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Chelyabinsk ( ) is a city in Russiamarker, located just to the east of the Ural Mountainsmarker, on Miass River. It is the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Population:


Fortress Chelyaba, from which the city takes its name, was constructed on the site in 1736; the city was incorporated in 1781. Around 1900, it served as a center for the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. According to official statistics the population on 1 January 1913 was 45,000 inhabitants.

During the Soviet industrialization of the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experienced rapid growth. Several industrial establishments, including the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plantmarker and the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, were built at this time. During World War II, Joseph Stalin decided to move a large part of Soviet factory production to places out of the way of the advancing German armies in late 1941. This brought new industries and thousands of workers to Chelyabinsk—still essentially a small city. Several enormous facilities for the production of T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers existed in Chelyabinsk, which became known as "Tankograd" (Tank City). Chelyabinsk was essentially built from scratch during this time. A small town existed before this, signs of which can be found in the centre of the city. The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 moved here from Leningradmarker to produce heavy tanks — it was transferred to Omskmarker after 1962.

A serious nuclear accident occurred in 1957 at the Mayak nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, 150 km north-west of the city, caused deaths in Chelyabinsk Oblast but not in the city. The province was closed to all foreigners until 1992.


The city is located in the north-western side of its Oblast, 210 km south of Yekaterinburgmarker.


There are over a dozen universities in Chelyabinsk. The main ones are South Ural State Universitymarker, Chelyabinsk State University and Chelyabinsk Medical Academy. The oldest one is Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University, which was founded in 1934. There are 13 faculties at the University including the Faculty of Foreign Languages, Mathematics, Physics, and others.


Chelyabinsk is one of the major industrial centers of Russia. Heavy industry predominates, especially metallurgy and military machinery, notably the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combinate (CMK, ChMK), Chelyabinsk Tractor Plantmarker (CTZ, ChTZ), Chelyabinsk Electrode plant (CHEZ), Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plantmarker (CHTPZ) and Chelyabinsk Forge-and-Press Plant (ChKPZ).

Chelyabinsk also has several electronics plants, including Metran, Polet and Zavod Electromashina, that serve both military and civil needs.


The planned metro network
"Chelyabinsk City", the tallest building in Chelyabinsk.

Chelyabinsk Metro

Chelyabinsk started construction of a 3-line subway network in 1993. It is proceeding slowly using the New Austrian Tunneling method. Pending financing, the opening of the first section is scheduled for 2010.

Tramway and trolleybus

Chelyabinsk has a tramway (since 1932) and trolleybus (since 1942).The fare for tramway and trolleybus - ~$0.28 (10 rubles). Also for passengers available "social cards" and "transport card", these cards provide discounts.


The city is served by Chelyabinsk Balandino Airportmarker.

Famous people from Chelyabinsk



  • Maksim Bugrov - World champion violinist 2005, Actor, Professional theater tech.



  • Lera Auerbach — one of the most widely performed composers of the new generation

Software Developers


Ice hockey

Speed Skating





International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Chelyabinsk is twinned with:

See also


External links

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