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Chesterfield is a market town and a borough of Derbyshiremarker, Englandmarker. It lies north of the city of Derbymarker, on a confluence of the rivers Rothermarker and Hippermarker. Including Staveleymarker, the population (2001) is 100,879, although that of the town itself is 70,260. It is Derbyshire's largest town, although the county town of Derbyshire is Matlockmarker in the Derbyshire Dalesmarker.Around 250,000 people live in the immediate area nearby including Dronfieldmarker, Bolsovermarker, Staveleymarker, Shirebrookmarker and Clay Crossmarker. It is located on the A61, 6 miles from the M1 (via the A617 to J29 and A632 to J29A), and forms part of the Sheffield City Regionmarker.

History

The town received its market charter in the year 1204 from King John and around two hundred and fifty stalls can still be found in the town centre every Monday, Friday and Saturday.

The 1204 charter also constituted the town as free borough, granting the burgesses of Chesterfield the same privileges as those of Nottinghammarker. Elizabeth I granted a charter of incorporation in 1594, creating a corporation consisting of a mayor, six aldermen, six brethren, and twelve capital burgesses. This remained the governing charter until the borough was reformed under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. The borough originally consisted only of the township of Chesterfield, but was extended in 1892 to include parts of surrounding townships. In 1920 there was a major extension to the borough when it absorbed Whittington and Newbold urban district. Chesterfield's current boundaries date from April 1, 1974, when under the Local Government Act 1972, the Borough of Chesterfield was formed by the amalgamation of the municipal borough with the urban district of Staveleymarker and the parish of Brimington from Chesterfield Rural Districtmarker.

Chesterfield benefited greatly from the building of the Chesterfield Line - part of the Derbymarker to Leedsmarker railway (North Midland Line), which was begun in 1837 by George Stephenson. During its construction, a sizeable seam of coal was discovered during the construction of the Clay Cross Tunnelmarker. This and the local ironstone were promptly exploited by Stephenson who set up a company in Clay Crossmarker to trade in the minerals.

During his time in Chesterfield, Stephenson lived at Tapton House, and remained there until his death in 1848. He is interred in Trinity Church. In 2006, a statue of Stephenson was erected outside Chesterfield railway stationmarker.

A new landmark was planned to be erected on the outskirts of the town—the Solar Pyramid, which would have been built by the side of the M1 at Poolsbrook. Work on the 'sculpture', which would have been the largest in the UK, commenced late Summer 2007 and was expected to be completed by mid-2008. This sculpture has now been cancelled due to a lack of funds.

Governance

Local government in Chesterfield is organised in a two-tier structure. At the upper tier, services such as consumer protection, education, main roads and social services are provided by Derbyshire County Council. At the lower tier, services such as housing, planning, refuse collection and burial grounds are provided by Chesterfield Borough Council. The borough is unparished with the exception of Brimington and Staveley: Brimington Parish Council and Staveley Town Council exercise limited functions in those areas.

County council

Derbyshire County Council has sixty-four elected county councillors, each representing a single-member electoral division. The entire council is elected every four years. At the last elections in June 2009 the Conservative Party took control from the Labour Party after 28 years.

Borough council

Chesterfield Borough Council consists of forty-eight councillors. Elections of the whole council take place every four years, the last elections having occurred in 2007. The borough is divided nineteen wards, with between 1 and 3 councillors elected for each ward. As of 2009 the Liberal Democrats control the borough council with 38 councillors, while the Labour Party has 10 councillors.

The council choose one of their members annually to be mayor of Chesterfield, with the 368th mayor elected in May 2008.

The borough council set up a system of community forums in 1999 as part of their decision making process. There are eight forums which meet at least six times a year and consist of the borough and county councillors for the area and a number of co-opted members. The eight community forums are:

Coat of arms

The borough council uses armorial bearings originally granted (to the previous borough corporation) by letters patent dated 10 November 1955. The blazon of the arms is as follows:
Gules a Device representing a Pomegranate Tree as depicted on the ancient Common Seal of the Borough the tree leaved and eradicated proper flowered and fructed Or and for the Crest on a Wreath of the Colours Issuant from a Mural Crown Gules Masoned Or a Mount Vert thereon a Derby Ram passant guardant proper.
Supporters: On the dexter side a Cock and on the sinister side a Pynot or Magpie proper each Ducally gorged Or

The shield is based on the borough's ancient common seal, which is believed to date from the first half of the sixteenth century. The seal depicts a stylised pomegranate tree. When the arms were formally granted, the College of Armsmarker expressed the opinion that the plant had been adopted by the town as a symbol of loyalty to the crown, as it was a royal badge used by Katherine of Aragon, Henry VIII and Mary Tudor.

The crest depicts a Derby Ram, representing the county of Derbyshire, and a mural crown, suggestive of a town wall and thus borough status.

The supporters on either side of the arms represent the Cock and Pynot Inn, Old Whittingtonmarker. The inn, now Revolution House, was the site of a meeting between conspirators against James II in 1688. Among those meeting there were the Earls of Danby and Devonshire, commemorated by the ducal crowns around the supporters' necks. The two birds stand on a compartment of rocks and moorland. The motto is "aspire", a punning reference to the crooked spire of the parish church.

Economy

In the last 30 years, the economy in and around Chesterfield has experienced major change, moving the employment base away from the primary and secondary sectors, and towards the tertiary area. The area sits on a large coalfield and the area played host to many coal mines, including:

From 1981 to 2002, 15,000 jobs in the coal industry disappeared and not a single colliery remains open, although open cast mining continued at Arkwrightmarker until a few years ago. Many of the sites were restored by contractor Killingleys for Derbyshire County Council.

Very little evidence of the industry remains today; a cyclist and walkers route, the so called "Five Pits Trail" now links some of the former collieries and most of the sites are now indistinguishable from the surrounding countryside.

Within the town itself, large factories and major employers have disappeared or relocated in the last 10 years including:
  • Bryan Donkin (near to Horn's Bridge Roundabout) which is under development as Spire Walk Business Park


  • Markham & Co. (The Channel Tunnelmarker between England and France used tunnel boring Machines manufactured here. The factory site is now a private housing estate). The old offices being converted into flats and serviced office suites.
  • Dema Glass (site for Chesterfield's new football ground, which is currently in development)
  • GKN plc factory shut and is now being turned in to a business park


Whilst others have downsized significantly:
  • Robinson's (has demolished several buildings and cut thousands of jobs).
  • Trebor merged with Bassetts sweets of Sheffield and relocated a modern unit at Holmewoodmarker Business park and were taken over by Cadbury.
  • Chesterfield Cylinders relocated to a much smaller site in Sheffield. Chesterfield Cylinder's, Alma site, is now Alma Leisure Park , which includes Nuffield Health Club, a Cineworld, Frankie & Benny's, McDonald's, Hobby Horse pub, and a Blockbusters). The main cylinder factory across the A61 road, is now The Spires housing estate.


Manufacturing employment has fallen by a third since 1991, though the percentage of the population employed in manufacturing is still above the national average, underlining how critical it has been to Chesterfield in the past. Today, smaller scale firms are to be found on several industrial estates, the largest of which is located at Sheepbridge. Business located on the estate include SIG plc subsidiary Warren Insulations, Franke Sisons Ltd (founded in 1784 in Sheffield, and one of the first to manufacture stainless steel kitchen sinks in the 1930s), Rhodes engineering, Chesterfield Felt, and others.

Next to Tescomarker there is a 40 acre clearing due to Arnold Laver's relocating to a modern sawmill at Halfwaymarker, on the Sheffieldmarker border. The former sawmill being demolished, with plans being proposed for a new waterside village built around a new marina at the end of the Chesterfield Canalmarker which currently terminates at a weir adjacent to the site.

There is a Morrisons on the junction of Chatsworth Road (A619) and Walton Road (A632), a Sainsburysmarker on Rother Way (A619 for Staveley), and a Tescomarker on the junction of the A619 and A61 (known locally as the Tesco Roundabout). The Institute of Business Advisers] is based on Queen Street North. The Chesterfield Royal Hospital is on the A632 out towards Calowmarker and Bolsovermarker.

Peak FM broadcasts from Sheepbridge on 107.4FM and 102FM via the nearby Chesterfield Transmittermarker, which also hosts BBC Radio Sheffield on 94.7FM. DAB transmissions for Chesterfield come from the Chesterfield Transmittermarker, however only Digital One is currently broadcast and NOW Derbyshire is due to start soon, although some digital radio stations can be received from outlying transmitters. The local television stations are ITV Yorkshire and BBC Look North, both transmitted from Leeds. The digital switchover date for the area is 2011. Also in the town are the headquarters of the Derbyshire Times, the local newspaper, which does not cover all of the county.

Chesterfield is also home to the area's only RSPCA Branch. Other centres are further afield and obviously do not cover the same area. These are in Sheffield, Derby, Radcliffe on Trent and Bawtry. The Chesterfield and North Derbyshire Branch] serves the whole of the North East Derbyshire area, and is not government funded, relying on the good people of Derbyshire to keep it going. The centre holds many events to raise money, one being an annual Dog Show held in the summer. The centre itself is on the verge of a major rebuild.

The town's biggest employer is now the "Post Office" administration deptment located in a newly constructed building located on the edge of the town centre. The Royal Mail's Pensions Service Centre is near the town on Boythorpe Road, in Rowland Hill House. There is another Royal Mail building in the town on West Bars called Future Walk. Formerly this was Chetwynd House, now substantially demolished and replaced by the new Post Office building.

Shopping, entertainment and leisure

Town centre

Part of Chesterfield's market
The Town centre of Chesterfield has retained much of its pre-war era layout. Chesterfield is home to one of the largest open air markets in Britain, the stalls sitting either side of the historic Market Hall. In the middle of town, a collection of narrow medieval streets make up "The Shambles", which houses The Royal Oak, one of Britain's oldest pubs.

Near Holywell Cross is Chesterfield's largest department store, the local Co-op, more correctly "The Chesterfield and District Co-operative Society". Their buildings occupy the majority of Elder Way and include an enclosed bridge. Since 2001, this has been incorporated within Midlands Co-operative Society Limited—or Midlands Co-op as it is better known—which is the second largest independent retail Society in the UK.

The Pavements

In the late 1970s a large area between Low Pavement (in the Market Square) and New Beetwell Street was completely demolished (except the original shop fronts) to build "The Pavements" shopping centre, known by some local residents as "The Precinct", with larger shops such as Boots the Chemist, which was opened in November 1981 by the Prince and Princess of Wales. It has entrances located opposite Chesterfield Market and escalators leading down to New Beetwell Street and the Bus station. An enclosed bridge links the site to a multi-storey car park built at the same time adjacent to the town's coach station.

Chesterfield Library's main entrance is located just outside The Pavements at the exit that is next to McDonald's with steps leading down to New Beetwell Street. The library spans several floors and was planned as part of the development. The building was erected later and opened in 1985. In 2007 Chesterfield Library was the 8th busiest in England with over three quarters of a million visitors, according to a study by the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy. The area to the side of the library was redeveloped retaining the old narrow passage ways but creating various small shop units & offices in the style of "The Shambles".

On 27 June 2007 the Somerfield store in the Precinct was completely gutted in a fire during which the roof collapsed. Only a few shoppers suffered minor injuries. The fire was reportedly the result of an accidental ignition. The fire started at 13:10 on 27 June and was not extinguished until 23:30 the same day. All the shops in The Pavements were closed and evacuated. Other areas including the Market Hall were later evacuated as cordons were placed as a result of the smoke becoming worse.

Following the fire, Somerfield announced their intention to cease trading in Chesterfield. It re-opened in September 2008 as a Tesco Metro store.

Vicar Lane

Vicar Lane after it was re-developed
Vicar Lane was redeveloped in 2000 to become a pedestrianised, open-air shopping area, that involved almost all of the existing buildings being demolished including the now closed Woolworths and the old bus station. The project was so large that two new shopping streets were created as part of the development. It now hosts major chains such as BHS and Argos. The development was originally planned in the 1980s but was delayed due to the economics at the time. A new multistorey car park on Beetwell Street was added as part of the revised plan. The area is located between the "Pavements Centre" & Markets and the "crooked spire"marker.

Food and Drink

Cuisine available in the area includes Chinese, Mexican, Japanese, Indian and Thai restaurants and takeaways. Several night clubs are located around the town, predominantly towards "The Doughnut", more correctly called "Holywell Cross Car Park". Scattered around the town are many bars and pubs and west of the town centre the "Brampton Mile" provides 13 pubs on a one mile section of Chatsworth Road. Chesterfield's night-life is well-regarded by many within the area for both its variety and number of venues located within a relatively compact area, although there are now very little if any that cater for alternative tastes.

The Arts

The Winding Wheel, previously an Odeon Cinema and Fusion nightclub, is a multi-purpose venue, hosting concerts, exhibitions, conferences, dinners, family parties, dances, banquets, wedding receptions, meetings, product launches and lectures. Past notable appearances include Ricky Tomlinson and Patrick McGuinness. Chesterfield Symphony Orchestra give three concerts a year at the Winding Wheel.

"The Pomegranate Theatre" (formerly known for many years as 'Chesterfield Civic Theatre', and prior to that 'The Stephenson Memorial Theatre') is a listed Victorian building (in what is now known as the Stephenson Memorial Building), with a small auditorium, seating around 500 people . A variety of shows are performed throughout the year. Also in the Stephenson Memorial Building is the Chesterfield Museum, until 1984 it was used for the town's lending library. The museum is owned by Chesterfield Borough Council, as are the Winding Wheel and the Pomegranate Theatre. The box office for both entertainment venues is located in the entrance area of the theatre.

The Royal Mail building Future Walk, on West Bars, was the former site of Chetwynd House (referred to locally as "the AGD"). Here a work by sculptor Barbara Hepworth Carved Reclining Form or Rosewall was prominently displayed for many years and nicknamed Isaiah by local critics, due to it resembling a crude human face with one eye higher than the other ("eye's higher"). Soon after its installation a painted nose and mouth were added, and the work was surrounded by screens for some time while cleaning took place. The work was under the threat of being sold in 2005, but the plan was eventually scrapped, recognising the piece's national significance. Other artworks of note include 'A System of Support and Balance' by Paul Lewthwaite located outside Chesterfield Magistrates' Court.

Transport

Roads

Junction 29 of the M1 motorway at Heathmarker links Chesterfield to the motorway network to the south, via the A617 dual-carriageway. Construction of the new Junction 29a has been completed at Markham Vale, Duckmantonmarker, and the new junction opened at the end of June 2008, ( The signs do not signpost Chesterfield). With Links to the M1 at Junction 30 and the North via the A619. Other major roads include the A61 Sheffield Road (north)/ Derby Road (south) (with a dual carriageway beginning in the town centre and continuing onto Sheffield) and the A619 (a major inroad to the Peak Districtmarker, eventually joining the A6 near Bakewellmarker) and the A632 to Matlockmarker.

Buses, Taxis & Coaches

Stagecoach plc are the predominant operator of buses in Chesterfield, others operators include Trent Barton and TM Travel. Buses stop in several areas around the town centre rather than at a central bus station. The Stagecoach depot at Stonegravels is notable for its size and many vehicles stored there are not in regular use, formerly being the Chesterfield Corporation bus depot.

A new coach stationmarker was recently built, with scheduled services provided by National Express. A number of tour companies also operate there. Taxi ranks are predominantly located on Elder Way in the town centre as well as the train station.

Railways

Chesterfield railway stationmarker is located on the Midland Main Line, with East Midlands Trains providing services to Londonmarker, Sheffieldmarker, Leicestermarker, Leedsmarker, Liverpoolmarker, Nottinghammarker and Norwichmarker and CrossCountry serving Newcastlemarker, Birminghammarker, Bournemouthmarker, Bristolmarker, Edinburghmarker and Plymouthmarker.

Chesterfield previously had two other rail stations:

These railways all crossed each other at Horns Bridge, the Midland Mainline passed over the GCR loop in to Chesterfield, and the LD&ECR passed over both on a 700 feet long viaduct. Horns Bridge has been substantially redeveloped since the latter two railways closed and Horns Bridge Roundabout, where the A61 Derby Road and A617 Lordsmill Street meet, now occupies the site. The viaduct was demolished in the 1970s.

In addition to railways, Chesterfield had a tramway system, built in 1882, and closed in 1927.

Air

The nearest airfield is Netherthorpe Aerodromemarker near Worksopmarker in Nottinghamshiremarker, but it is not licensed for commercial flights. When travelling by air, passengers usually do so via East Midlandsmarker, Leeds Bradfordmarker, Doncaster Robin Hoodmarker and Manchestermarker airports. These are all within 2 hours travel time by road.

Canal

The Chesterfield Canalmarker linked the town to the national network of waterways, and was the most important trade route through the 19th century. Overtaken by rail and then road for freight transport it fell into disuse, but has been partially restored since the mid-20th century for leisure use. However, the section through Chesterfield remains isolated from the rest of the waterway network.

Education

The borough of Chesterfield has many schools within and around it. There are several secondary schools in the area (most of which are community schools; Hasland Hallmarker, Brimington Junior Schoolmarker, Brookfieldmarker, Tupton Hall Schoolmarker, Parkside, Meadows, Netherthorpe, Newbold Community (which has moved into a new £17 million school building), Deincourt, The Bolsover School and Springwell) almost half have a Sixth Form. There is also a Roman Catholic school, St Mary's Roman Catholic High Schoolmarker, in Newbold.

A Further Education college, Chesterfield Collegemarker, is located within a five minute walk of Chesterfield railway stationmarker and offers many courses. It has over 15,000 students.

Religious sites

The crooked spire today
Chesterfield is perhaps best known for the "Crooked Spire" of its Church of Saint Mary and All Saintsmarker and is why the local football team is known as The Spireites.
The twist in the Spire
The spire is both twisted and leaning, twisting 45 degrees and leaning 9 feet 6 inches from its true centre. The leaning characteristic is believed to be the result of the absence of skilled craftsmen (the Black Death had been gone only twelve years prior to the spire's completion), insufficient cross-bracing, and the use of unseasoned timber. There have been other explanations: one is that the spire was so shocked to learn of the marriage of a virgin in the church that it bent down to get a closer look. Should that happen again, it is said that the spire will straighten and return to its true position. Another is that a Bolsovermarker blacksmith mis-shod the Devil, who leaped over the spire in pain, knocking it out of shape.However it is now believed that the bend began when the original wooden roof tiles were replaced by heavier slate and lead. The bend in the spire (the twist being deliberate ) follows the direction of the sun and has been caused by heat expansion and a weight it was never designed for (as explained to us by curators at the Chesterfield Museum) . There is also no record of a bend until after the slate change. An interesting point is that the spire is not attached to the church building but is kept on by its own weight.
Church of St Mary and All Saints - "The Crooked Spire"


Sports and Leisure

Chesterfield is home to the Football League Two club Chesterfield F.C. who play at the Recreation Ground (usually referred to as Saltergate). Chesterfield FC are known as the Spireites, after the Crooked Spire in the town. In 2005 plans were announced to build a new stadium on the old Dema Glass site north of the town in Whittington Moor. Construction of the new stadium, named the 'B2net Stadiummarker' began in summer 2009 and should be completed for the start of the 2010/2011 season. The team's most notable achievement of recent years occurred in April 1997, when they reached the semi-final of the FA Cup, losing to Middlesbrough in a replay following a 3–3 draw at Old Traffordmarker. It turned out to be one of the most controversial games in recent history with Chesterfield having a goal not given when referee David Elleray decided the ball had not crossed the goal line from a Jonathan Howard shot, a decision which was later proved incorrect by video replays. Had the goal stood the club would have progressed to the final of the FA Cup for the first time in its history—a feat which no club in the third tier of the league has achieved. The team has a fierce rivalry with neighbouring town Mansfield.In 2006 Chesterfield FC beat Premiership heavyweights Manchester City and West Ham to move into the last 16 of the Carling Cup where they were narrowly beaten on penalties by Charlton. Despite their Carling Cup exploits, Chesterfield were relegated on the penultimate game of the season

Also Chesterfield has a competitive athletic team which competes regularly all over England.Chesterfield & District Athletic Club is based at Queen’s Park Annexe - near Boythorpe Road south of the town centre, close to the cricket club. Chesterfield Swimming Club is based at the Queens Park Sports Centre on Boythorpe Road.

Queen's Parkmarker also plays host to Chesterfield Cricket Club and is an outground of Derbyshire County Cricket Club

Chesterfield also has its own amateur Sunday football league that plays host to over 100 teams on a Sunday morning. The Chesterfield and District Sunday Football League consists of nine divisions and 3 cup competitions.

Chesterfield Spires RLFC are a Rugby League club formed in the town in 2003 and currently play in the RL Merit League

A speedway training track operated at Glasshouse Farm in the early 1950s.

Chesterfield also has a mildly successful Men's Hockey Team which typically competes in the Midland's Premier Hockey League. The side has typically been midtable or battled against relegation until its greatest success when it recruited Australian import striker Adam Clifford from Tasmania. During his two seasons Clifford scored over 50 goals and Chesterfield narrowly lost the league in the final weeks by a single point.

Chesterfield Rugby Union Football Club was initially formed in 1919 and played their first game in 1920.

Queens Park Leisure Centre

The Queens Park is located within the town centre and recently benefited from a multi-million pound programme of investment, allowing to host county cricket games once again. It has a boating lake and miniature railway. Also on the outskirts of the park is Queens Park Leisure Centre, which has a large swimming pool and gym, several indoor courts (for a variety of sports) and several more outdoor tennis courts.

Healthy Living Centre, Staveley

The town also has a brand new £8m Healthy Living Centre within the Borough at Staveley (opened in Spring 2008), which has a 25m swimming pool with a movable platform, an 11m climbing wall, leisure facilities including an indoor children's soft play area, crèche facilities, a fitness suite, health spa and dance studios.

Public services

Chesterfield is policed by Derbyshire Constabulary, and Chesterfield Police Station, on New Beetwell Street, is the Division 'C' Headquarters, with local police stations in Bolsover, Clay Cross, Dronfield, Killamarshmarker, Newboldmarker, Staveley, and Shirebrookmarker.

In terms of healthcare, Chesterfield is served by Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, and has two hospitals. The bigger one, located in Calow, is known as Chesterfield Royal Hospital and has an A&E department. Walton Hospital is the town's other hospital. As with the rest of Derbyshire, Chesterfield is covered by the East Midlands Ambulance Service (EMAS) and Derbyshire, Leicestershire & Rutland Air Ambulance.

Chesterfield is served by Derbyshire Fire and Rescue Service, which has Fire stations in Chesterfield, Clay Cross, Clowne and Staveley. Chesterfield Fire Station is moving in 2010 from Whittington Moor to a new build station located behind B&Q at Horns Bridge .

Notable people

Notable people to come from Chesterfield include: Other prominent people connected with the town:

Twinnings

Chesterfield is twinned with:

International events

Chesterfield is home to gluten free beer, with the first ever international gluten free beer festival held in Chesterfield in February 2006. The event was hailed internationally as a success, organisers are working to repeat the event for the future. The Campaign for Real Alemarker (CAMRA) hosted the event with the cooperation of Glutenfreebeerfestival.com and brewers of gluten free beer from all parts of the globe have announced that they wish to attend and present their brews to the public at the next Chesterfield event, which is under discussion between the organisers and the local authority.

See also

Walton Hallmarker

References

External links




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