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Charlie Chan is a fictional Chinese-American detective created by Earl Derr Biggers in 1923 for a novel published in 1925. Biggers conceived of the character as an alternative to Yellow Peril stereotypes; unlike such villains as Fu Manchu, Chan is portrayed as non-threatening and benevolent. However, he is also portrayed as portly and asexual, and while Chan often encounters racism, he does not always speak openly against it.

Over four dozen films featuring Charlie Chan have been made, beginning in 1926. The character was at first portrayed by Asian actors, and the films were met with little success. In 1931, the Fox Film Corporation cast Swedish actor Warner Oland as Chan in Charlie Chan Carries On; the film was a success, and Fox went on to produce 15 more Chan films with Oland in the title role. Following Oland's death, Scottish American actor Sidney Toler was cast as Chan; Toler made 22 Chan films, first for Fox and then for his own Monogram Studios. After Toler's death, six more films were made, starring Roland Winters. In addition, a number of Spanish- and Chinese-language Chan films were made during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, and Americanmarker Chan films were shown in Chinamarker, where the character was popular and respected. More recent film adaptations, in the 1990s, have been unsuccessful. The character has also been featured in several radio programs, two television shows, and a number of comics.

The character has, however, been controversial, with some critics and commentators arguing that Chan portrays Asians in a positive light and others arguing that the character is an offensive stereotype. Those who take the former view argue that Chan is portrayed as intelligent, benevolent, and honorable, in contrast to most depictions of Chinese at the time the character was created. Others argue that Chan, despite his good qualities, is one-dimensional, and that, further, Chan is portrayed as effeminate and subservient to whites while the film version of the character has only been successful when portrayed by white actors.

Books

The character of Charlie Chan was created by Earl Derr Biggers. In 1919, while on vacation in Hawaiimarker, Biggers planned a detective novel to be called The House Without a Key. He did not begin to write the novel until four years later, however, when he was inspired to add a Chinese American police officer to the plot after reading in a newspaper of Chang Apana (张阿斑) and Lee Fook, two Chinese-American detectives on the Honolulu police force. Biggers explicitly conceived of the character as an alternative to Yellow Peril stereotypes: "Sinister and wicked Chinese are old stuff, but an amiable Chinese on the side of law and order has never been used."

"It overwhelms me with sadness to admit it ... for he is of my own origin, my own race, as you know. But when I look into his eyes I discover that a gulf like the heaving Pacific lies between us. Why? Because he, though among Caucasians many more years than I, still remains Chinese. As Chinese to-day as in the first moon of his existence. While I – I bear the brand – the label – Americanized.... I traveled with the current.... I was ambitious. I sought success. For what I have won, I paid the price. Am I an American? No. Am I, then, a Chinese? Not in the eyes of Ah Sing.
Charlie Chan, speaking of a criminal, in Keeper of the Keys, by Earl Derr Biggers
The "amiable Chinese" made his first appearance in The House Without a Key (1925). The character was not central to the novel and was not mentioned by name on the dustjacket of the first edition. In the novel, Chan is described as walking with "the light dainty step of a woman" and as being "very fat indeed ... an undistinguished figure in his Western clothes." According to critic Sandra Hawley, this description of Chan allows Biggers to portray the character as non-threatening, the opposite of such evil Chinese characters as Fu Manchu, while simultaneously emphasizing supposedly Chinese characteristics such as impassivity and stoicism. Chan's appearance is frequently compared to that of Buddha, reinforcing "the controlling image of Chan's contentment with his station in life and his forgiving attitude towards racism." His "bulging waistband" and "unimpressive figure" are stressed in The House Without a Key, Behind That Curtain, and succeeding Chan novels, emphasizing the character's asexuality.

Critic Jachinson Chan argues that the books portray Charlie Chan as "a subordinated character, stripped of any patriarchal powers, and racially and culturally domesticated by racism". He argues that the books employ a racial ideology in which certain races are superior to others; native Hawaiians are called "a dying race" and they as well as the Japanese are portrayed as inferior to and servants of white characters. The fact that Chan lives in Hawaii allows white characters on the mainland, where most of the books take place, to appreciate Chan's services with the understanding that Chan will not live among them. Chan is sometimes treated as a note-taker by the white police officers with whom he works, a fact he does not protest; instead, Chan treats the white officers deferentially. Although Chan rises through the ranks of the Hawaiian police over the course of the books, "his role is still secondary to the white, middle-to-upper class male lead who is always a sexual being", in contrast to Chan, who, despite his ten children, is portrayed as non-sexual. Chan occasionally responds to racist remarks with indignation, but he is often silent and sometimes apologizes when unfairly blamed for others' mistakes. In addition, Chan's command of English is poor, and he "[drags] his words painfully from the poets".

Film, radio, and television adaptations

Films

The first Charlie Chan film was The House without a Key (1926), a 10-chapter serial produced by Pathé Studios, starring George Kuwa, a Japanese actor, as Chan. A year later Universal Pictures followed the film with The Chinese Parrot, starring another Japanese actor, Kamiyama Sojin, in the starring role. In both productions, Charlie Chan's role was minimized. Because Chan, despite his minimized role, was played by Asian actors, contemporary reviews were unfavorable. In the words of one reviewer, speaking of The Chinese Parrot, Sojin plays "the Chink sleuth as a Lon Chaney cook-waiter ... because Chaney can't stoop that low."

Keye Luke, who played Charlie Chan's son in a number of Chan films
In 1929, the Fox Film Corporation acquired the rights to Charlie Chan and produced Behind That Curtain, starring Korean actor E.L. Park. Again, Chan's role was minimized, with Chan appearing only in the last 10 minutes of the film. Not until a white actor was cast in the title role did a Chan film meet with success, beginning with 1931's Charlie Chan Carries On, starring Swedish actor Warner Oland as Chan. Oland played the character as much more gentle and self-effacing than he had been in the books, perhaps in "a deliberate attempt by the studio to downplay such an uppity attitude in a Chinese detective." Oland starred in 15 more Chan films for Fox, often with Keye Luke, who played Chan's "Number One Son", Lee Chan. The Oland Chan films were among Fox's most successful of the period, attracting "major audiences and box-office grosses on a par with A's."

Warner Oland died in 1938, and the Chan film he had been working on, Charlie Chan at the Ringside, was transformed at the last minute into Mr. Moto's Gamble, an entry in the Mr. Moto series, another contemporary series featuring an Asian protagonist. Fox hired another white actor, Sidney Toler, to play Charlie Chan, and produced 11 more Chan films through 1942. Toler's Chan was less mild-mannered than Oland's, a "switch in attitude that did much to add some of the vigor of the original books to the films." He is frequently accompanied, and irritated, by his Number Two Son, Jimmy Chan, played by Sen Yung.

When Fox decided not to produce any further Chan films, Sidney Toler purchased the film rights. Producers Philip N. Krasne and James S. Burkett of Monogram Pictures decided to release further Chan films, starring Toler. The budget for each film was reduced from Fox's average of $200,000 to $75,000. For the first time, Chan was portrayed on occasion as "openly contemptuous of his suspects and superiors." African-American actor Mantan Moreland was hired as regular character Birmingham Brown, a fact which led to criticism of the Monogram films in the forties and since; some call these performances "brilliant comic turns", while others describe Moreland's roles as an offensive and embarrassing stereotype. Toler died in 1947 and was succeeded by Roland Winters for a final six films.

Spanish-language adaptations

Three Spanish-language Charlie Chan films were made in the 1930s and 1950s. The first of these, Eran Trece (There Were Thirteen) (1931), is a Spanish-language version of Charlie Chan Carries On (1931). The two films were made concurrently and followed the same production schedule, with each scene being filmed twice the same day, once in English and once in Spanish. The film followed essentially the same script as the English-language version, with minor additions such as short songs and skits and some changes to characters' names (for example, the character Elmer Benbow was re-named Frank Benbow). A Cuban production, La Serpiente Roja, followed in 1937. In 1955, Producciones Cub-Mex produced a Mexican version of Charlie Chan called El Monstruo en la Sombra, starring Orlando Rodriguez as "Chan Li Po" (Charlie Chan in the original script). The film was inspired by La Serpiente Roja as well as the American Warner Oland films.

Chinese-language adaptations

During the 1930s and 1940s, at least five Chan films were produced in Shanghai and Hong Kong. In these films, Chan owns his own detective agency and is aided, not by a son, but by a daughter, Manna, played first by Gu Meijun (顾梅君) in the Shanghai productions and then by Bai Yan (白燕) in post-war Hong Kong. American Charlie Chan films were also shown in China, to full houses. Warner Oland's visit to China was reported extensively in Chinese newspapers, with Oland being referred to respectfully as "Mr. Chan." The Chan films were the most popular American films in 1930s China; "one of the reasons for this acceptance was this was the first time Chinese audiences saw a positive Chinese character in an American film, a sharp departure from the sinister Oriental stereotypes in earlier movies like Thief of Baghdad and Welcome Danger, which incited riots that shut down the Shanghai theater showing it."

Modern adaptations

In 1980, Jerry Shylock proposed a multi-million dollar comedy film, to be called Charlie Chan and the Dragon Lady. A group calling itself C.A.N. (Coalition of Asians to Nix) was formed, protesting the fact that two white actors, Peter Ustinov and Angie Dickinson, had been cast in the primary roles. Others protested that the film itself contained a number of stereotypes; Shylock responded that the film was not a documentary. The film was released the following year as Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen and was an "abysmal failure." More successful was Wayne Wang's Chan is Missing (1982), which was a spoof of the older Chan films. An updated film version of the character was planned in the 1990s by Miramax; this new Charlie Chan was to be "hip, slim, cerebral, sexy and ... a martial-arts master", but the film did not come to fruition. Actress Lucy Liu is slated to star in and executive-produce a new Charlie Chan film for Fox. The film has been in pre-production since 2000; as of 2009 it is still slated to be produced.

Radio

On radio, Charlie Chan was heard in different series on four networks (Blue, NBC, ABC, MBS) between 1932 and 1948. Walter Connolly initially portrayed Chan as part of Esso Oil's Five Star Theater, which serialized adaptations of Biggers novels. Ed Begley, Sr. had the title role in NBC's The Adventures of Charlie Chan (1944-45), followed by Santos Ortega (1947-48). Leon Janney and Rodney Jacobs were heard as Lee Chan, Number One Son, and Dorian St. George was the program's announcer. Radio Life magazine described Begley's Chan as "a good radio match for Sidney Toler's beloved film enactment."

Television adaptations

From 1956-57, The New Adventures of Charlie Chan, starring J. Carrol Naish in the title role, were made independently for TV syndication in a series of 39 episodes, by Television Programs of America. The series was filmed in England. In this series, Chan is based on London rather than the United States. Ratings were poor, and the series was quickly canceled.

In the 1970s, Hanna-Barbera produced an animated series called The Amazing Chan and the Chan Clan. Keye Luke, who had played Chan's son in many films in the 1930s and 40s, played the voice Chan. The series focused, however, on Chan's children, played primarily by Asian-American child actors. Jodie Foster alternated with Leslie Kumamota in voicing Chan's daughter Anne.

Comics and games

A Charlie Chan comic strip, drawn by Alfred Andriola, was distributed by the McNaught Syndicate beginning October 24, 1938. Andriola was chosen by Biggers to draw the character. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbormarker, the strip was dropped at the end of May 1942.

Over decades, several other Charlie Chan comic books have been published: Joe Simon and Jack Kirby created Prize Comics' Charlie Chan (1948) which ran for five issues. It was followed by a Charlton Comics title (four issues, 1955). DC Comics published The New Adventures of Charlie Chan, a 1958 tie-in with the TV series; the DC series lasted for six issues. Dell Comics did the title for two issues in 1965. In the 1970s, Gold Key Comics published a short-lived series of Chan comics based directly on the Hanna-Barbera animated series.

In addition, a board game, The Great Charlie Chan Detective Mystery Game (1937), and a Charlie Chan Card Game (1939), have been released.

Controversy and criticism

The character of Charlie Chan has been the subject of much controversy. Some find the character to be a positive role model, while others argue that Chan is an offensive stereotype. Critic John Soister argues that Charlie Chan is both; when Biggers created the character, he offered a unique alternative to stereotypical evil Chinamen who was at the same time "sufficiently accommodating in personality... unthreatening in demeanor... and removed from his Asian homeland... to quell any underlying xenophobia."

Critic Michael Brodhead argues that "Biggers's sympathetic treatment of the Charlie Chan novels convinces the reader that their author consciously and forthrightly spoke out for the Chinese - a people to be not only accepted but admired. Biggers's sympathetic treatment of the Chinese both reflected and contributed to the greater acceptance of the Chinese in America in the first third of this century." S. T. Karnick writes in the National Review that Chan is "a brilliant detective with understandably limited facility in the English language [whose] powers of observation, logic, and personal rectitude and humility made him an exemplary, entirely honorable character." Ellery Queen called Biggers's characterization of Charlie Chan "a service to humanity and to inter-racial relations." Actor Keye Luke, who played Chan's son in many films, agrees; when asked if he thought that the character was demeaning to the race, he responded, "Demeaning to the race? My God! You've got a Chinese hero!"

Other critics, such as Yen Le Espiratu and Huang Guiyou, argue that Chan, while portrayed positively in some ways, is not on a par with white characters, but a "benevolent Other" who is "one-dimensional." The films' extensive use of yellowface indicates the character's "absolute Oriental Otherness;" the films were only successful when they were "the domain of white actors who impersonated slant-eyed, heavily-accented masters of murder mysteries as well as purveyors of cryptic proverbs in what Eugene Wong calls a 'racist cosmetology.'" Chan's character "embodies the stereotypes and stigmas of Chinese Americans, particularly of males: smart, subservient, effeminate." Chan is a model minority, the good stereotype that counters a bad stereotype: "Each stereotypical image is filled with contradictions: the bloodthirsty Indian is tempered with the image of the noble savage; the bandido exists along with the loyal sidekick; and Fu Manchu is offset by Charlie Chan." However, Fu Manchu's evil qualities are presented as inherently Chinese, while Charlie Chan's good qualities are exceptional; "Fu represents his race; his counterpart stands away from the other Asian Hawaiians."

Some argue that the character's popularity is dependent on its contrast with stereotypes of the Yellow Peril or the Japanese in particular. According to Jachinson Chan, Charlie Chan's popularity corresponds to a change in white America's opinion of the Chinese; by the 1920s, Chinese Americans were considered obedient, docile, and loyal, in contrast to the Japanese, who were increasingly viewed with suspicion. Thus "Charlie Chan's popularity provided a convenient way to justify growing anti-Japanese sentiments." Sheng-mei Ma argues that the character is a psychological overcompensation to "rampant paranoia over the racial other." Franklin Odo argues that Yellow Peril stereotypes became psychologically unbearable and that white fears regarding the Chinese found an outlet in representations of Chinese as incapable of grammatical speech.

Recent opinion has been largely against the character. In 2003, the Fox Movie Channel discontinued a planned Charlie Chan Festival, soon after beginning restoration for special cablecasting, after a special interest group protested. Fox began releasing these restored versions on DVD in 2006; as of mid-2008, Fox has released all of the extant Warner Oland titles and has begun issuing the Sidney Toler series. The first six Monogram productions, all starring Sidney Toler, were released by MGM in 2004. The films, when broadcast on the Fox Movie Channel, were followed by round table discussions by prominent Asian-Americans in the entertainment industry, led by George Takei, most of whom were against the films. Collections such as Frank Chin's Aiiieeee! and Jessica Hagedorn's Charlie Chan is Dead are put forth as alternatives to the Charlie Chan stereotype and "[articulate] cultural anger and exclusion as their animating force."

Many modern critics, particularly Asian-American critics, claim that Chan is "bovine" and "asexual", allowing "white America ... [to be] securely indifferent about us as men." Charlie Chan's good qualities are the product of what Frank Chin and Jeffery Chan call "racist love", arguing that Chan is a model minority and "kissass". Fletcher Chan, however, argues that the Chan of Biggers's novels is not subservient to whites, citing The Chinese Parrot as an example; in this novel, Chan's eyes blaze with anger at racist remarks and in the end, after exposing the murderer, Chan remarks "Perhaps listening to a 'Chinaman' is no disgrace."

Bibliography

  • Biggers, Earl Derr. The House Without a Key. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1925.
  • —. The Chinese Parrot. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.
  • —. Behind That Curtain. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1928.
  • —. The Black Camel. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1929.
  • —. Charlie Chan Carries On. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1930.
  • —. Keeper of the Keys. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1932.
  • Davis, Robert Hart. Charlie Chan in The Temple of the Golden Horde. 1974. Charlie Chan's Mystery Magazine. Reprinted by Wildside Press, 2003. ISBN 1592240143.
  • Lynds, Dennis. Charlie Chan Returns. New York: Bantam Books, 1974. ASIN B000CD3I22.
  • Pronzini, Bill, and Jeffrey M. Wallman. Charlie Chan in the Pawns of Death. 1974. Charlie Chan's Mystery Magazine. Reprinted by Borgo Press, 2003. ISBN 9781592240104.
  • Avallone, Michael. Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen. New York: Pinnacle, 1981. ISBN 0523415052.


Filmography

Unless otherwise noted, information is taken from Charles P. Mitchell's A Guide to Charlie Chan Films (1999).

Film title Starring Directed by Released Notes
The House Without a Key George Kuwa Spencer G. Bennet 1926
The Chinese Parrot Kamayama Sojin Paul Leni 1927
Behind That Curtain E.L. Park Irving Cummings 1929
Charlie Chan Carries On Warner Oland Hamilton MacFadden 1931
Eran Trece (in Spanish) Manuel Arbó ? 1931
The Black Camel Warner Oland Hamilton MacFadden 1931
Charlie Chan's Chance Warner Oland John Blystone 1932
Charlie Chan's Greatest Case Warner Oland Hamilton MacFadden 1933
Charlie Chan's Courage Warner Oland George Hadden and Eugene Forde 1934
Charlie Chan in London Warner Oland Eugene Forde 1934
Charlie Chan in Paris Warner Oland Lewis Seiler 1935
Charlie Chan in Egypt Warner Oland Louis King 1935
Charlie Chan in Shanghai Warner Oland James Tinling 1935
Charlie Chan's Secret Warner Oland Gordon Wiles 1936
Charlie Chan at the Circus Warner Oland Harry Lachman 1936
Charlie Chan at the Race Track Warner Oland H. Bruce Humberstone 1936
Charlie Chan at the Opera Warner Oland H. Bruce Humberstone 1936
Charlie Chan at the Olympics Warner Oland H. Bruce Humberstone 1937
Charlie Chan on Broadway Warner Oland Eugene Forde 1937
The Disappearing Corpse (in Chinese) ? ? 1937
La Serpiente Roja (in Spanish) ? ? 1937
Charlie Chan at Monte Carlo Warner Oland Eugene Forde 1937
Charlie Chan in Honolulu Sidney Toler H. Bruce Humberstone 1938
Charlie Chan in Reno Sidney Toler Norman Foster 1938
The Pearl Tunic (in Chinese) ? ? 1938
Charlie Chan at Treasure Island Sidney Toler Norman Foster 1939
City in Darkness Sidney Toler Herbert I. Leeds 1939
The Radio Station Murder (in Chinese) ? ? 1939
Charlie Chan's Murder Cruise Sidney Toler Eugene Forde 1940
Charlie Chan at the Wax Museum Sidney Toler Lynn Shores 1940
Charlie Chan in Panama Sidney Toler Norman Foster 1940
Murder Over New York Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1940
Dead Men Tell Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1941
Charlie Chan in Rio Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1941
Charlie Chan Smashes an Evil Plot (in Chinese) 徐莘园 (Xu Xinyuan) 徐莘夫 (Xu Xinfu) 1941
Castle in the Desert Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1942
Charlie Chan in the Secret Service Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1944
The Chinese Cat Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1944
Black Magic Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1944
The Shanghai Cobra Sidney Toler Phil Karlson 1945
The Red Dragon Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1945
The Scarlet Clue Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1945
The Jade Mask Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1945
Dangerous Money Sidney Toler Terry O. Morse 1946
Dark Alibi Sidney Toler Phil Karlson 1946
Shadows Over Chinatown Sidney Toler Terry O. Morse 1946
The Trap Sidney Toler Howard Bretherton 1946
The Chinese Ring Roland Winters William Beaudine 1947
Docks of New Orleans Roland Winters Derwin Abrahams 1948
Shanghai Chest Roland Winters William Beaudine 1948
The Golden Eye Roland Winters William Beaudine 1948
The Feathered Serpent Roland Winters William Beaudine 1948
Charlie Chan Matches Wits with the Prince of Darkness (in Chinese) 徐莘园 (Xu Xinyuan) 徐莘夫 (Xu Xinfu) 1948
Sky Dragon Roland Winters Lesley Selander 1949
El Monstruo en la Sombra ? Zacarias Urquiza 1955
Charlie Chan: Happiness is a Warm Clue Ross Martin Daryl Duke 1973
Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen Peter Ustinov Clive Donner 1981


Notes

  1. Mitchell (1999), xxv.
  2. This point is debated. Hawley says Apana directly inspired Biggers (135); Herbert says Apana may have done so (20). However, Biggers himself, in an 1931 interview, cited both Apana and Fook as inspirations for the character of Charlie Chan ("Creating Charlie Chan" [1931]). When Biggers actually met Apana a few years later, he found that his character and Apana had little in common ("Creating Charlie Chan [1931]).
  3. Earl Derr Biggers, quoted in "Creating Charlie Chan" (1931).
  4. Quoted in Sommer (), 211.
  5. Queen (1969), 102.
  6. The House Without a Key, quoted in Odo (2002), 388.
  7. The House Without a Key, quoted in Hawley (1991), 136.
  8. Hawley (1991), 136.
  9. Chan (2001), 56.
  10. Behind That Curtain, quoted in Chan (2001), 65.
  11. Chan (2001), 65.
  12. Chan (2001), 59.
  13. The House Without a Key, quoted in Chan (2001), 60.
  14. Chan (2001), 60.
  15. Chan (2001), 61.
  16. Chan (2001), 63.
  17. Chan (2001), 53.
  18. Chan (2001), 66-67.
  19. Mitchell (1999), xvi.
  20. Hanke (1989), xii.
  21. Mitchell (1999), xviii.
  22. Quoted in Soister (2004), 71.
  23. Mitchell (1999), 2.
  24. Balio (1995), 336.
  25. Hanke (1989), 111.
  26. Balio (1995), 316.
  27. Balio (1995), 317.
  28. Hanke (1989), 169.
  29. Hanke (1989), 111-114.
  30. Hanke (1989), 170.
  31. Cullen, et al (2007), 794.
  32. Hanke (1989), 220.
  33. Mitchell (1999), 153.
  34. Mitchell (1999), 153-154.
  35. Mitchell (1999), 235.
  36. Chan (2001), 58.
  37. Pitts (1991), 301.
  38. Sengupta (1997).
  39. Littlejohn (2008).
  40. Yang Jie (2009).
  41. Dunning (1998), 149.
  42. Cox (2002), 9.
  43. Quoted in Dunning (1998), 149.
  44. Mitchell (1999), 237.
  45. Mitchell (1999), 238.
  46. Mitchell (1999), 240.
  47. Young (2007), 128. Ma (2000), 13 gives the dates as 1935 to 1938; however, Young's obituary in The New York Times states that the strip began in 1938.
  48. Ma (2000), 13.
  49. Young (2007), 128.
  50. Anderson and Eury (2005), 1923.
  51. Rinker (1988), 312.
  52. Soister (), 67.
  53. Michael Brodhead, quoted in Chan (2001), 56.
  54. Karnick (2006).
  55. Quoted in Hanke (2004), xv.
  56. Kato (2007), 138.
  57. Le Espiritu (1996), 99.
  58. Dave (2005), xiii.
  59. Dave (2005), 161.
  60. Huang (2006), 211.
  61. Michael Omi, quoted in Chan (2001), 51.
  62. Chan (2001), 52.
  63. Ma (2000), 4.
  64. Odo (2002), 388.
  65. Dave (2005), 339.
  66. Kim (1982), 179.
  67. Frank Chin and Jeffery Chan, quoted in Kim (1982), 179.
  68. Chin and Chan, quoted in Kim (1982), 179.
  69. The Chinese Parrot, quoted in Chan (2007).
  70. Struss (1987), 114.
  71. This film is lost; no print is known currently to exist.
  72. Hanke states that Chan was played by "Juan Torenas"; however, the more recent Guide to Charlie Chan Films by Charles P. Mitchell states that a Juan Torena played a supporting role in the film and that Arbó was the star (Mitchell [1999], 153). Mitchell's book features a reproduction of the original movie poster, which lists Arbó's name before Torena's and in larger print.
  73. Hardy (1997), 76, suggests the date is 1932.
  74. Spanish-language version of Charlie Chan Carries On.
  75. Remake of The House Without a Key.
  76. Re-make of The Chinese Parrot.
  77. "Charlie Chan in China" (2008).
  78. Later retitled Meeting at Midnight for TV
  79. Reid (2004), 86.
  80. Willis (1972), 329.
  81. Pitts (1991), 305.
  82. Aired on British television in 1973; aired on ABC in 1979 as The Return of Charlie Chan (Pitts [1991], 301).


References

  • "Creating Charlie Chan" (22 March 1931). In Popular Culture (1975). Ed. by David Manning White. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 040506649X.
  • Hawley, Sandra M. (1991). "The Importance of Being Charlie Chan." In America views China: American images of China then and now. Ed. by Jonathan Goldstein, Jerry Israel, and Hilary Conroy. Lehigh University Press. ISBN 0934223130.


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