlisted in the United States Army, and served from 1948 to 1952. During the Korean War, he was a member of the all-black 503rd Field Artillery Battalion in the 2nd Infantry Division. In late November 1950, this unit was caught up in heavy fighting in North Koreamarker as part of the U.N. forces retreat from the Yalu River. In the Battle of Kunu-Ri, Rangel was part of a vehicle column that was trapped and attacked by the Chinese Army. In the subzero cold, Rangel was injured by shrapnel from a Chinese shell. Some U.S. soldiers were being taken prisoner, but others looked to Rangel, who though only a private first class had a reputation for leadership in the unit. Rangel led some 40 men from his unit, during three days of freezing weather, out of the Chinese encirclement; nearly half of the battalion was killed in the overall battle. Rangel was awarded a Purple Heart for his wounds and the Bronze Star with Valor for his actions in the face of death. He was also awarded the Presidential Unit Citation, the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation, and three battle stars. In 2000, Rangel reflected with CBS News that "Since Kunu Ri – and I mean it with all my heart, I have never, never had a bad day."

Rangel would later view his time in the Army, away from the poverty of his youth, as a major turning point in his life: "When I was exposed to a different life, even if that life was just the Army, I knew damn well I couldn't get back to the same life I had left." After an honorable discharge from the Army at the rank of staff sergeant, he returned home to headlines in The New York Amsterdam News. Rangel finished high school, completing two years of studies in one year and graduating in 1953. Rangel then received a B.S. from the New York Universitymarker School of Commerce in 1957, where he made the dean's list, and, on full scholarship, obtained a Juris Doctor from St. John's University School of Law in 1960.

Rangel is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African-Americans. He is a member of the fraternity's World Policy Council, a think tank whose purpose is to expand Alpha Phi Alpha's involvement in politics and social and current policy to encompass international concerns.

Early legal and political career

After graduating law school, Rangel passed the state bar exam and was hired by Weaver, Evans & Wingate, the city's most prominent black law firm. Rangel made little money in private practice, but did get a positive reputation for providing legal assistance to black civil rights activists. In 1961, Rangel was appointed Assistant U.S. Attorney in the Southern District of New York by U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, working under U.S. Attorney Robert Morgenthau. He stayed in that position for a year.

Following that, Rangel was legal counsel to the New York Housing and Redevelopment Board, associate counsel to the Speaker of the New York State Assembly, a law clerk to pioneering Judge James L. Watson, and general counsel to the National Advisory Commission on Selective Service (1966). His interest in politics grew with these roles; he ran but lost for party district leader during an intense Democratic factional dispute in Harlem in 1963. In 1964, Rangel and the man who would become his political mentor, New York State Assemblyman Percy Sutton, co-founded the John F. Kennedy Democratic Club in Harlem (later renamed the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Democratic Club).

Rangel met Alma Carter, a social worker, in the mid-late-1950s while on the dance floor of the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem. They married on July 26, 1964. They have two children, Steven and Alicia, and three grandsons.

Rangel participated in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches, marching for four days even though he had planned only a brief appearance. He developed what The New York Times would label his irrepressible energy and joking self-mockery during this period in his life.

Rangel was selected by Harlem Democrats to run for the New York State Assembly in 1966, representing the 72nd Legislative District in Central Harlem, after incumbent Sutton was named Manhattan Borough President. Rangel was victorious and served two two-year terms there. He emerged as a leader among the black legislators in the state, and also became politically friendly with Governor of New York Nelson Rockefeller, who arranged for Rangel to run on the Republican as well as Democratic ballot line during his 1968 re-election. Rangel supported legalization of the numbers game, saying "For the average Harlemite, playing numbers ... is moral and a way of life." He also opposed harsher penalties on prostitutes, on grounds of ineffectiveness. He was strongly concerned by the effects of drugs on Harlem, advocated that drug pushers be held accountable for the crimes committed by their users, and in general believed the problem was at the level of a threat to national security.

In 1969, Rangel ran for the Democratic nomination for New York City Council President; in a tumultuous race that featured sportswriter Jimmy Breslin as mayoral candidate Norman Mailer's running mate, Rangel came in last in a field of six candidates.

In 1970, Rangel ran for election to the U.S. House of Representatives, challenging long-time incumbent Congressman Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. in the Democratic primary in New York's 18th congressional district. Powell had been an iconic, charismatic, and flamboyant figure who had become embroiled in an ethics controversy in 1967, lost his seat, then regained it in 1969 due to the U.S.marker Supreme Courtmarker decision Powell v. McCormack. In a field of five candidates, Rangel focused his criticism on Powell's frequent absences from Congress. In the June primary, Rangel defeated Powell by 150 votes out of around 25,000. Powell tried to take legal action to overturn the result, claiming over a thousand ballots were improper, but was unsuccessful; he also failed to get on the ballot as an independent. With both Democratic and Republican backing, Rangel won the November 1970 general election – against a Liberal Party candidate and several others – with 88 percent of the vote.

U.S. House of Representatives

Rangel has won re-election every two years since, often with over 90% of the vote. His district was numbered the Eighteenth District from 1971 to 1973; the Nineteenth District from 1973 to 1983; and the Sixteenth District from 1983 to 1993.

In Congress, Rangel's first committee assignment was on the House Judiciary Committee where he participated in the impeachment hearings against President Richard Nixon.

Rangel co-founded the Congressional Black Caucus, where he has also served as chairman, and of which he continues to be a member.

In late 1998, when longtime New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement, Rangel was one of the first to advocate that then-First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton move to New York and run for the seat, which she did successfully. He later supported her 2008 presidential campaign.

In August 2006, Rangel had stated he would resign his seat if the Democrats did not take the House that November, which they did.

As of January 2007, Rangel is the Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means and Chairman of the Board of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee. He is currently the fourth-longest serving Democratic House member, behind John Dingell, John Conyers and Dave Obey.

Committee assignments

Political views

Rangel is generally thought of as an ideologically committed liberal, but also someone who can be a pragmatic deal-maker. In particular, he is known for support of free trade agreements.

The draft

Rangel has repeatedly called for the government to bring back the draft. Speaking in 2006, Rangel stated, "There's no question in my mind that this president and this administration would never have invaded Iraq, especially on the flimsy evidence that was presented to the Congress, if indeed we had a draft and members of Congress and the administration thought that their kids from their communities would be placed in harm's way."

He has also argued that reinstating the draft is a way to make the military more representative of the American public at large. "A disproportionate number of the poor and members of minority groups make up the enlisted ranks of the military, while most priv­ileged Americans are underrepresented or absent." In 2003, Rangel introduced HR 163; legislation that would draft both men and women between the ages of 18-26 starting as early as June 2005. It was defeated 402-3 the following year in the House of Representatives, with Rangel voting against his own bill.

In November 2006, he outlined his proposed bill to reinstate the draft. The bill, H.R. 393 , if passed, would require a draft of all men and women in the United Statesmarker between the ages of 18-42. Polls show 70% of Americans oppose a reinstatement of the draft. In an interview on Face the Nation, Rangel emphasized that people could fulfill their draft obligations through non-military services, such as port and airline security.

Foreign policy

Rangel was instrumental in securing American materiel support for Israelmarker during the Yom Kippur War of 1973. According to fellow Congressman Jerrold Nadler D-NY, who worked on Rangel's first campaign in 1970 and who credited Rangel with helping to support Israel in 1973:

Before the Six Day War in 1967, the United States was not an arms supplier to Israel.
When the Yom Kippur War broke out, people said not to supply Israel.
Charlie insisted that we have to.
If not for those Phantom jets, the war might have turned out different.

Human and civil rights actions

In the 1980s, Rangel was arrested for participating in an anti-apartheid rally in front of the South African Embassy in Washington.

On March 15, 1999, the Congressman was arrested along with two other prominent African-American leaders (civil rights activist Al Sharpton and former Mayor David Dinkins), for protesting the fatal shooting of Amadou Diallo, a 23-year-old immigrant to the United States from Guinea, by four white and Hispanic New York City police officers. The involved officers were later acquitted by a mixed-race jury.

On July 13, 2004, he was the first of three sitting US House members to be arrested on trespassing charges, for protesting alleged human rights abuses in Sudanmarker in front of the Sudanese Embassy in Washington. Later in the week of July 13, 2004, Congressman Bobby Rush of Illinoismarker and Congressman Joe Hoeffel of Pennsylvaniamarker were also arrested there.

Controversial remarks

On September 22, 2005, Rangel compared Republican President George W. Bush to Bull Connor, the former Public Safety Commissioner of Birmingham, Alabamamarker, stating: "George Bush is our Bull Connor." In response, Vice President Dick Cheney, during an interview on the Rush Limbaugh radio program on October 3, 2005, stated: "I'm frankly surprised at his comments. It almost struck me — they were so out of line, it almost struck me that there was some — Charlie was having some problem. Charlie is losing it, I guess." Rangel responded by saying, "The fact that he would make a crack at my age, he ought to be ashamed of himself...He should look so good at 75."

Along with John Conyers, in April 2006 Rangel brought an action against George W. Bush and others alleging violations of the Constitution in the passing of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. The case (Conyers v. Bush) was ultimately dismissed.

In response to Hugo Chávez addressing the United Nations General Assembly on September 20, 2006 and implying that Bush was the devil, Rangel said, "I want President Chávez to please understand that even though many people in the United States are critical of our president that we resent the fact that he would come to the United States and criticize President Bush... you don't come into my country, you don't come into my congressional district and you don't condemn my president."

Rangel again expressed his displeasure with Vice President Cheney on October 30, 2006, by opining that Cheney is "a real son of a bitch" who "enjoys a confrontation." He also suggested that Cheney requires professional treatment for mental defects.

On November 9, 2006, Rangel, in announcing some of his plans as new chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, said he planned to push more funds into his home state of New Yorkmarker. He added to this, "Mississippi gets more than their fair share back in federal money, but who the hell wants to live in Mississippi?" Mississippimarker Rep. Chip Pickering demanded an apology and Rangel issued a statement declaring: "I certainly don't mean to offend anyone. I just love New York so much that I can't understand why everyone wouldn't want to live here."

On November 26, 2006, appearing on the television show Fox News Sunday, Rangel stated: "If a young fellow has an option of having a decent career, or joining the Army to fight in Iraq, you can bet your life that he would not be in Iraq".

During the China-U.S trade talks of March 2007, Rangel and Louisiana Republican Jim McCrery committed a gaffe when they accidentally insulted the Republic of Chinamarker by referring to the People's Republic of China's Vice Premier, Wu Yi, as the Vice Premier of The Republic of China in a letter. The Republic of China is a name for the self-ruling government on the island of Taiwan, which the PRCmarker considers a rogue province.

Rangel has been harshly criticized by free trade opponents for his support of the Peru and Panama Free Trade Agreements negotiated by the United States Trade Representative under President Bush. On October 1, 2007, the New York City People's Referendum on Free Trade held a protest at his Harlem office, accusing him of killing people with AIDS, displacing small farmers and indigenous people, increasing cocaine production, driving forced immigration, destroying the Peruvian Amazon, and promoting factory farm expansion with this support of the Peru agreement.

In October 2007, Rangel criticized Republican candidate Rudy Giuliani's personal life during an interview by Wolf Blitzer on CNN. Rangel stated "Two people, six spouses. It's a little complicated if you're not religious, especially if you're running against a Mormon." Rangel's comment was perceived by some as an attack on the Mormon religion, hinting that they still practice polygamy (which has not been a mainstream Mormon practice for over 100 years), and brought about criticism and demands for an apology. Rangel apologized for his statement. According to a congressional press release, he said "I was recently quoted being very critical of Former Mayor Rudy Giuliani’s personal life. I wish I could say those comments were taken out of context, but I cannot. I apologize to him and his family.”

In September 2008, while being interviewed by Marcia Kramer on WCBS-TVmarker, Rangel said of Alaska Governor and Republican Vice Presidential nominee Sarah Palin, "You got to be kind to the disabled." When Kramer pressed him on whether he really thought she was disabled, Rangel replied, "There's no question about it politically. It's a nightmare to think that a person's foreign policy is based on their ability to look at Russiamarker from where they live" -- a reference to the apocryphal story that Palin stated, "I can see Russia from my house" when queried as to her foreign policy credentials. Republican Congressman Pete King of Long Islandmarker demanded that Rangel apologize, especially given that Palin's five month old son, Trig, suffered from down syndrome, saying, "Charlie owes a sincere apology to Sarah Palin and the entire disabled community. All of us know parents who have disabled children or relatives, so from any perspective this was wrong, wrong, wrong." Carr Massi, the president of Disabled in Action also criticized Rangel saying, "I am not one of her fans, but I don't like the idea he referred to the woman as disabled. I mean he is talking about her politics - that word has no place there." Rangel suggested later in an interview with the Daily News that his comments were aimed at her thin foreign policy background and dismissed suggestions that he was talking about her newborn son as ridiculous.

On March 9, 2009, when asked on camera by Hot Air TV producer Jason Mattera about his continuing tax issues, Rangel replied, "Why don't you mind your own goddamn business."

On May 30, 2009, when asked by the Daily News what President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama should do during a visit to New York Citymarker, Rangel replied, "Make certain he doesn't run around in East Harlem unidentified." Rangel said this following the accidental shooting of African-American NYPD officer Omar Edwards by a fellow caucasian officer Andrew Dunton, an incident of mistaken identity. The comment was criticized by New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg saying, "I have a lot of respect for Charlie Rangel, but in this case, he's just plain wrong. This was a tragedy. Our police department is diverse, and they train; sometimes things happen and they're inexplicable. There's no reason to suspect this had any racial overtones." Rangel apologized for the comment in a statement on June 1 saying, "It was entirely inappropriate to bring the President and his wife into this discussion during their visit to New York and I hope my off-the-cuff comment did not cause embarrassment to anyone."

On September 1, 2009, Rangel injected race into the health care reform debate at a forum in Washington Heightsmarker, accusing opponents of the President's reform proposal of racism saying, "Some Americans have not gotten over the fact that Obama is president of the United States. They go to sleep wondering, 'How did this happen?'" He went on to say that when critics object to Obama "trying to interfere" with their lives by pushing for health care reform, "then you know there's just a misunderstanding, a bias, a prejudice, an emotional feeling. We're going to have to move forward notwithstanding that." He also compared the battle over health care expansion for the uninsured to the fight for civil rights saying, "Why do we have to wait for the right to vote? Why can't we get what God has given us? That is the right to live as human beings and not negotiate with white southerners and not count the votes. Just do the right thing."

2008–2009 ethics investigations and tax controversies

In July 2008, Rangel asked the House Ethics Committee to determine if his use of a Congressional letterhead while seeking to arrange meetings in which recipients of the letters would be solicited for contributions for the Charles B. Rangel Center for Public Service at the City College of New Yorkmarker had violated any House rules.

The New York Times reported on July 10, 2008 that Rangel rents four apartments in the Lenox Terrace complex in Harlem at below-market rates. The newspaper reported that Rangel paid $3,894 monthly for all four apartments in 2007, but that the going rate for similar apartments offered by the landlord in that building would be as high as $8,125 monthly. Three adjacent apartments on the 16th floor were combined to make up his home; a fourth unit on the 10th floor is used as a campaign office, even though that violates city and state regulations that require rent-stabilized apartments to be used as a primary residence. The apartments are in a building owned by the Olnick Organization. Rangel received thousands of dollars in campaign contributions from one of the company’s owners, according to The Times. Rangel told the newspaper his rent does not affect his representation of his constituents.

A Congressional ethics experts cited by The Times indicated that the difference in rent between what Rangel was paying and market rates on the second, third and fourth apartments he rented, an estimated $30,000 per year, could be construed as a gift as the savings is granted at the discretion of the landlord and is not offered to the public at large; if this should be treated as a gift, it would exceed the $100 limit established by the House of Representatives. In late July, the House voted 254 to 138 to table a resolution submitted by Minority Leader John Boehner that would have censured Rangel for having "dishonored himself and brought discredit to the House" by occupying the four apartments.

Rangel was also accused of failing to report income from the rental of a villa he owns in Punta Canamarker in the Dominican Republicmarker, a three-bedroom, three-bath unit that has been rented out for as much as $1,100 per night in the busiest tourist season, from mid-December to mid-April. Labor lawyer Theodore Kheel, one of the principal investors in the resort development company and a frequent campaign contributor to Rangel, had encouraged the congressman to purchase the beachside villa. Rangel had purchased the unit in 1988 for $82,750 and financed $53,737.50 of the purchase price for seven years at a rate of 10.5%, but was one of several early investors who had interest payments waived in 1990. In September 2008, Lanny Davis, Rangel's attorney, disclosed that Rangel had failed to report $75,000 in income he had received for renting the condo on his tax returns or in congressional disclosure forms. His accountants were calculating the amounts owed and would be filing amended city, state and federal tax returns to cover the liability for back taxes..

A September 14, 2008 editorial in The New York Times called for Rangel to temporarily step down from his chairmanship, stating that "Mounting embarrassment for taxpayers and Congress makes it imperative that Representative Charles Rangel step aside as chairman of the Ways and Means Committee while his ethical problems are investigated."

Additional accounting discrepancies were disclosed on September 15, 2008, including omission in Rangel's financial reports of details regarding the sale of a home he once owned on Colorado Avenue in Washington, DC, discrepancies in the value listed for a property he owns in Sunny Isles, Floridamarker (varying from $50,000 to $100,000 all the way up to $500,000), and inconsistencies in investment fund reporting. While Republican leaders have called for his removal from his role as chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee which plays a pivotal role in shaping tax law, Rangel has stated that there is no justification for his removal. "I owed my colleagues and the public adherence to a higher standard of care not only as a member of Congress but even more as the chair of the House Ways and Means Committee," he said. He also stated that the mistakes were errors of omission that would not justify loss of his position.

An article in the September 18, 2008 New York Post states, "Rep. Charles Rangel has been using a House of Representatives parking garage for years as free storage space for his old Mercedes-Benz - a violation of congressional rules and a potential new tax woe for the embattled lawmaker... House rules forbid use of the garage for long-term storage more than 45 days - and congressional aides told The Post that Rangel's car has been sitting there for years. A House Web site on parking regulations informs anyone with a space that, under IRS regulations, the benefit of the free parking is considered 'imputed income' and must be declared to the government. The spaces are valued by the House at $290 per month. In addition to the storage issue, the vehicle... runs afoul of other rules set forth on the House Web site because it does not have license plates and does not display a current House parking permit."

In September 2008 Rangel paid back taxes of $10,800, owed from rental income on his Dominican villa. Rangel acknowledged that he had failed to declare $75,000 in rental income from his beachfront villa on his tax returns; he had owed back taxes for at least three years. Rangel is the chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, which writes the United States tax code and as such his failure to pay taxes himself came under heavy criticism.

On September 24, 2008, the House Ethics Committee announced that it would start an investigation to determine whether Rangel "violated the Code of Official Conduct, or any law, rule, regulation or other standard of conduct applicable to his conduct in the performance of his duties." CBS 2 News reported that the investigation would also explore "Rangel's use of four rent-stabilized apartments leased in the Lenox Terrace apartment complex in Harlem, the financing of the beachfront villa leased in the Dominican Republic, and his questionable storage of a late-model Mercedes Benz in the House garage."

On November 23, 2008, the New York Post reported that Rangel took a "homestead" tax break on his Washington, DC house for years while simultaneously occupying multiple New York City rent-stabilized apartments, "possibly violating laws and regulations in both cases."

In late November 2008, Republican members of Congress asked the House Ethics Committee to look into Rangel's defense of a tax shelter loophole that allows tens of millions of dollars in tax breaks for a company which has donated $1 million to the City College of New Yorkmarker school named after Rangel; under the loophole approved by Rangel's Ways and Means Committee, Nabors Industries has been allowed to open a small outlet in Bermudamarker and call itself a foreign corporation. Rangel denied the charges. In 2004, he had led the opposition to the tax breaks. Nabors' CEO, Eugene Isenberg, said that the company's September 2006 donation was unrelated to what he calls Rangel's promise to him to oppose the closing of the loophole after a meeting in February 2007. Isenberg gave a further $100,000 to the Rangel Center five days prior to that meeting. Nabors was one of four companies which benefited from the loophole.

The House Ethics Committee voted on December 9, 2008 to expand its investigation of Rangel to examine his role in the Isenberg matter. Isenberg subsequently denied there was any quid pro quo and called a New York Times article about it "full of malarkey".

In December 2008, it surfaced that Rangel paid $80,000 in campaign funds to an Internet company run by his son for the creation of his PAC website. Screenshots of the website have circulated showing grave misspellings and other errors on the site.

In January 2009, Representative John R. Carter introduced the Rangel Rule Act of 2009 (H.R. 735), a tongue-in-cheek proposal that would allow all taxpayers to not pay penalties and interest on back taxes, in reference to Rangel not yet having paid them.

In August 2009, Rangel amended his 2007 financial disclosure form to report more than $500,000 in previously unreported assets and income, which effectively doubles his reported net worth. On September 3, 2009 the Washington Post called on Rangel to resign his chairmanship. Unreported assets included a federal credit union checking account of between $250,000 and $500,000, several investment accounts, stock in Yum! Brands and PepsiCo, and property in Glassboro, New Jerseymarker. Rangel also did not pay property taxes on two of his New Jersey properties.

Legislation sponsored by Rangel


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  8. Current Biography Yearbook 1984, p. 338.
  9. Moothart, Allegra J. "Rep. Charles Rangel (New York)–Ways and Means Committee", U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
  10. Audrey Hudson, "Veterans on Hill support Iraq hit", The Washington Times, October 3, 2002.
  11. Unit citations are given to the entire membership of the unit, not just one person, and are required to be worn by soldiers that subsequently serve in that unit.
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  13. "Charles Rangel / Politician, social activist." Retrieved March 16, 2007.
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  15. Powell v. McCormack, 395 U.S. 486 (1969) (opinion full text)
  16. Rep. Rangel Will Seek to Reinstate Draft -
  17. RANGEL APOLOGIZES FOR GIULIANI COMMENTS, Charles Rangel press release, issued October 22, 2007. Accessed September 10, 2008.
  18. Charlie Rangel on hot seat for labeling Sarah Palin 'disabled'
  19. Rep. Charlie Rangel swears at Jason Mattera over scandal questions
  20. Rep. Charles Rangel, in wake of cop shooting, suggests even President Obama not safe in Harlem
  21. NYC mayor on Rangel's Obama remarks: 'Plain wrong'
  22. Charlie Rangel says he's sorry for involving the Obamas in controversial racism joke
  23. Rangel: 'Prejudice' Toward Obama Halting Health Care Reform
  24. Hernandez, Raymond. "Rangel to Ask Ethics Panel for Inquiry to Clear Him", The New York Times, July 18, 2008. Accessed September 17, 2008.
  25. Kocieniewski, David. "For Rangel, Four Rent-Stabilized Apartments", The New York Times, July 11, 2008. Accessed September 8, 2008.
  26. Chan, Sewell. "House Tables Censure Resolution on Rangel", The New York Times, August 1, 2008. Accessed September 17, 2008.
  27. Vincent, Isabel; and Edelman, Susan. "TRICKY CHARLIE'S CARIB 'HIDEAWAY': SHADY FILINGS ON BEACH-VILLA RENTAL INCOME", August 31, 2008. Accessed September 10, 2008.
  28. Kocieniewski, David; and Halbfinger, David M. "Interest Was Waived for Rangel on Loan for Villa", The New York Times, September 5, 2008. Accessed September 10, 2008.
  29. Kocieniewski, David. "Rangel Owes U.S. Back Taxes, Lawyer Says", The New York Times, September 9, 2008. Accessed September 10, 2008.
  30. Editorial. "Chairman Rangel", The New York Times, September 14, 2008. Accessed September 17, 2008.
  31. "More Errors For Rep. Rangel; Hires New Account: Financial Paper's Problems Prompts Hiring Of Forensic Accounting Expert", WCBS-TV, September 15, 2008. Accessed September 15, 2008
  32. Big Wheel Benz The Rules, New York Post, September 18, 2008
  33. Congressman Pays Back Tax on Dominican Republic Villa The New York Times, Published: September 19, 2008
  34. Kramer, Marcia. "House To Launch Investigation Into Rep. Rangel." CBS 2 News September 24, 2008.
  35. Isabel Vincent and Jill Culora, "Rangel Double-Deal$", New York Post, November 23, 2008.
  36. Kocieniewski, David, " The Congressman, the Donor and the Tax Break", The New York Times, November 25, 2008, accessed June 8, 2009
  37. Kocieniewski, David, " House Ethics Panel Expands Rangel Inquiry", The New York Times, December 10, 2008, accessed June 8, 2009
  38. Flaherty, Peter, " Nabors Chairman Gets Testy With Flaherty About Rangel Center Donation; Calls NY Times 'Full of Malarkey'", National Legal and Policy Center, June 5, 2009, accessed June 8, 2009
  41. Twittering over 'Rangel Rule', Politico, January 29, 2009
  42. Editorial. “The Absent-Minded Chairman”, The Wall Street Journal, August 28, 2009.

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