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Chattanooga is the fourth-largest city in Tennesseemarker (after Memphismarker, Nashvillemarker, and Knoxvillemarker), and the seat of Hamilton Countymarker. Located in southeastern Tennessee on Chickamauga Lakemarker and Nickajack Lakemarker, which are both part of the Tennessee River, Chattanooga lies approximately 104 miles to the north-northwest of Atlanta, Georgiamarker, 120 miles to the Southwest of Knoxville, about 135 miles to the southeast of Nashville, and about 148 miles to the northeast of Birmingham, Alabamamarker. Chattanooga abuts the Georgiamarker border, and the region is where three major interstate highways, I-24, I-75, and I-59, meet.

The city, which has a downtown elevation of approximately 680 feet, lies at the transition between the ridge-and-valley portion of the Appalachian Mountainsmarker and the Cumberland Plateau. The city is therefore surrounded by various mountains and ridges. Chattanooga's official nickname is the "Scenic City".

History

The first inhabitants of the Chattanooga area were Native American Indians. Sites dating back to the Upper Paleolithic period showed continuous occupation through the Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian/Muskogean (900-1650), and Cherokee (1776-1838) periods.

Chief John Ross was said to have stated that Chattanooga was Cherokee for "The Big Catch" because of good fishing on the Tennessee River.

A late 19th century history recounted:

The earliest Cherokee occupation dates from Dragging Canoe, who in 1776 separated himself and moved downriver from the main tribe to establish Native American resistance (see Chickamauga Wars) to European settlement in the southeastern United States. In 1816 John Ross, who later became Principal Chief, settled here and established Ross's Landing. Located along what is now Broad Street, it became one of the centers of Cherokee Nation settlement, which also extended into Georgia and Alabama.

In 1838 the US government forced the Cherokees, along with other Native American Indians from southeastern U.S. states, to relocate in what is presently the state of Oklahomamarker. Their journey west became known as the "Trail of Tears" for their exile and fatalities along the way. The US Army used Ross's Landing as the site of one of three large internment camps, or "emigration depots", where Native Americans were held prior to the journey on the Trail of Tears. The other two were Fort Payne, Alabamamarker and the largest at Fort Cassmarker, Tennessee.

In 1838, the community of Ross's Landing incorporated as the city of Chattanooga, the Creek word for Lookout Mountainmarker. The city grew quickly, initially benefiting from a location well-suited for river commerce. With the arrival of the railroad in 1850, Chattanooga became a boom town. The city was known as the site "where cotton meets corn," referring to its location along the cultural boundary between the mountain communities of Southern Appalachia to the north and the cotton-growing states to the south.

Confederate prisoners of war at a railroad depot in Chattanooga


During the American Civil War, Chattanooga was a center of battle. During the Chickamauga Campaignmarker, Union artillery bombarded Chattanooga as a diversion and occupied it on September 9, 1863. Following the Battle of Chickamaugamarker, the defeated Union Army retreated to safety in Chattanooga. On November 23, 1863, the Battles for Chattanoogamarker began when Union forces led by Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant reinforced troops at Chattanooga and advanced to Orchard Knob against Confederate troops besieging the city. The next day, the Battle of Lookout Mountainmarker was fought, driving the Confederates off the mountain. On November 25, Grant's army routed the Confederates in the Battle of Missionary Ridgemarker. These battles were followed the next spring by the Atlanta Campaignmarker, beginning just over the nearby state line in Georgiamarker and moving southeastward.

Market Square in 1907


After the war ended, the city became a major railroad hub and industrial and manufacturing center. By the 1930s it was known as the "Dynamo of Dixie", inspiring the 1941 Glenn Miller big-band swing song "Chattanooga Choo Choo". The same mountains that provided Chattanooga's scenic backdrop became shrouded by the industrial pollutants that they trapped and held over the community.

In 1969, the federal government declared that Chattanooga's air was the dirtiest in the nation. But environmental crises were not the only problems plaguing the city. Like other early industrial cities, Chattanooga entered the 1980s with serious socioeconomic challenges, including job layoffs due to deindustrialization, a deteriorating city infrastructure, racial tensions and social division. Because of these factors, in the 1980s, Chattanooga lost over 10 percent of its population. However, since the 1980s, Chattanooga has become the only major city in the United States to regain growth in the 2 decades since.

In recent years, private and governmental resources have been invested in transforming the city's tarnished image. They have worked to revitalize its downtown and riverfront areas, making use of its natural resources. An early cornerstone of this project was the restoration of the historic Walnut Street Bridgemarker. The Walnut Street Bridge is the oldest surviving bridge of its kind in the Southeastern United States.

Efforts to improve the city include the "21st Century Waterfront Plan" - a $120 million redevelopment of the Chattanooga waterfront and downtown area. The Tennessee Aquarium has become a major waterfront attraction that has helped to spur neighborhood development. Over the last ten years the city has won three national awards for outstanding "livability", and nine Gunther Blue Ribbon Awards for excellence in housing and consolidated planning.

Economy

Downtown Chattanooga


Chattanooga's economy includes a diversified and growing mix of manufacturing and service industries.

Notable Chattanooga businesses include Access America Transport, BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, CBL & Associates, The Chattanooga Bakery, Chattem, the world's first Coca-Cola bottling plant, Coker Tire, Coptix, Covenant Transport, Double Cola, Gordon Biersch Brewery Restaurant Group, Krystal, Litespeed, Miller & Martin, National Model Railroad Association, Olan Mills, Inc., Republic Parking System, Retro Television Network (RTN), Rock/Creek,Tricycle Inc., and Unum. The city also hosts large branch offices of Cigna, AT&T and UBS. McKee Foods Corporation, maker of Little Debbie brand snack cakes, is a privately held, family-run company headquartered in nearby Collegedale, Tennesseemarker.

Notable companies that have manufacturing or distribution facilities in the city include Alstom, BASFmarker, DuPont, Invista, Komatsu, Rock-Tenn, Plantronics, Domtar Corp., Norfolk Southern, Alco Chemical, Colonial Pipeline and Buzzi Unicem. The William Wrigley Jr. Company has a prominent presence in Chattanooga, now the sole production facility for Altoids breath mint products. There is also a Vulcan Materials quarry in the vicinity of the city.

On July 15 2008, Volkswagen Group of America announced plans to build its new production facility in Chattanooga. The $1 billion plant, due to open in 2011, will serve as the group's North American manufacturing headquarters. The plant is the first for Volkswagen since the 1988 closure of New Stanton, Pennsylvaniamarker's auto plant.

In addition to corporate business interests, there are many retail shops in Chattanooga, including three shopping malls: Hamilton Place Mallmarker in East Brainerdmarker, Northgate Mallmarker in Hixson, and Eastgate Town Center in Brainerd.

Utilities



Electric power for most of the city and surrounding area is provided by the city-run Electric Power Board (EPB). Beginning in the summer of 2009, the EPB is also providing high-speed Internet service, video, and telephone service to business and residential customers throughout Hamilton County. The services that the EPB is providing to residents and businesses in Hamilton County is done via what will be the nation's largest municipally owned fiber-optic system. The TVA operates the nearby Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plantmarker, Chickamauga Dammarker and the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plantmarker, all of which provide electricity to the greater Chattanooga area.

Natural gas and water are provided by the privately run Chattanooga Gas Company and Tennessee-American Water Company, respectively. In 2005 Mayor Ron Littlefield stated his desire for the city to purchase the Tennessee-American Water Company,, which was sold in a public offering in 2007. Former Mayor Jon Kinsey's attempts to have the city buy control of Tennessee-American Water were defeated in court.

Comcast is the cable provider for most areas of the city. The incumbent telephone company is AT&T. However, competing phone companies, cellular phones and VoIP are beginning to make inroads. A major interstate fiber optics line operated by AT&T traverses the city, making its way from Atlantamarker to Cincinnatimarker.

Politics, government and law

The current mayor is Ron Littlefield, a long-time city councilman, who was elected in a run-off election in April 2005. Mayor Littlefield was reelected to a second four year term in March 2009.

The city operates under a charter granted by the state legislature in 1852, and the charter has been subsequently amended. As of 2009, the city operates with a strong mayor system.

The city's legislative branch is split up into nine districts, with a council member for each district selected in partisan elections. The current council members are Deborah Scott (District 1), Sally Robinson (District 2), Pam Ladd (District 3), Jack Benson (District 4), Russell Gilbert (District 5), Carol Berz (District 6), Manuel "Manny" Rico (District 7), Andrae McGary (District 8) and Peter Murphy (District 9).

See also a list of Mayors of Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Education

Primary and secondary education

Most of Chattanooga's primary and secondary education is funded by the government. The public schools in Chattanooga (and Hamilton County) fall under the purview of the Hamilton County School System. The Howard School, now a magnet school, was the first public school in the area, established in 1865 after the Civil War. The Chattanooga School for the Arts and Sciences is another public magnet school.

In addition, the city is home to several well-known private and parochial secondary schools, including Baylor Schoolmarker, Boyd-Buchanan School, McCallie School, Girls Preparatory School, Chattanooga Christian School, and Notre Dame High Schoolmarker. Grace Baptist Academy is a K-12 private school well-known for its academics and middle and secondary sports programs, having had several male and female sports teams that have played at the state tournament level. Brainerd Baptist School is a small Christian elementary school. Siskin Children's Institute in Chattanooga is a specialized institution in the field of early childhood special education.

Higher education

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga's Founders Hall
The University of Tennessee at Chattanoogamarker is the second largest campus of the University of Tennessee System, with a student population of over 10,000. The University of the South at Sewanee lies about seventy miles to the northwest of Chattanooga. Chattanooga State Technical Community College and several religious schools are located here, including Tennessee Temple University. Chattanooga also has a branch of the University of Tennessee College of Medicine, which provides medical education to medical students, residents, and other medical professionals in southeast Tennessee through an affiliation with Erlanger Health Systemmarker.

Public library

As the name implies, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Bicentennial Library system has been jointly operated by the city and county governments since 1976. The city was gifted with a Carnegie library in 1904, and the two-story purpose-built marble structure survives to this day at Eighth Street and Georgia Avenue as commercial office space. In 1939, the library moved to Douglas Street and McCallie Avenue and shared the new building with the John Storrs Fletcher Library of the University of Chattanooga. This building is now called Fletcher Hall and houses classrooms and offices for the University. The city library was moved to its third and current location in 1976 at the corner of Tenth and Broad streets.

Health care

Chattanooga's health care sector has three hospital systems. Erlanger Hospitalmarker is a non-profit academic teaching center affiliated with the University of Tennesseemarker's College of Medicine. It's also the area's primary trauma center, a Level-One Trauma Center for adults, and the only provider of tertiary care for the residents of southeastern Tennesseemarker, north Georgiamarker, north Alabamamarker, and western North Carolinamarker. Erlanger treats approximately 250,000 people every year. In 2008, Erlanger was named one of the nation's "Top 100 teaching hospitals for cardiovascular care" by Thomson Reuters. Erlanger has been operated by the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Hospital Authority since 1976.

Parkridge Hospital is located east of downtown in the Glenwood District and is run by Tri-Star Healthcare. Tri-Star also operates Parkridge East Medical Center in nearby East Ridgemarker. Also located downtown is Memorial Hospital, which is operated by Catholic Health Initiatives. In 2004, Memorial was named one of the "Top 100 teaching hospitals" by Solucient Top Hospitals.

Culture and tourism

Museums



Chattanooga is home to the Hunter Museum of American Artmarker, a well known art museum. As the birthplace of the tow truck, Chattanooga is the home of the International Towing and Recovery Hall of Fame and Museum. Another transportation icon, the passenger train, can be found at the Tennessee Valley Railroad Museummarker, or called TVRM by locals, which is the largest operating historic railroad in the South. Other notable museums include the Chattanooga Regional History Museum, the National Medal of Honor Museum, the Houston Museum, the Chattanooga African American Museum, and the Creative Discovery Museum.

Arts and literature

Chattanooga has a range of performing arts in different venues. Its historic Tivoli Theatre has been renovated and is home to the Chattanooga Symphony and Opera, under the direction of Robert Bernhardt. The Chattanooga Theatre Centre offers 15 productions each year in three separate theater programs: the Mainstage, the Circle Theater, and the Youth Theater. Another popular performance venue is Memorial Auditoriummarker.

Chattanooga hosts several writing conferences, including the Conference on Southern Literature and the Festival of Writers, both sponsored by the Arts & Education Council of Chattanooga.

Attractions

Tennessee Aquarium


Chattanooga touts many attractions, including the Tennessee Aquarium, caverns, and new waterfront attractions along and across the Tennessee River. In the downtown area is the Chattanooga Choo Choomarker Holiday Inn Hotel, housed in a renovated train station and exhibiting the largest HO model train layout in the United States. Also downtown are the Creative Discovery Museum, a hands-on children's museum dedicated to science, art, and music; an IMAX 3D Theatre; and the newly expanded Hunter Museum of American Artmarker. The Tennessee Riverwalk, an approximately 13 mile long trail running alongside the river, is another attraction for both tourists and residents alike.

Across the river from downtown is the North Shore district, roughly bounded by the Olgiati Bridge to the west and Veterans Bridge to the east. The newly renovated area draws locals and tourists to locally owned independent boutiques and restaurants, plus attractions along the Chattanooga Riverpark system, including Coolidge Park and Renaissance Park. Chattanooga's only floating hotel, the Delta Queenmarker, is an unique attraction alongside the North Shore, and is permanently docked at Coolidge Park.

The Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Parkmarker is not far from the downtown area.

Parks and natural scenic areas provide other attractions. The red-and-black painted "See Rock Citymarker" barns along highways in the Southeast are remnants of a now-classic Americana tourism campaign to attract visitors to the Rock Citymarker tourist attraction in nearby Lookout Mountain, Georgiamarker. The mountain is also the site of Ruby Falls and Craven's House. The Lookout Mountain Incline Railwaymarker is a steep funicular railway that rises from the St. Elmo Historic District to the top of the mountain, where passengers can visit the National Park Service's Point Park and the Battles for Chattanooga Museum. Formerly known as Confederama, it contains a diorama that details the Battle of Chattanooga. From the military park, visitors can enjoy the panoramic views of Moccasin Bend and the Chattanooga skyline from the mountain's famous "point" or from vantage points along the well-marked trail system.

Near Chattanooga, the Raccoon Mountain Reservoirmarker, Raccoon Mountain Caverns and Reflection Riding Arboretum and Botanical Garden boast a number of outdoor and family fun opportunities. Other arboretums include Bonny Oaks Arboretum, Cherokee Arboretum at Audubon Acres and Cherokee Trail Arboretum. The Ocoee River, host to a number of events at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, features rafting, kayaking, camping and hiking. Also just outside Chattanooga is the Lake Winnepesaukahmarker amusement park. The Cumberland Trail begins in Signal Mountain, just outside of Chattanooga.



Festivals and events

Chattanooga hosts the Riverbend Festival, an annual nine-day music festival held in June in the downtown area. One of the most popular events is the "Bessie Smith Strut", a one-night showcase of blues and jazz music named for the city's most noted blues singer. The annual "Southern Brewer's Festival" and the "River Roast" festival celebrate such traditional Southern staples as beer and barbecue.

New events, such as GoFest!, "Between the Bridges" wakeboard competition and Talespin attract new audiences. Back Row Films is a city-wide celebration of film co-sponsored by the Hunter Museum of American Art, the Arts & Education Council and UTC.

"Nightfall" is the free weekly concert series in Miller Plaza on Friday nights that continues to bring an eclectic mix of rock, blues, jazz, reggae, zydeco, funk, bluegrass, and folk to downtown Chattanooga from Memorial Day until the end of September. The Chattanooga Marketmarker features events all year round as part of the "Sunday at the Southside", including an Oktoberfestmarker in mid-October.

The Chattanooga Dulcimer Festival, held each June, features workshops for mountain dulcimer, hammered dulcimer, and auto harp, among others, along with performances by champion performers from across the nation. Chattanooga is also the center of much bluegrass music. In 1935, as well as from 1993 to 1995, the city hosted the National Folk Festival.

Sports

Chattanooga is the home of the NCAA Division I Football Championship game, which has been held at the Max Finley Stadiummarker, which is south of downtown, since 1997.

The Chattanooga Lookouts, a Class AA Southern League baseball team affiliated with the Los Angeles Dodgers, boast a loyal following and respectable participation in season-end playoffs. Games take center stage at the downtown AT&T Fieldmarker with tickets starting at only $4.

Annually, the first weekend in November, the Head of the Hooch rowing regatta, takes place in downtown Chattanooga. The head race originally took place on the Chattahoochee River in Atlantamarker, giving it the name the Head of the Hooch. With 1,800+ boats in 2009, this ranked as the 2nd largest regatta in the United States. In addition to thousands of rowers descending on Chattanooga, there are festivities like hot-air balloon rides and a street market.

Chattanooga is also home to Chattanooga FC, a semi-profesional soccer team that currently plays in the National Premier Soccer League.

Outdoor sports

Due to its location at the junction of the Cumberland Plateau and the southern Appalachiansmarker, Chattanooga has become a haven for outdoor sports such as hunting, fishing, trail running, road running, adventure racing, rock climbing, mountain biking and road biking. The city boasts a number of outdoor clubs: Scenic City Velo, SORBA-Chattanooga, The Wilderness Trail Running Association, and The Chattanooga Track Club. The city also funds Outdoor Chattanooga, an organization focused on promoting outdoor recreation. In September of 2004, the city appointed its first-ever executive director of Outdoor Chattanooga to implement the organization's mission, which includes promoting bicycling for transportation, recreation and active living. For paddlers, Chattanooga offers the Tennessee River Blueway, a 50 mile recreational section of the Tennessee River that flows through Chattanooga and the Tennessee River Gorgemarker. In the spring of 2009, the Tennessee Aquarium launched their high speed catamaran, the River Gorge Explorer, to allow up to 70 people to explore the Tennessee River Gorgemarker. The Explorer departs from the Chattanooga Pier.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 155,554 people, 65,499 households, and 39,626 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,150.5 people per square mile (444.2/km²). There were 72,108 housing units at an average density of 533.3/sq mi (205.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 59.71% White, 36.06% Black, 0.29% American Indian, 1.54% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 1.01% from other races, and 1.30% from two or more races. 2.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The 2006 revised estimated population was 168,293 which is an 8.4% percent increase over the original 2006 estimate. In 2009, the US Census Bureau estimated that Chattanooga's overall population grew some 9.3% from 2000 to 2008, which is as fast as Tennessee's largest cities. Also, the Census Bureau reported that it estimated that the city of Chattanooga added some 15,326 residents since the 2000 census, for an estimated 2008 population of 170,880 people.

There were 165,499 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 17.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.5% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.92. Same-sex couple households comprised 0.4% of all households.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 89.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,006, and the median income for a family was $41,318. Males had a median income of $31,375 versus $23,267 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,689. About 14.0% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.0% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over.

Chattanooga's Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Hamilton, Marion, and Sequatchie counties in Tennessee and Catoosa, Dade, and Walker counties in Georgia, grew from 476,531 people, as of the 2000 census, to 496,704 people, as estimated on July 1, 2006. By July 1, 2008, the US Census Bureau had estimated the Chattanooga metropolitan area had grown to 518,441 people, up 9.6% from July 2006.The Chattanooga-Cleveland-Athens Combined Statistical Area, which includes Bradley, Hamilton, Marion, McMinn, Polk, and Sequatchie counties in Tennessee, and Catoosa, Dade, and Walker counties in Georgia, had an estimated population of 658,201 in 2006. The Chattanooga-Cleveland-Athens Combined Statistical Area had an estimated population of 683,095 people, as of July 1, 2008, up 9.6% from July 2006.

Geography and climate

The city is located at latitude 35°4' North, longitude 85°15' West.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 143.2 square miles (370.8 km²), of which, 135.2 square miles (350.2 km²) of it is land and 8.0 square miles (20.6 km²) of it (5.56%) is water.

The most prominent natural features in and around Chattanooga are the Tennessee River and the surrounding highlands. The city is nestled between the southwestern Ridge-and-valley Appalachians and the foot of Walden's Ridgemarker; the river separates the ridge from the western side of downtown. Several miles east, the city is bisected by Missionary Ridge, which hosted an important battle of the American Civil War.

The Tennessee River is impounded by the TVA's Chickamauga Dammarker north of the downtown area. Five automobile bridges, one railroad trestle, and one pedestrian bridge cross the river.

Road transport is served by Interstate 75 to Atlantamarker and Knoxvillemarker, Interstate 24 to Nashvillemarker, and Interstate 59 to Birminghammarker. Chattanooga and the surrounding area is served by the Chattanooga Metropolitan Airportmarker. Rail freight is offered by CSX to Atlanta and Nashville, and Norfolk Southern to Atlanta, Birmingham, Cincinnati, Knoxville and Memphis.

Neighborhoods

In addition to the restoration of downtown, many of Chattanooga's neighborhoods have experienced a rebirth of their own. Chattanooga has many buildings on the National Register of Historic Places, including three neighborhoods: Fort Wood, Ferger Place, and St. Elmo.
  • Alton Park
  • Avondale
  • Brainerd
  • Bonny Oaks
  • Bushtown
  • Clifton Hills
  • East Brainerd
  • East Chattanooga
  • East Lake
  • East Ridge
  • Eastdale
  • Ferger Place
  • Fort Woodmarker
  • Glenwood
  • Highland Park
  • Hixson
  • Hwy 58
  • Jefferson Heights
  • Lookout Valley also known as Tiftonia and Wauhatchie
  • Lupton City
  • Missionary Ridge
  • North Chattanooga
  • Orchard Knob
  • Pineville
  • Red Bank
  • Riverview
  • Rossville (not to be confused with the nearby city of Rossville, Georgiamarker)
  • Southside
  • Tyner
  • St. Elmo


Important suburbs



Climate

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F/°C 78/26 79/26 87/31 93/34 99/37 104/40 109/43 105/41 102/39 94/34 84/29 78/26
Norm High °F/°C 49/9 54/12 62/17 72/22 79/26 86/30 90/32 89/32 83/28 72/22 61/16 52/11
Norm Low °F/°C 30/-1 33/1 40/4 47/8 56/13 65/18 69/21 68/20 62/17 49/9 40/4 33/1
Rec Low °F/°C -10/-23 1/-17 8/-13 25/-4 34/1 41/5 51/11 50/10 36/2 22/-6 4/-16 -2/-19
Precip in./mm 5.40/137 4.85/123 6.19/157 4.23/107 4.28/109 3.99/101 4.73/120 3.59/91 4.31/109 3.26/83 4.88/124 4.81/122
Source: WeatherByDay.com [15131]
According to the National Weather Service in Morristown, Tennesseemarker (which has responsibility for all of east Tennessee), the heaviest snowfall in Chattanooga (both by storm total and 24-hour period) was during the Great Blizzard of 1993. The most snow in one season was in 1894-95. The coldest temperature ever recorded was in 1899, 1966, and 1985 (on Feb. 13, Jan. 31 and 21, respectively).

Transportation

Considered to be a gateway to the Deep South, Chattanooga's transportation infrastructure has developed into a complex and intricate system of railroads, streets, airports and waterways.

Principal highways

See also List of Tennessee state highways

Major surface routes



Tunnels

  • Bachmann Tubes, (also unofficially known as The East Ridge Tunnels), which carry Ringgold Road into the neighboring city of East Ridgemarker.
  • Missionary Ridge Tunnels (also unofficially known as McCallie or Brainerd Tunnels), which carry McCallie and Bailey Avenues through Missionary Ridge where the route continues as Brainerd Road.
  • Stringer's Ridge Tunnel, which carries Cherokee Boulevard through Stringer's Ridge where the route continues as Dayton Boulevard.
  • Wilcox Tunnel, which carries Wilcox Boulevard through Missionary Ridge and connects to Shallowford Road.


Public transit

The city is served by a publicly run bus company, the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority. CARTA operates 17 routes, including a free electric shuttle service in the downtown area, and free wireless internet on certain "smartbuses".

Railroad lines



Despite a new emphasis on the technology and service sectors, Chattanooga maintains ties to the past and still serves as a major freight hub with Norfolk Southern (NS) and CSX running trains on their own (and each other's) lines. The Norfolk Southern Railway's enormous DeButts Yard is just east of downtown, Shipp's Yard and CSX's Wauhatchie Yard are southwest of the city. Indeed, the two railroad companies are among the largest individual landowners in the city (the Federal Government is another). The Tennessee Valley Railroad Museummarker, the largest historic operating railroad in the South, and the Chattooga and Chickamauga Railway also provides railroad service in Chattanooga.

Since both NS and CSX both run through Chattanooga, here are the lines that run through the town (the AAR codes are used for the following railroads: NS for Norfolk Southern, CSXT for CSX Transportation, TNVR for the Tennessee Valley Railroad Museummarker, and CCKY for Chattooga and Chickamauga Railway): Also, the Lookout Mountain Incline Railwaymarker, often referred to as the Incline Railway by locals, as well as being a tourist attraction, is sometimes used for commuting by Lookout Mountain residents, particularly during wintry weather, when travelling up and down the mountain could be very dangerous.

Despite the relatively high level of freight rail activity, there is no passenger rail service in the city for either commuters or long-distance travelers.

Bridges

Bridges in Chattanooga


Being bisected by a major waterway, Chattanooga has several large bridges that allow people to traverse the Tennessee River. They are, from west to east:





  • Walnut Street Bridgemarker – Also known as "The Walking Bridge", it is one of the centerpieces of Chattanooga's urban renewal, and is the second longest pedestrian bridge in the nation. Constructed in 1891, the bridge was declared unsafe and closed to traffic in 1978. It was on the verge of being demolished in the late 1980s when public demand led to it being restored as a pedestrian-only span that opened in 1993.


  • Veterans Memorial Bridgemarker – Completed in 1984, this structure has helped commuters from Hixson, Lupton City and other northern areas reach downtown quickly.








Air travel

The Chattanooga Metropolitan Airportmarker offers non-stop service to various domestic destinations via regional and national airlines, including Allegiant Airlines, American Eagle, Delta Connection, and US Airways Express.

Media and communications

The city of Chattanooga is served by numerous local, regional and national media outlets which reach approximately one million people in four states: Tennesseemarker, Alabamamarker, Georgiamarker and North Carolinamarker.

Newspapers

The Chattanooga Times Free Press, the area's only daily newspaper, is published every morning. It was effectively formed in 1999 from two papers that had been bitter rivals for half a century, the Times and the News-Free Press. The Times was once owned by Adolph Ochs, who later bought the New York Times. The Times had been the morning paper and had a generally more liberal editorial page. The News-Free Press, whose name was the result of an earlier merger, was an afternoon daily and its editorials were more conservative than those in the Times. In 1999, the Free Press was bought by an Arkansas company, WEHCO Media, publisher of the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, which then bought The Times from the Ochs heirs. The Times Free Press is the only known newspaper in the United States to have 2 editorial pages, each reflecting opposite ends of the political spectrum. The Times' editorial page, which is liberal, is on the left page and the Free Press' editorial page, which is conservative, is on the right page.

The "Chattanooga Pulse" is a weekly alternative newspaper, published every Thursday. It was formed in 2003 by Zachary Cooper and Michael Kull, running independently until 2008, when the paper was purchased by local broadcast radio and website development firm Brewer Media Group. The newspaper shares news gathering resources with Brewer Media Group's WPLZ Pulse News 95.3FM news talk radio station, and the www.chattanoogapulse.com news website.

Online media

The Chattanoogan and its website "Chattanoogan.com" is an online media outlet that concentrates on news from Chattanooga. The publisher is John Wilson, previously a staff writer for the Chattanooga Free Press.

Radio

Chattanooga has the following radio stations:

AM
  • WUUS 980 AM - Oldies / Q 97.3/99.3 (Simulcast with WUUQ-FM 97.3) (Licensed to Rossville, GA)
  • WFLI 1070 AM - Southern gospel (Licensed to Lookout Mountain, TN)
  • WGOW 1150 AM - News/talk / NewsRadio 1150 [15132]
  • WNOOmarker 1260 AM - Urban gospel and Motown
  • WDOD 1310 AM - Oldies / Ruby 1310
  • WDEF-AM 1370 AM - Sports/talk/ 1370 ESPN Radio [15133] affiliate.


FM
  • WUTC 88.1 FM - NPR [15134]/Mixed music / Music 88. Operated by UTC. First and only station in Chattanooga to be broadcasting in HD Radio. (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
  • W203AZ 88.5 FM - Religious/CSN international [15135]
  • WMBW 88.9 FM - Christian / Moody Radio For The Heart Of The Southeast. Owned and operated by Moody Bible Institutemarker. (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
  • WDYNmarker 89.7 FM - Southern Gospel / WDYN Radio [15136] Operated By Tennessee Temple University. (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
  • W211BG 90.1 FM - Religious [15137] (Licensed to Walden, TN)
  • WSMCmarker 90.5 FM - Classical/NPR/PRI[15138] Operated by Southern Adventist University. (Licensed to Collegedale, TN)
  • WAWL-FM 91.5 FM - College Alternative / 91 Rock The Wawl Chattanooga State Technical Community College (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
  • WDEF-FM 92.3 FM - Adult contemporary / Sunny 92.3[15139] (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
  • WSAAmarker 93.1 FM - Adult Hits / 93.1 Jack FM[15140] (Licensed to Benton, TN)
  • WMPZ 93.5 FM - Urban oldies / Groove 93[15141] (Licensed to Harrison, TN)
  • WJTT 94.3 FM - Urban contemporary / Power 94 [15142] (Licensed to Red Bank, TN)
  • WAAK-LPmarker 94.7 FM - Variety [15143] (Low power station licensed to Boynton/Ringgold, GA)
  • WPLZmarker 95.3 FM - News/Talk [15144] (Licensed to Cleveland, TN)
  • WDODmarker 96.5 FM - 96.5 The Mountain—Chattanooga's #1 Hit Music Station[15145] (Licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
  • WUUQ 97.3, & 99.3 FM - Classic Hits / Q 97.3/99.3 (Licensed to South Pittsburg, TN)
  • WLND 98.1 FM - Classic country / The Legend [15146] (Licensed to Signal Mountain, TN)
  • WOOP 99.9 FM, Classic country, old-time gospel, bluegrass and mountain music. [15147] Operated by the Traditional Music Resource Center, (Licensed to Cleveland, TN)
  • WUSYmarker 100.7 FM, Contemporary country / US101 [15148] Multiple winner of the CMA station of the year (Licensed to Cleveland, TN)
  • WOCEmarker 101.9 FM, Spanish (Licensed to Ringgold, GA)
  • WGOW 102.3 FM, [15149] News/talk (Licensed to Soddy-Daisy, TN)
  • WBDXmarker 102.7 FM, [15150] Contemporary Christian (Licensed to Trenton, GA)
  • WLLJmarker 103.1 FM, [15151] Contemporary Christian (Simulcast with WBDX 102.7) (Licensed to Etowah, TN)
  • WURV 103.7 FM, (Licensed to Walden, TN)
  • WALV 105.1 FM, [15152] ESPN Sports Talk
  • WRXR 105.5 FM, [15153] Active rock (Licensed to Rossville, GA)
  • WSKZ 106.5 FM, [15154] Classic rock
  • WOGT 107.9 FM, [15155] Contemporary country / The Duke (Licensed to East Ridge, TN)


Television

Chattanooga's television stations include:

See also List of television stations in Tennessee, List of television stations in Georgia

Notable residents

The following people were born, currently live, or have lived in Chattanooga:



Sister cities



Chattanooga also has two twinning cities: Ascoli Picenomarker, Italymarker, and Swindonmarker, United Kingdommarker.

Other communities named Chattanooga

Other places named Chattanooga include Chattanooga, Oklahomamarker and a community named Chattanooga in Mercer County, Ohiomarker.

See also



References

  1. Vicki Rozema, Voices from the Trail of Tears. Voices from the Trail of Tears, 2003. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
  2. [1]
  3. Timothy Ezzell, Chattanooga. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2002. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
  4. [2]
  5. [3]
  6. [4]
  7. [5]
  8. [6]
  9. City of Chattanooga
  10. Volkswagen wants slice of American pie AUSmotive.com
  11. [7]
  12. [8]
  13. [9]
  14. [10]
  15. [11]
  16. [12]
  17. [13]
  18. [14]
  19. [15]
  20. [16]
  21. [17]
  22. [18]
  23. [19]
  24. Brainerd Baptist School website
  25. [20]
  26. [21]
  27. http://www.lib.chattanooga.gov/ Library Website
  28. [22]
  29. Erlanger Board of Trustees
  30. The International Towing and Recovery Hall of Fame and Museum
  31. Chattanooga Regional History Museum
  32. National Medal of Honor Museum, Chattanooga, Tennessee
  33. index.html
  34. Chattanooga African American Museum
  35. The Creative Discovery Museum
  36. Chattanooga Symphony and Opera: Welcome!
  37. Chattanooga Theatre Centre
  38. The Arts & Education Council of Chattanooga
  39. [23]
  40. [24]
  41. GoFest!
  42. Talespin
  43. The Back Row Film Series
  44. [25]
  45. http://www.chattanoogadulcimerfestival.com
  46. Chattanooga Lookouts official site; affiliate stated on top right-hand corner of web page
  47. Head of the Hooch
  48. [26]
  49. [27]
  50. [28]
  51. 2000 Census Data on Same-sex couple households
  52. http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:7RHrEAvuxb8J:www.srh.noaa.gov/mrx/skywarn/awareness/wwaw2008.pdf+Newfound+Gap+blizzard+1993&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=us&client=opera
  53. http://www.chattanoogan.com/articles/article_113678.asp The Chattanoogan, September 19, 2007.
  54. Market Street Bridge Project // What's Happening
  55. [29]
  56. http://www.chattairport.com/flight_info/destinations.htm
  57. [30]


External links




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