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Chicago ( or ) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Illinoismarker, and with more than 2.8 million people, the 3rd largest city in the United Statesmarker. Located on the southwestern shores of Lake Michiganmarker, Chicago is the third-most densely populated major city in the U.S., and anchor to the world's 26th largest metropolitan areamarker with over 9.5 million people across three states.

After a series of wars with the local Native Americans, Chicago was founded in 1833, near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed. The city became a major transportation and telecommunications hub in North America. Today, the city retains its status as a major hub, both for industry and infrastructure, with its O'Hare International Airportmarker as the second busiest airport in the world. In modern times, the city has taken on an additional dimension as a center for business and finance, and is listed as one of the world's top ten Global Financial Centers. Chicago is a stronghold of the Democratic Party, and has been home to influential politicians, including the current President of the United States, Barack Obama. The World Cities Study Group at Loughborough Universitymarker rated Chicago as an alpha world city.

, the city attracted 32.8 million domestic visitors and about 1.15 million foreign visitors. Making use of its abundant resources, Chicago has a heritage for hosting major international, national, regional, and local events that include commerce, culture, entertainment, politics, and sports.


Globally recognized, Chicago has numerous nicknames, which reflect the impressions and opinions about historical and contemporary Chicago. The best known include: "Chi-town"; "Chi-city"; the "Windy City" with reference to Chicago politicians and residents boasting about their city; "Second City," due to the city generally being the second most prestigious in the nation in terms of culture, entertainment, and finance; and because for much of the twentieth century Chicago's population was the second largest of any city in the United States, and the "City of Big Shoulders", referring to its numerous skyscrapers (whose steel frame designs were largely pioneered in Chicago), described as being husky and brawling.

Chicago has also been called "the most American of big cities".

History

Early history

During the mid 18th century the area was inhabited by a native American tribe known as the Potawatomis, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples. The first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago, Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable, who was a man of mixed African and European heritage born in Saint-Domingue (modern day Haitimarker), arrived in the 1770s, married a Potawatomi woman, and founded the area’s first trading post. In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area that was to be part of Chicago was turned over by some Native Americans in the Treaty of Greenvillemarker to the United States for a military post. In 1803 the United States Army built Fort Dearbornmarker, which was destroyed in the 1812 Fort Dearborn massacre. The Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi later ceded additional land to the United States in the 1804 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were eventually forcibly removed from their land following the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of around 200. Within seven years it grew to a population of over 4,000. The City of Chicago was incorporated on March 4, 1837. The name "Chicago" is a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, meaning “wild onion”, from the Miami-Illinois language.

Infrastructure and regional development

The city began its step toward national primacy as an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicago’s first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, opened in 1838, which also marked the opening of the Illinois and Michigan Canalmarker. The canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakesmarker to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants abroad. Manufacturing and retail sectors became dominant among Midwestern cities, influencing the American economy, particularly in meatpacking, with the advent of the refrigerated rail car and the regional centrality of the city's Union Stock Yardsmarker.

In February 1856, the Chesbrough plan for the building of Chicago's and the United States' first comprehensive sewerage system was approved by the Common Council. The project raised much of central Chicago to a new grade. Untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago Rivermarker, thence into Lake Michiganmarker, polluting the primary source of fresh water for the city. The city responded by tunneling two miles (3 km) out into Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs. In 1900, the problem of sewage was largely resolved when Chicago reversed the flow of the river, a process that began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal leading to the Illinois River which joins the Mississippi River.
After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed a third of the city, including the entire central business district, Chicago experienced rapid rebuilding and growth. During its rebuilding period, Chicago constructed the world's first skyscraper in 1885, using steel-skeleton construction. Labor conflicts and unrest followed, including the Haymarket affairmarker on May 4, 1886. Concern for social problems among Chicago’s lower classes led Jane Addams to be a co-founder of Hull Housemarker in 1889. Programs developed there became a model for the new field of social work. The city also invested in many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which also included public sanitation facilities.

In 1893, Chicago hosted the World's Columbian Expositionmarker on former marshland at the present location of Jackson Parkmarker. The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential world's fair in history. The University of Chicagomarker was founded in 1892 on the same South Side location. The term "midway" for a fair or carnival referred originally to the Midway Plaisancemarker, a strip of park land that still runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects Washingtonmarker and Jackson Parks.

20th century

The 1920s brought notoriety to Chicago as gangsters, including the notorious Al Capone, battled each other and law enforcement on the city streets during the Prohibition era. Chicago had over 1,000 gangs in the 1920s. The 1920s also saw a major expansion in industry. The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the South. Arriving in the tens of thousands during the Great Migration, the newcomers had an immense cultural impact. It was during this wave that Chicago became a center for jazz, with King Oliver leading the way. In 1933, Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak was fatally wounded in Miamimarker during a failed assassination attempt on President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted the world’s first controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project.

Mayor Richard J. Daley was elected in 1955, in the era of machine politics. Starting in the 1960s, many residents, as in most American cities, left the city for the suburbs. Structural changes in industry caused heavy losses of jobs for lower skilled workers. In 1966 James Bevel, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Raby led the Chicago Open Housing Movement, which culminated in agreements between Mayor Richard J. Daley and the movement leaders. Two years later, the city hosted the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, including full-scale riots, or in some cases police riots, in city streets. Major construction projects, including Sears Towermarker (which in 1974 became the world’s tallest building), University of Illinois at Chicagomarker, McCormick Placemarker, and O'Hare Airportmarker, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley's tenure. When he died, Michael Anthony Bilandic was mayor for three years. His loss in a primary election has been attributed to the city’s inability to properly plow city streets during a heavy snowstorm. In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city’s first female mayor, was elected. She popularized the city as a movie location and tourist destination.

In 1983 Harold Washington became the first African American to be elected to the office of mayor, in one of the closest mayoral elections in Chicago. After Washington won the Democratic primary, racial motivations caused a few Democratic alderman and ward committeemen to back the Republican candidate Bernard Epton, who ran on the slogan Before it’s too late, a thinly veiled appeal to fear.Washington’s term in office saw new attention given to poor and minority neighborhoods. His administration reduced the longtime dominance of city contracts and employment by ethnic whites. Washington died in office of a heart attack in 1987, shortly after being elected to a second term. Current mayor Richard M. Daley , son of the late Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. He has led many progressive changes to the city, including improving parks; creating incentives for sustainable development, including green roofs; and major new developments. Since the 1990s, some neighborhoods have undergone revitalization in which some lower class areas have been transformed to high priced and middle-class neighborhoods.

21st century

In 2003, Meigs Field, an airport close to downtown, was demolished without advance warning by the order of mayor Richard Daley, who wanted the land for redevelopment. Private aircraft using the airport were stranded when the runway was destroyed. They were later permitted to depart from a taxiway.

Geography

Topography



Chicago is located in northeastern Illinois at the southwestern tip of Lake Michiganmarker. It sits on a continental divide at the site of the Chicago Portage, connecting the Mississippi River and the Great Lakesmarker watersheds. The city lies beside Lake Michigan, and two rivers—the Chicago Rivermarker in downtown and the Calumet Rivermarker in the industrial far South Side—flow entirely or partially through Chicago. The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal connects the Chicago River with the Des Plaines River, which runs to the west of the city. Chicago's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan. While the Chicago River historically handled much of the region's waterborne cargo, today's huge lake freighters use the city's Lake Calumet Harbormarker on the South Side. The lake also provides another positive effect, moderating Chicago's climate; making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer.

When Chicago was founded in the 1830s, most of the early building began around the mouth of the Chicago River, as can be seen on a map of the city's original 58 blocks. The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas, is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise. The average land elevation is above sea level. The lowest points are along the lake shore at , while the highest point, at , is a landfill located in the Hegewischmarker community area on the city's far south side.

Lake Shore Drivemarker runs adjacent to a large portion of Chicago's lakefront. Parks along the lakeshore include: Lincoln Parkmarker, Grant Parkmarker, Burnham Parkmarker and Jackson Parkmarker; 29 public beaches are also found along the shore. Near downtown, landfills extend into the Lake, providing space for the Jardine Water Purification Plantmarker, Navy Piermarker, Northerly Island, the Museum Campus, Soldier Fieldmarker and large portions of the McCormick Placemarker Convention Center. Most of the city's high-rise commercial and residential buildings can be found within a few blocks of the lake.

Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metro area, used primarily by copywriters, advertising agencies, and traffic reporters. There is no precise definition for the term "Chicagoland", but it generally means the city and its suburbs together. The Chicago Tribune, which coined the term, includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook Countymarker, eight nearby Illinois counties: Lakemarker, McHenrymarker, DuPagemarker, Kanemarker, Kendallmarker, Grundymarker, Willmarker and Kankakeemarker, and three counties in Indianamarker: Lakemarker, Portermarker, and LaPorte. The Illinois Department of Tourism defines Chicagoland as Cook County without the city of Chicago, and only Lake, DuPage, Kane and Will counties. The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook and DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will counties.

Climate

The city lies within the humid continental climate zone, and experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are warm and humid with average high temperatures of and lows of . Winters are cold, snowy, and windy with temperatures below freezing. Spring and fall are mild with low humidity.

According to the National Weather Service, Chicago's highest official temperature reading of was recorded on July 24, 1934. The lowest temperature of was recorded on January 20, 1985. Along with long, hot dry spells in the summer, Chicago can suffer extreme winter cold spells. In the entire month of January 1977, the temperature did not rise above . The average temperature that month was ca .

Cityscape

Architecture



The outcome of the Great Chicago Fire led to the largest building boom in the history of the nation. Perhaps the most outstanding of these events was the relocation of many of the nation's most prominent architects from New Englandmarker to the city for construction of the 1893 World Columbian Exposition.

In 1885, the first steel-framed high-rise building, the Home Insurance Building, rose in Chicago, ushering in the skyscraper era. Today, Chicago's skyline is among the world's tallest and most dense. The Loop's historic buildings include the Chicago Board of Trade Buildingmarker, the Fine Arts Buildingmarker, 35 East Wackermarker, and the Chicago Buildingmarker, along with many others. The Merchandise Martmarker, once first on the list of largest buildings in the world, and still listed as twentieth with its own ZIP code, stands near the junction of the North and South branches of the Chicago River. Presently, the four tallest buildings in the city are Willis Towermarker (formerly the Sears Tower), Trump International Hotel and Towermarker, the Aon Centermarker (previously the Standard Oil Building), and the John Hancock Centermarker. Industrial districts, such as on the South Sidemarker, the areas along the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago Southland, and Northwest Indiana are clustered. Future skyline plans include, amongst others, the supertall Chicago Spiremarker.

Multiple kinds and scales of houses, townhouses, condominiums, and apartment buildings can be found in Chicago. Large swaths of Chicago's residential areas away from the lake are characterized by bungalows built from the early 20th century through the end of World War II. Chicago is also a prominent center of the Polish Cathedral style of church architecture. One of Chicago's suburbs, Oak Parkmarker, was home to the architect Frank Lloyd Wright.

Public art and monuments

Chicago is well known for its wealth of public art, including works by such artistic heavyweights as Marc Chagall, Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró and Magdalena Abakanowicz that are all to be found outdoors. Several of these have been financed through the B. F. Ferguson fund.

City sculptures additionally honor the many people and topics reflecting the rich history of Chicago. There are monuments to:


There are also to erect a 1:1-scale replica of Wacław Szymanowski's Art Nouveau statue of Frédéric Chopin found in Warsawmarker's Royal Bathsmarker along Chicago's lakefront in addition to a different sculpture commemorating the artist in Chopin Park for the 200th anniversary of Frédéric Chopin's birth.

Neighborhoods

Chicago is partitioned into four main sections: Downtown (which contains the Loop), the North Side, the South Sidemarker, and the West Side. In the late 1920s, sociologists at the University of Chicago subdivided the city into 77 distinct community areas.

Downtown is the center of Chicago's cultural, commercial and financial institutions, and home to Grant Park and many of the city's skyscrapers. Many of the city's financial institutions are located within a section of downtown called "The Loop", which is an eight block by five block square of city streets that are encircled by elevated rail tracks.

The North Side is the most densely populated residential section of the city and many high-rises are located on this side of the city along the lakefront. Lincoln Parkmarker is a park stretching for along the waterfront and is also home to the Lincoln Park Zoomarker. The River North neighborhood features the nation's largest concentration of contemporary art galleries outside of New York Citymarker. As a Polonia center, due to the city having a very large Polish population, Chicago celebrates every Labor Day weekend at the Taste of Polonia Festival in the Jefferson Parkmarker area.

The South Side is home to the University of Chicago and the Museum of Science and Industrymarker. It also hosts one of the city's largest parades, the annual African American Bud Billiken Day parade. Parkland stretches along the waterfront of the South Side. Two of the city's largest parks are located here: Jackson Parkmarker, bordering the waterfront, hosted the World's Columbian Expositionmarker in 1893 and is home of the aforementioned museum. Slightly west sits Washington Parkmarker. The two parks themselves are connected by a separate strip of parkland called Midway Plaisancemarker. Also, the U.S. automaker, Ford Motor Company, has an assembly plant located on the South Side.

The West Side holds the Garfield Park Conservatorymarker, one of the largest collections of tropical plants of any U.S. city. Cultural attractions include Humboldt Park's Puerto Rican Day Parade, Institute of Puerto Rican Arts, and the National Museum of Mexican Art in Pilsen. The Near West Side holds the television production company of Harpo Studios.

Culture and contemporary life

A Chicago jazz club


The city's waterfront allure and nightlife has attracted residents and tourists alike. Over one-third of the city population is concentrated in the lakefront neighborhoods (from Rogers Parkmarker in the north to South Shoremarker in the south). The North Side has a large gay and lesbian community. Two North Side neighborhoods in particular, Lakeview and the Andersonville area of the Edgewater neighborhood, are home to many LGBT businesses and organizations. The area surrounding the North Side intersections of Halsted, Belmont, and Clark is a gay district known as "Boystown". The city has many upscale dining establishments as well as many ethnic restaurant districts. These include the Mexican villages, such as Pilsen on 18th street and La Villita on 26th street, the Puerto Rican enclave Paseo Boricua in the Humboldt Park neighborhood, "Greektown" on South Halsted, "Little Italy" on Taylor Street, just west of Halsted, "Chinatown" on the near South Side, Polish fare reigns at Belmont-Central, "Little Seoul" on and around Lawrence Avenue, a cluster of Vietnamese restaurants on Argyle Street and South Asian (Indian/Pakistani) on Devon Avenue.

Entertainment and performing arts

Chicago’s theatre community spawned modern improvisational theatre. Two renowned comedy troupes emerged—The Second City and I.O. (formerly known as ImprovOlympic). Renowned Chicago theater companies include the Steppenwolf Theatre Companymarker (on the city's north side), the Goodman Theatremarker, and the Victory Gardens Theatermarker. Chicago offers Broadway-style entertainment at theaters such as Ford Center for the Performing Arts Oriental Theatremarker, Bank of America Theatremarker, Cadillac Palace Theatremarker, Auditorium Buildingmarker of Roosevelt University, and Drury Lane Theatre Water Tower Place. Polish language productions for Chicago's large Polish speaking population can be seen at the historic Gateway Theatremarker in Jefferson Parkmarker. Since 1968, the Joseph Jefferson Awards are given annually to acknowledge excellence in theater in the Chicago area.

Classical music offerings include the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, recognized as one of the finest orchestras in the world, which performs at Symphony Centermarker. Also performing regularly at Symphony Centermarker is the Chicago Sinfonietta, a more diverse and multicultural counterpart to the CSO. In the summer, many outdoor concerts are given in Grant Parkmarker and Millennium Parkmarker. Ravinia Parkmarker, located north of Chicago, is also a favorite destination for many Chicagoans, with performances occasionally given in Chicago locations such as the Harris Theatermarker. The Civic Opera Housemarker is home to the Lyric Opera of Chicago.

The Joffrey Ballet and Chicago Festival Ballet perform in various venues, including the Harris Theatermarker in Millennium Parkmarker. Chicago is home to several other modern and jazz dance troupes, such as the Hubbard Street Dance Chicago.

Other live music genre which are part of the city's cultural heritage include Chicago blues, Chicago soul, jazz, and gospel. The city is the birthplace of house music and is the site of an influential hip-hop scene. In the 1980s, the city was a center for industrial, punk and new wave. This influence continued into the alternative rock of the 1990s. The city has been an epicenter for rave culture since the 1980s. A flourishing independent rock music culture brought forth Chicago indie. The city has also been spawning a critically acclaimed underground metal scene with various bands gaining national attention in the metal and hard rock world . Annual festivals feature various acts such as Lollapalooza, the Intonation Music Festival and Pitchfork Music Festival.

Tourism

Chicago attracted an approximate combined 35 million people in 2007 from around the nation and abroad. Upscale shopping along the Magnificent Mile and State Street, thousands of restaurants, as well as Chicago's eminent architecture, continue to draw tourists. The city is the United States' third-largest convention destination. Most conventions are held at McCormick Placemarker, just south of Soldier Fieldmarker. The historic Chicago Cultural Centermarker (1897), originally serving as the Chicago Public Library, now houses the city's Visitor Information Center, galleries and exhibit halls. The ceiling of its Preston Bradley Hall includes a Tiffany glass dome. Millennium Parkmarker sits on a deck built over a portion of the former Illinois Central Railroad yard. The park includes the reflective Cloud Gatemarker sculpture (known locally as "The Bean"). An outdoor Millennium Park restaurant transforms into an ice rink in the winter. Two tall glass sculptures make up the Crown Fountainmarker. The fountain's two towers display visual effects from LED images of Chicagoans' faces, along with water spouting from their lips. Frank Gehry's detailed, stainless steel band shell, the Jay Pritzker Pavilionmarker, hosts the classical Grant Park Music Festival concert series. Behind the pavilion's stage is the Harris Theater for Music and Dancemarker, an indoor venue for mid-sized performing arts companies, including the Chicago Opera Theater and Music of the Baroque.

Navy Piermarker, located just east of Streetervillemarker, is long and houses retail stores, restaurants, museums, exhibition halls and auditoriums. Its tall Ferris wheel is one of the most visited landmarks in the Midwest, attracting about 8 million people annually.

In 1998, the city officially opened the Museum Campus, a lakefront park, surrounding three of the city's main museums: the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museummarker, the Field Museum of Natural Historymarker, and the Shedd Aquariummarker. The Museum Campus joins the southern section of Grant Parkmarker, which includes the renowned Art Institute of Chicagomarker. Buckingham Fountainmarker anchors the downtown park along the lakefront. The Oriental Institute, part of the University of Chicago, has an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern archaeological artifacts. Other museums and galleries in Chicago include the Chicago History Museummarker, the DuSable Museum of African American Historymarker, the Museum of Contemporary Artmarker, the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museummarker, the Polish Museum of Americamarker, the Museum of Broadcast Communicationsmarker and the Museum of Science and Industrymarker.

Parks

When Chicago was incorporated in 1837, it chose the motto Urbs in Horto, a Latin phrase which translates into English as "City in a Garden". Today, the Chicago Park District consists of 552 parks with over of municipal parkland, as well as 33 sand beaches, nine museums, two world-class conservatories, 16 historic lagoons, and 10 bird and wildlife gardens. Lincoln Parkmarker, the largest of the city's parks, covers and has over 20 million visitors each year, making it second only to Central Parkmarker in New York Citymarker in number of visitors. With berths for more than 5,000 boats, the Chicago Park District operates the nation's largest municipal harbor system; even larger than systems in cities such as New York Citymarker, Los Angelesmarker, or Miamimarker. In addition to ongoing beautification and renewal projects for the existing parks, a number of new parks have been added in recent years, such as the Ping Tom Memorial Parkmarker in Chinatown, DuSable Parkmarker on the Near North Side, and most notably, Millennium Parkmarker in the Chicago Loop. The wealth of greenspace afforded by Chicago's parks is further augmented by the Cook County Forest Preserves, a network of open spaces containing forest, prairie, wetland, streams, and lakes that are set aside as natural areas which lie along the city's periphery, home to both the Chicago Botanic Gardenmarker in Glencoe and the Brookfield Zoomarker in Brookfield.

Cuisine

Polish market in Chicago.
Chicago lays claim to a large number of regional specialties, all of which reflect the city's ethnic and working class roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza, although locally the Chicago-style thin crust is also popular; featuring a thinner than normal crust. There are very few pizzerias that specialize in true Chicago-style deep dish, the most prominent being Gino's East, Pizzeria Uno and Due, Giordano's and Lou Malnati's. The number of "authentic" Chicago pizzerias specializing in the thin crust version is much higher, with many being "Mom and Pop" style shops. Among the largest chains in Chicago area are Home Run Inn, Rosati's and Aurelio's. The Chicago-style hot dog, typically a Vienna Beef dog loaded with an array of fixings that often includes Chicago's own neon green pickle relish, yellow mustard, pickled sport peppers, tomato wedges, dill pickle spear and topped off with celery salt. Ketchup on a Chicago hot dog is frowned upon. There are two other distinctly Chicago sandwiches, the Italian beef sandwich, which is thinly sliced beef slowly simmered in an au jus served on an Italian roll with sweet peppers or spicy giardiniera, and the Maxwell Street Polish, which is a kielbasa—typically from either the Vienna Beef Company or the Bobak Sausage Company—on a hot dog roll, topped with grilled onions, yellow mustard and the optional sport peppers. Two other ethnic local creations are the Puerto Rican jibarito, a sandwich made with flattened, fried green plantains instead of bread and Greek saganaki, an appetizer of fried cheese. McDonald's even adds its own downtown flavor, with their Rock-n-Roll McDonald's.

The grand tour of Chicago cuisine culminates annually in Grant Parkmarker at the Taste of Chicago which runs from the final week of June through Fourth of July weekend. Chicago features a number of celebrity chefs, a list which includes Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Jean Joho, Grant Achatz, and Rick Bayless.

Chicago features a wide selection of vegetarian cuisine, with 22 fully vegetarian restaurants and many vegetarian-friendly establishments within the city.

Sports

Chicago was named the Best Sports City in the United States by The Sporting News in 1993 and 2006. The city is home to two Major League Baseball (MLB) teams: the Chicago Cubs of the National League (NL), who play in Wrigley Fieldmarker on the city's North Side, and the Chicago White Sox of the American League (AL), who play in U.S.marker Cellular Fieldmarker on the city's South Side. Chicago is the only city in North America that has had more than one MLB franchise every year since the AL began in 1900. The Chicago Bears, one of the last two remaining charter members of the National Football League (NFL), have won nine NFL Championships, including Super Bowl XX. The other remaining charter franchise, the Chicago Cardinals, also started out in the city, but are now known as the Arizona Cardinals. The Bears play their home games at Soldier Fieldmarker on Chicago's lakefront.

The Chicago Bulls of the National Basketball Association (NBA) are one of the most recognized basketball teams in the world. During the 1990s with Michael Jordan leading them, the Bulls took six NBA championships in eight seasons (only failing to do so in the two years of Jordan's absence). The Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League (NHL), who began play in 1926, have won three Stanley Cups. The Blackhawks also hosted the 2009 NHL Winter Classic at Wrigley Field. Both the Bulls and Blackhawks play at the United Centermarker on the Near West Side.

The Chicago Fire are members of Major League Soccer. The Fire have won one league and four Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cups, since their inaugural season in 1998. In 2006, the club moved to its current home, Toyota Parkmarker in suburban Bridgeviewmarker, after playing its first eight seasons downtown at Soldier Field and at Cardinal Stadiummarker in Napervillemarker. The club is now the third professional soccer team to call Chicago home, or associate its name with Chicago, the first two being the former Chicago Sting of the North American Soccer League (and later of the Major Indoor Soccer League ), and the former Chicago Power of the National Professional Soccer League II. The Chicago Red Stars of Women's Professional Soccer also play in Toyota Park. The Chicago Bandits of National Pro Fastpitch play at Judson Field in Elgin and the Chicago Wolves of the American Hockey League play at the Allstate Arenamarker. The former Chicago Rush of the suspended Arena Football League, also played at the Allstate Arena. The Chicago Sky of the Women's National Basketball Association began play in 2006. The Sky's home arena is the UIC Pavilionmarker. Also calling the UIC Pavilion home are the Windy City Rollers of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association, Chicago's premiere roller derby league. The Chicago Slaughter of the Continental Indoor Football League began in 2006 and play at the Sears Centremarker. The Chicago Storm played from 2004 to 2007 in the MISL, when they moved to the Xtreme Soccer League after the MISL folded. The Chicago Storm also play at the Sears Centre.

The Chicago Steel are a semi-professional hockey team based in the western suburb of Bensenville.

The Chicago Machine, a Major League Lacrosse team, has been playing since 2006. Their home field is Toyota Park, but they are playing their 2009 season opener and closer at Soldier Fieldmarker.

The Chicago Marathon has been held each year since 1977 except for in 1987, when a half marathon was run in its place. This event is one of five World Marathon Majors.

In 1994, the United States hosted a successful FIFA World Cup with games played at Soldier Fieldmarker.

Chicago was selected on April 14, 2007, to represent the United States internationally in the bidding for the 2016 Summer Olympics. Chicago also hosted the 1959 Pan American Games and the 2006 Gay Games. Chicago was selected to host the 1904 Olympics, but they were transferred to St. Louismarker to coincide with the World's Fair. On June 4, 2008, the International Olympic Committeemarker selected Chicago as one of four candidate cities for the 2016 games. On October 2, 2009, Rio de Janeiromarker was selected to host the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Starting just off Navy Piermarker is Chicago Yacht Club's Race to Mackinac, a offshore sailboat race held each July that is the longest annual freshwater sailing distance race in the world. 2010 marks the 102nd running of the "Mac".

At the collegiate level, Chicago and suburban Evanstonmarker have two national athletic conferences, the Big East Conference with DePaul University, and the Big Ten Conference with Northwestern University in Evanston. Loyola University Chicago and the University of Illinois at Chicago play Division I sports as members of the Horizon League.

Media



The Chicago metropolitan area is the third-largest media market in North America, after New York Citymarker and Los Angelesmarker. Each of the big four U.S. television networks, CBS, ABC, NBC and Fox, directly owns and operates a high-definition television station in Chicago (WBBMmarker, WLSmarker, WMAQmarker and WFLDmarker, respectively). WGN-TVmarker, which is owned by the Tribune Company, is carried with some programming differences, as "WGN America" on cable TV nationwide and in parts of the Caribbeanmarker. The city is also the home of several talk shows, including The Oprah Winfrey Show on WLS-TV, while Chicago Public Radio produces programs such as PRI's This American Life and NPR's Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me! Chicago's PBS station can be seen on WTTWmarker, producer of shows, such as Sneak Previews, The Frugal Gourmet, Lamb Chop's Play-Along and The McLaughlin Group, just to name a few and WYCCmarker.

There are two major daily newspapers published in Chicago, the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, with the former having the larger circulation. There are also several regional and special-interest newspapers, such as the Dziennik Związkowy ,the Chicago Reader, the SouthtownStar, the Chicago Defender, the Daily Herald, StreetWise, The Chicago Free Press and the Windy City Times.

The city of Chicago is home to a large number of advertising agencies, in both traditional and new media forms of marketing and promotion, ranking second behind New York Citymarker and ahead of Los Angelesmarker.

Chicago is a filming-friendly location. Since the 1980s, many motion pictures have been filmed in the city, most notably John Hughes' classic Ferris Bueller's Day Off and the massive blockbuster success, The Dark Knight and its predecessor, Batman Begins.

Economy

Chicago has the third largest gross metropolitan product in the nation—approximately $506 billion according to 2007 estimates. The city has also been rated as having the most balanced economy in the United States, due to its high level of diversification. Chicago was named the fourth most important business center in the world in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index. Additionally, the Chicago metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of new or expanded corporate facilities in the United States for six of the past seven years. In 2008, Chicago placed 16th on the UBS list of the world's richest cities.

Chicago is a major world financial center, with the second largest central business districtmarker in the U.S. The city is the headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicagomarker (the Seventh District of the Federal Reserve). The city is also home to three major financial and futures exchanges, including the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the "Merc"), which includes the former Chicago Board of Trademarker (CBOT). Perhaps due to the influence of the Chicago school of economics, the city also has markets trading unusual contracts such as emissions (on the Chicago Climate Exchange) and equity style indices (on the U.S. Futures Exchange).

The city and its surrounding metropolitan area are home to the second largest labor pool in the United States with approximately 4.25 million workers.

Manufacturing, printing, publishing and food processing also play major roles in the city's economy. Several medical products and services companies are headquartered in the Chicago area, including Baxter International, Abbott Laboratories, and the Healthcare Financial Services division of General Electric. Moreover, the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which helped move goods from the Great Lakesmarker south on the Mississippi River, and of the railroads in the 19th century made the city a major transportation center in the United States. In the 1840s, Chicago became a major grain port, and in the 1850s and 1860s Chicago's pork and beef industry expanded. As the major meat companies grew in Chicago many, such as Armour and Company, created global enterprises. Though the meatpacking industry currently plays a lesser role in the city's economy, Chicago continues to be a major transportation and distribution center.

Late in the 19th Century, Chicago was part of the bicycle craze, as home to Western Wheel Company, which introduced stamping to the production process and significantly reduced costs, while early in the 20th Century, the city was part of the automobile revolution, hosting the Brass Era car builder Bugmobile, which was founded there in 1907. Chicago was also home to the Schwinn Bicycle Company.

Chicago is a major world convention destination. The city's main convention center is McCormick Placemarker. With its four interconnected buildings, it is the third largest convention center in the world. Chicago also ranks third in the U.S. (behind Las Vegasmarker and Orlandomarker) in number of conventions hosted annually. In addition, Chicago is home to eleven Fortune 500 companies, while the metropolitan area hosts an additional 21 Fortune 500 companies. The state of Illinois is home to 66 Fortune 1000 companies. The city of Chicago also hosts 12 Fortune Global 500 companies and 17 Financial Times 500 companies. The city claims one Dow 30 company as well: aerospace giant Boeing, which moved its headquarters from Seattlemarker to the Chicago Loopmarker in 2001. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network at Loughborough Universitymarker in Englandmarker classified Chicago as an "alpha− world city" in a 2008 study.

Demographics

Historical Populations
Census

year
Population Rank
>
1840 4,470 92
1850 29,963 24 570.3%
1860 112,172 9 274.4%
1870 298,977 5 166.5%
1880 503,185 4 68.3%
1890 1,099,850 2 118.6%
1900 1,698,575 2 54.4%
1910 2,185,283 2 28.7%
1920 2,701,705 2 23.6%
1930 3,376,438 2 25.0%
1940 3,396,808 2 0.6%
1950 3,620,962 2 6.6%
1960 3,550,404 2 -1.9%
1970 3,366,957 2 -5.2%
1980 3,005,072 2 -10.7%
1990 2,783,726 3 -7.4%
2000 2,896,016 3 4.0%
2008 2,853,114 3 -1.5%


During its first century as a city, Chicago grew at a rate that ranked among the fastest growing in the world. Within the span of forty years, the city's population grew from slightly under 30,000 to over 1 million by 1890. By the close of the 19th century, Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world, and the largest of the cities that did not exist at the dawn of the century.Within fifty years of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the population had tripled to over 3 million, and reached its highest ever-recorded population of 3.6 million for the 1950 census.

As of the 2000 census, there were 2,896,016 people, 1,061,928 households, and 632,558 families residing within Chicago. More than half the population of the state of Illinois lives in the Chicago metropolitan area. The population density of the city itself was 12,750.3 people per square mile (4,923.0/km2), making it one of the nation's most densely populated cities. There were 1,152,868 housing units at an average density of 5,075.8 per square mile (1,959.8/km2). Of the 1,061,928 households, 28.9% have children under the age of 18 living in them, 35.1% were married couples living together, 18.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.4% were non-families. The median income for a household in the city was $38,625, and the median income for a family was $42,724. Males had a median income of $35,907 versus $30,536 for females. About 16.6% of families and 19.6% of the population lived below the poverty line.

As of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 37.6% of Chicago's population; of which 30.9% were non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 35.0% of Chicago's population; of which 34.7% were non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.2% of Chicago's population; of which 0.1% were non-Hispanic. Asian Americans made up 4.9% of Chicago's population while Pacific Islander Americans made up only 0.1% of the city's population; of which less than 0.1% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from some other race made up 20.6% of Chicago's population; of which 0.3% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 1.6% of Chicago's population; of which 0.9% were non-Hispanic. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 28.1% of Chicago's population.

The main ethnic groups in Chicago are African American, Assyrian, Irish, German, Italian, Mexican, English, Bulgarian, Greek, Chinese, Slovak, Lithuanian, Polish, Bosnian, Czech, Filipino, Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian, Indian, Pakistanimarker, Arab, and Puerto Rican. Poles in Chicago allegedly constitutes the largest Polish population outside of the Polish capital of Warsawmarker. However, the 2000 U.S. Census states that 210,421 Chicagoans claimed Polish background or ancestry (7.3%). This total is far less than the population of several Polish cities besides Warsaw, including Krakow (746,583 as of December 2007), Lodz (753,192) and Wroclaw (632,930), as well as eleven other Polish cities.

Because of Chicago's large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced. Various Christian denominations, such as diverse Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant churches, are found throughout the area along with adherents of Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Bahá'í, and others.

Law and government



Chicago is the county seat of Cook Countymarker. The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches. The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive, elected by general election for a term of four years, with no term limits. The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the various departments. In addition to the mayor, Chicago's two other citywide elected officials are the clerk and the treasurer.

The City Council is the legislative branch and is made up of 50 aldermen, one elected from each ward in the city. The council enacts local ordinances and approves the city budget. Government priorities and activities are established in a budget ordinance usually adopted each November. The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions.

During much of the last half of the 19th century, Chicago's politics were dominated by a growing Democratic Party organization dominated by ethnic ward-heelers. During the 1880s and 1890s, Chicago had a powerful radical tradition with large and highly organized socialist, anarchist and labor organizations. For much of the 20th century, Chicago has been among the largest and most reliable Democratic strongholds in the United States, with Chicago's Democratic vote the state of Illinois has been "solid blue" in presidential elections since 1992. The citizens of Chicago have not elected a Republican mayor since 1927, when William Thompson was voted into office. The strength of the party in the city is partly a consequence of Illinois state politics, where the Republicans have come to represent the rural and farm concerns while the Democrats support urban issues such as Chicago's public school funding. Chicago contains close to 25% of the state's population, and as such, eight of Illinois' nineteen U.S. Representatives have part of Chicago in their districts.

Former Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley's mastery of machine politics preserved the Chicago Democratic Machine long after the demise of similar machines in other large U.S. cities. During much of that time, the city administration found opposition mainly from a liberal "independent" faction of the Democratic Party. The independents finally gained control of city government in 1983 with the election of Harold Washington. Since 1989, Chicago has been under the leadership of Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Daley. Because of the dominance of the Democratic Party in Chicago, the Democratic primary vote held in the spring is generally more significant than the general elections in November.

Crime

Murders in the city peaked first in 1974, with 970 murders when the city's population was over three million people (resulting in a murder rate of around 29 per 100,000), and again in 1992 with 943 murders, resulting in a murder rate of 34 per 100,000. Chicago, along with other major US cities, experienced a significant reduction in violent crime rates through the 1990s, eventually recording 448 homicides in 2004, the lowest total since 1965 (15.65 per 100,000.) Chicago's homicide tally remained steady throughout 2005, 2006, and 2007 with 449, 452, and 435 respectively.

In 2008, murders rebounded to 510 to lead the country, breaking 500 for the first time since 2003. As of late September 2009 the murder count was down about 10% for the year.

Gangs

The City of Chicago is very rich in street gang history. Many people believe that the modern day street gang originated in Chicago. The creation of the People Nation and Folks Nation can be accredited to Chicago, and was well known for organized crime syndicates in the past. Street gangs are a secret underground culture and the gangs are not limited to gender, race, culture, or neighborhood.There are African American Gangs, Asian Gangs, Arabic Gangs, Female Gangs, White Gangs, Latino or Hispanic Gangs. The members can range from a handful in a small neighborhood crew, to thousands for larger gangs. Members can be as young as 10 and as old as 50. Street Gangs are a rich part of Chicago's underworld, they have been around for many years and will continue to be a secret culture among Chicago's Society.

Education

There are 666 public schools, 394 private schools, 83 colleges, and 88 libraries in the Chicago proper. Chicago Public Schools (CPS) is the governing body of the school district that contains over 600 public elementary and high schools citywide, including several selective-admission magnet schools. The district, with an enrollment exceeding 400,000 students (2005 stat.), ranks as the third largest in the U.S. Chicago's private schools are largely run by religious groups, with the two largest systems being the Catholic and Lutheran schools. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago operates the city's Catholic schools, including the Jesuit preparatory school. Some of the more prominent Catholic schools are: Brother Rice High Schoolmarker, St. Ignatius College Preparatory Schoolmarker, St. Scholastica Academymarker, Mount Carmel High Schoolmarker, Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High Schoolmarker, Marist High Schoolmarker, St. Patrick High Schoolmarker and Resurrection High Schoolmarker. In addition to Chicago's network of 32 Lutheran schools, there are also several private schools run by other denominations and faiths, such as the Ida Crown Jewish Academy in West Ridgemarker and the Fasman Yeshiva High Schoolmarker in Skokiemarker, a nearby suburb. Additionally, a number of private schools are run in a completely secular educational environment, such as the Latin School of Chicagomarker, the University of Chicago Laboratory Schoolsmarker in Hyde Park, the Francis W. Parker School, the Chicago City Day School in Lake View, and the Morgan Park Academymarker. Chicago is also home of the private Chicago Academy for the Artsmarker, a high school focused on six different categories of the arts, such as Media Arts, Visual Arts, Music, Dance, Musical Theatre and Theatre.

Colleges and universities



Since the 1850s, Chicago has been a world center of higher education and research with several universities that are in the city proper or in the immediate environs. These institutions consistently rank among the top "National Universities" in the United States, as determined by U.S. News & World Report. They include: the University of Chicagomarker, which also ranks among the world's top ten; Northwestern Universitymarker; Illinois Institute of Technologymarker; Loyola University Chicagomarker; DePaul Universitymarker and the University of Illinois at Chicagomarker. Other notable schools include: Chicago State Universitymarker; the School of the Art Institute of Chicagomarker; East-West University; North Park Universitymarker; Northeastern Illinois Universitymarker; Columbia College Chicagomarker; Robert Morris University; Roosevelt University and Rush Universitymarker.

William Rainey Harper, the first president of the University of Chicago, was instrumental in the creation of the junior college concept, establishing nearby Joliet Junior College as the first in the nation in 1901. His legacy continues with the multiple community colleges in the Chicago proper, including the seven City Colleges of Chicago, Richard J. Daley College, Kennedy-King College, Malcolm X Collegemarker, Olive-Harvey Collegemarker, Harry S Truman Collegemarker, Harold Washington Collegemarker and Wilbur Wright College, in addition to the privately held MacCormac College.

The Chicago proper also has a large concentration of graduate schools, seminaries and theological schools. The city is home to the Adler School of Professional Psychology, the Catholic Theological Union, the Chicago Theological Seminarymarker, the John Marshall Law School, the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, the McCormick Theological Seminary, the Meadville Lombard Theological School, the North Park Theological Seminary, the University of Chicago Divinity School, the Moody Bible Institutemarker, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, the Spertus Institutemarker and the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago.

Infrastructure

Transportation



Chicago is a major transportation hub in the United States. It is an important component in global distribution, as it is the third largest inter-modal port in the world after Hong Kongmarker and Singaporemarker. Additionally, it is the only city in North America in which six Class I railroads meet. As of 2002, severe freight train congestion caused trains to take as long to get through the Chicago region as it took to get there from the West Coast of the country (about 2 days). About one-third of the country's freight trains pass through the city, making it a major national bottleneck. Announced in 2003, the Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency (CREATE) initiative is using about $1.5B in private railroad, state, local, and federal funding to improve rail infrastructure in the region to reduce freight rail congestion by about one third. This is also expected to have a positive impact on passenger rail and road congestion, as well as create new greenspace.

Chicago is one of the largest hubs of passenger rail service in the nation. Many Amtrak long distance services originate from Union Stationmarker. Such services terminate in New Yorkmarker, Seattlemarker, Portlandmarker, New Orleansmarker, San Franciscomarker, Los Angelesmarker, San Antoniomarker, and Washington, D.C.marker Amtrak also provides a number of short-haul services throughout Illinois and toward nearby Milwaukeemarker, Indianapolismarker, St. Louismarker, and Detroitmarker. An attempt was made in the early 20th century to link Chicago with New York Citymarker via the Chicago – New York Electric Air Line Railroad. Parts of this were built, but it was ultimately never completed.

Nine interstate highways run through Chicago and its suburbs. Segments that link to the city center are named after influential politicians, with four of them named after former U.S. Presidents. When referring to the expressways, citizens tend to use the names of the expressways rather than the interstate numbers.

The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) coordinates the operation of the three service boards: CTA, Metra, and Pace. The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) handles public transportation in the city of Chicago and a few adjacent suburbs. The CTA operates an extensive network of buses and a rapid transit elevated and subway system known as the Chicago 'L' (for "elevated"), with lines designated by colors. These rapid transit lines also serve both Midwaymarker and O'Hare Airportmarker. The CTA's rail lines consist of the Red, Blue, Green, Orange, Brown, Purple, Pink, and Yellow lines. Both the Red and Blue lines offer 24 hour service which makes Chicago one of the few cities in the world (and one of only three American cities) to offer rail service every day of the year for 24 hours around the clock. A new subway/elevated line, the Circle Line, is also in the planning stages by the CTA. Metra operates commuter rail service in Chicago and its suburbs. The Metra Electric Line shares the railway with the South Shore Line's NICTD Northern Indiana Commuter Rail Service, providing commuter service between South Bendmarker and Chicago. Pace provides bus and paratransit service in over 200 surrounding suburbs with some extensions into the city as well. A 2005 study found that one quarter of commuters used public transit.

Chicago offers a wide array of bicycle transportation facilities and events, including miles of on-street bike lanes, 10,000 bike racks, a state-of-the-art central bicycle commuter station in Millennium Park and the annual Bike Chicago festival. The network has of on-street bike lanes and of off-street trails. Bicycles are permitted on CTA trains and their fleet of over 2,000 buses that have been equipped with racks that carry bikes. The successes of the Bike Program are due in large part to Mayor Daley's leadership and the incorporation of bicycling into the mandates and programs of the Chicago Department of Transportation, CTA, Chicago Park District and the Mayor's Office of Special Events, in partnership with the Chicagoland Bicycle Federation.

Chicago is served by Midway International Airportmarker on the south side and O'Hare International Airportmarker, the world's second busiest airport, on the far northwest side. In 2005, O'Hare was the world's busiest airport by aircraft movements and the second busiest by total passenger traffic (due to government enforced flight caps). Both O'Hare and Midway are owned and operated by the City of Chicago. Gary/Chicago International Airportmarker, located in nearby Gary, Indianamarker, serves as the third Chicago area airport. Chicago Rockford International Airportmarker, formerly Greater Rockford Airport, serves as a regional base for United Parcel Service cargo flights, some passenger flights, and occasionally as a reliever to O'Hare, usually in times of bad weather. Chicago is the world headquarters for United Airlines, the world's second-largest airline by revenue-passenger-kilometers and the city is the second largest hub for American Airlines. Midway airport serves as a major 'focus city' for Southwest Airlinesmarker, the world's largest low-cost airline.

Health systems



Chicago is home to the Illinois Medical Districtmarker, on the Near West Side. It includes Rush University Medical Centermarker, the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Jesse Brown VA Hospital, and John H.marker Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook Countymarker, the largest trauma-center in the city.

The University of Chicago Medical Center was ranked the fourteenth best hospital in the country by U.S. News & World Report. It is the only hospital in Illinois ever to be included in the magazine's "Honor Roll" of the best hospitals in the United States.

The Chicago campus of Northwestern University includes the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (rated best U.S. rehabilitation hospital by U.S. News & World Report), the new Prentice Women's Hospital, and the new Lurie Children's Hospital, which is currently under construction.

The University of Illinois College of Medicine at UIC is the largest medical school in the United States (2600 students including those at campuses in Peoria, Rockford and Urbana-Champaignmarker).

In addition, the Chicago Medical School and Loyola University Chicago's Stritch School of Medicine are located in the suburbs of North Chicagomarker and Maywoodmarker, respectively. The Midwestern University Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine is in Downers Grovemarker.

The American Medical Association, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education, American Osteopathic Association, American Dental Association, Academy of General Dentistry, American Dietetic Association, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American College of Healthcare Executives and the American Hospital Association, and Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association are all based in Chicago.

Telecommunications

Using only 3% of the total available bandwidth capacity and 13% of the available fiber pairs, Chicago area data centers move data for local, area, regional and international networks.

Utilities

Electricity for most of northern Illinois is provided by Commonwealth Edison, also known as ComEd. Their service territory borders Iroquois Countymarker to the south, the Wisconsinmarker border to the north, the Iowamarker border to the west and the Indianamarker border to the east. In northern Illinois, ComEd (a division of Exelon) operates the greatest number of nuclear generating plants in any US state. Because of this, ComEd reports indicate that Chicago receives about 75% of its electricity from nuclear power. Recently, the city started the installation of wind turbines on government buildings with the aim to promote the use of renewable energy.

Domestic and industrial waste was once incinerated but it is now landfilled, mainly in the Calumet areamarker. From 1995 to 2008, the city had a blue bag program to divert certain refuse from landfills. In the fall of 2007 the city began a pilot program for blue bin recycling similar to that of other cities due to low participation rates in the blue bag program. After completion of the pilot the city will determine whether to roll it out to all wards.

Sister cities

Chicago has twenty-seven Sister Cities and one Friendship City. Like Chicago, many of them are or were, the second city of their country, having very similar-sized populations, or they are the main city of a country that has sent many immigrants to Chicago over the years. Parismarker is a Partner City, due to the one sister city policy of their respective French commune. A twin city partnership with Karachimarker, Pakistanmarker, was contemplated and initiated in 2000, but was never implemented.

To celebrate the sister cities, Chicago hosts a yearly festival in Daley Plazamarker, which features cultural acts and food tastings from the other cities. In addition, the Chicago Sister Cities program hosts a number of delegation and formal exchanges. In some cases, these exchanges have led to further informal collaborations, such as the academic relationship between the Buehler Center on Aging, Health & Society at the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University and the Institute of Gerontology of the Ukrainemarker (originally of the Soviet Unionmarker), that was originally established as part of the Chicago-Kiev sister cities program.



Bibliography



Notes

  1. Chicago notoriety comes from being the subject or being referenced in novels, plays, movies, songs, various types of journals (e.g., sports, entertainment, business, trade, and academic), and the news media.
  2. Architect Gallery website. Accessed November 7, 2009.
  3. Skyscraper City website. Accessed November 7, 2009.
  4. Chicago Hip Transplant at Honest Expession website. Accessed November 7, 2009.
  5. Mark Caro, The Foie Gras Wars: How a 5,000-Year-Old Delicacy Inspired the World's Fiecest Food Fight, p. 149, (Simon and Schuster, 2009), ISBN 9781416556688 found at Google books website. Accessed November 7, 2009.
  6. Marco Portales, Latino sun, rising: our Spanish-speaking U.S. world, p. 54, (Texas A&M University Press, 2004) ISBN 9781585443819, found at Google books website. Accessed November 7, 2009.
  7. For a historical account of interest see the section entitled "Origin of the word Chicago" in Andreas, Alfred Theodore, History of Chicago, A.T. Andreas, Chicago (1884) pp 37-38.
  8. Swenson 1991, pp 235–248
  9. Boyle, Elizabeth and Rodolfo Estrada. (1994) "Development of the U.S. Meat Industry" – Kansas State University Department of Animal Sciences and Industry.
  10. Bruegmann, Robert (2004–2005). Built Environment of the Chicago Region. Encyclopedia of Chicago (online version).
  11. Chicago History. Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau.
  12. http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/portalContentItemAction.do?blockName=Mayors+Office/March/I+Want+To&deptMainCategoryOID=-536882034&channelId=0&programId=0&entityName=Mayors+Office&topChannelName=Dept&contentOID=536889070&Failed_Reason=Invalid+timestamp,+engine+has+been+restarted&contenTypeName=COC_EDITORIAL&com.broadvision.session.new=Yes&Failed_Page=/webportal/portalContentItemAction.do&context=dept
  13. Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce
  14. Chicago (2004). Chicago Public Library.
  15. World's Tallest Cities. UltrapolisProject.com.
  16. Sawyer 2002, p 14
  17. Levine, Jay. " Chicago In The Running To Host 2016 Summer Games." CBS. July 26, 2006. Retrieved on December 1, 2006.
  18. " Official Chicago 2016 Website." Retrieved on December 1, 2006.
  19. Nielsen Media - DMA Listing (September 24, 2005).
  20. . Accessed from World Business Chicago.
  21. " London named world's top business center by MasterCard", CNN, June 13, 2007.
  22. . CBRE - CB Richard Ellis.
  23. Norcliffe 2001, p 107
  24. Clymer 1950, p 178
  25. Chicago falls to 3rd in U.S. convention industry (4/26/2006). Crain's Chicago Business.
  26. Fortune 500 2006 - Illinois. CNNMoney.com.
  27. U.S. Census Bureau | Chicago, Illinois
  28. Schneirov 1998, pp 173–174
  29. Montejano 1998, pp 33–34
  30. Heinzmann, David (1/1/2003). Chicago falls out of 1st in murders. Chicago Tribune, found at qrc.depaul.edu/djabon/Articles/ChicagoCrime20030101.htm.
  31. http://www.gangresearch.net/ChicagoGangs/chiroomnew.html
  32. http://www.chicagogangs.org/index.php?pr=GANG_LIST
  33. CPS At A Glance (2005) Chicago Public Schools at www.cps.k12.il.us/AtAGlance.html.
  34. Pogorzelski 2008, p 58
  35. Madigan 2004, p.52.
  36. Appendix C: Regional Freight Transportation Profiles. Assessing the Effects of Freight Movement on Air Quality at the National and Regional Level. U.S. Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration (April 2005).
  37. [1] - Includes map
  38. "New Yorkers are top transit users", by Les Christie,CNNmoney.com, 2007-6-29, retrieved 2009-9-21
  39. . Airports Council International.
  40. About The University of Illinois College of Medicine (2007). UIC College of Medicine at www.medicine.uic.edu/about.


References

  1. Chicago notoriety comes from being the subject or being referenced in novels, plays, movies, songs, various types of journals (e.g., sports, entertainment, business, trade, and academic), and the news media.
  2. Architect Gallery website. Accessed November 7, 2009.
  3. Skyscraper City website. Accessed November 7, 2009.
  4. Chicago Hip Transplant at Honest Expession website. Accessed November 7, 2009.
  5. Mark Caro, The Foie Gras Wars: How a 5,000-Year-Old Delicacy Inspired the World's Fiecest Food Fight, p. 149, (Simon and Schuster, 2009), ISBN 9781416556688 found at Google books website. Accessed November 7, 2009.
  6. Marco Portales, Latino sun, rising: our Spanish-speaking U.S. world, p. 54, (Texas A&M University Press, 2004) ISBN 9781585443819, found at Google books website. Accessed November 7, 2009.
  7. For a historical account of interest see the section entitled "Origin of the word Chicago" in Andreas, Alfred Theodore, History of Chicago, A.T. Andreas, Chicago (1884) pp 37-38.
  8. Swenson 1991, pp 235–248
  9. Boyle, Elizabeth and Rodolfo Estrada. (1994) "Development of the U.S. Meat Industry" – Kansas State University Department of Animal Sciences and Industry.
  10. Bruegmann, Robert (2004–2005). Built Environment of the Chicago Region. Encyclopedia of Chicago (online version).
  11. Chicago History. Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau.
  12. http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/portalContentItemAction.do?blockName=Mayors+Office/March/I+Want+To&deptMainCategoryOID=-536882034&channelId=0&programId=0&entityName=Mayors+Office&topChannelName=Dept&contentOID=536889070&Failed_Reason=Invalid+timestamp,+engine+has+been+restarted&contenTypeName=COC_EDITORIAL&com.broadvision.session.new=Yes&Failed_Page=/webportal/portalContentItemAction.do&context=dept
  13. Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce
  14. Chicago (2004). Chicago Public Library.
  15. World's Tallest Cities. UltrapolisProject.com.
  16. Sawyer 2002, p 14
  17. Levine, Jay. " Chicago In The Running To Host 2016 Summer Games." CBS. July 26, 2006. Retrieved on December 1, 2006.
  18. " Official Chicago 2016 Website." Retrieved on December 1, 2006.
  19. Nielsen Media - DMA Listing (September 24, 2005).
  20. . Accessed from World Business Chicago.
  21. " London named world's top business center by MasterCard", CNN, June 13, 2007.
  22. . CBRE - CB Richard Ellis.
  23. Norcliffe 2001, p 107
  24. Clymer 1950, p 178
  25. Chicago falls to 3rd in U.S. convention industry (4/26/2006). Crain's Chicago Business.
  26. Fortune 500 2006 - Illinois. CNNMoney.com.
  27. U.S. Census Bureau | Chicago, Illinois
  28. Schneirov 1998, pp 173–174
  29. Montejano 1998, pp 33–34
  30. Heinzmann, David (1/1/2003). Chicago falls out of 1st in murders. Chicago Tribune, found at qrc.depaul.edu/djabon/Articles/ChicagoCrime20030101.htm.
  31. http://www.gangresearch.net/ChicagoGangs/chiroomnew.html
  32. http://www.chicagogangs.org/index.php?pr=GANG_LIST
  33. CPS At A Glance (2005) Chicago Public Schools at www.cps.k12.il.us/AtAGlance.html.
  34. Pogorzelski 2008, p 58
  35. Madigan 2004, p.52.
  36. Appendix C: Regional Freight Transportation Profiles. Assessing the Effects of Freight Movement on Air Quality at the National and Regional Level. U.S. Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration (April 2005).
  37. [1] - Includes map
  38. "New Yorkers are top transit users", by Les Christie,CNNmoney.com, 2007-6-29, retrieved 2009-9-21
  39. . Airports Council International.
  40. About The University of Illinois College of Medicine (2007). UIC College of Medicine at www.medicine.uic.edu/about.


Further reading

  • [ USGS Chicago] - Elevation and topography


External links




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