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The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chilemarker.

History

The origin of the Chilean Navy dates back to 1817. A year before, following the Battle of Chacabuco, General Bernardo O'Higgins prophetically declared "this victory and another hundred shall be of no significance if we do not gain control of the sea".

This led to the development of Chilean Navy, and the first legal resolutions outlining the organization of the institution were created. Chile's First National Fleet and the Academy for Young Midshipmen (predecessor of the current Naval Academy) were founded, as were the Marine Corps and the Supply Commissary.

The British seaman Lord Thomas Cochrane was hired by O'Higgins to be the first commander of the Navy, who in turn hired an all-anglophone complement of officers and midshipmen, and crews of British, Irish and American seamen. He was a key figure in the war against loyalist forces in Peru. He later took control of the fortresses of Valdivia, but failed in his attempt to conquer Chiloé Islandmarker.

The Navy's Hydrographic Office was founded in 1874 with Francisco Vidal Gormaz as first director.

The Chilean war hero and martyr Arturo Prat is regarded as the ultimate example of the commitment of the Navy to its country, after his death while leading a boarding party onto the enemy ironclad Huáscarmarker at the naval battle of Iquique on 21 May 1879, during the War against Peru and Bolivia. The anniversary of this battle is celebrated every year as a public holiday called Día de las Glorias Navales.

During the Chilean Civil War of 1891 a large part of the navy rebelled against the president José Manuel Balmaceda and critically helped depose him.

Present

The 25,000-person navy, including 5,200 Marines, is directed by Admiral Edmundo Gonzalez. Of the fleet of sixty-six surface vessels (soon to be increased to seventy-four), twenty-one are major combatant ships based in Valparaísomarker. The navy operates its own aircraft for transport and patrol; there are no fighter or bomber aircraft. The Navy also operates four submarines and a tender ship to support them, all based in Talcahuanomarker.The Navy permits the integration of Chile's Pacific and Southern island regions, thus integrating its disjointed geography. The transport of passengers, especially during the school year or in cases of emergency, together with the supply of provisions and fuel, are of key importance to the inhabitants of these insular zones.

The Chilean Navy is generally considered to be among the most capable and professional in the Americas, and is heavily aligned with significant naval powers such as the United States Navy and several European navies, most notably the British Royal Navy.

The institution regularly carries out civil operations whereby Navy professionals provide social assistance and health care to the civilian population, and provide support in cases of natural catastrophe.
It also undertakes preventative education campaigns for Chile's population on issues that include security on beaches and seaside resorts and measures to be taken in the case of a tsunami.

The most important naval bases and supply depots are (from north to south) in the Pacific Oceanmarker: Iquiquemarker, Easter Islandmarker, Valparaísomarker, Talcahuanomarker, Puerto Monttmarker, in the atlantic zone: Strait of Magellanmarker: Punta Arenasmarker, in the Beagle Channelmarker: Puerto Williamsmarker, and in Antarcticamarker: Captain Arturo Prat Basemarker.

Wars

The Chilean Navy has fought the following wars:

Order of Battle

See list of active Chilean Navy ships:
Chilean Type 23 frigate Almirante Cochrane (FF-05)
  • 2 × Thomson class (Type 209/1400) submarines
    • Thomson (SS-20), refitted in ASMAR ("Astilleros y Maestranzas de la Armada") (MLU)
    • Simpson (SS-21), entering midlife upgrade and refit in 2009
  • 2 × s
    • O'Higgins (SS-23)
    • Carrera (SS-22)
  • 2 × L class frigate
    • Almirante Latorre (FFG-14), ex-HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck
    • Capitan Prat (FFG-11), ex-HNLMS Witte de With
  • 2 × M class frigate
    • Almirante Blanco Encalada (FF-15), ex-HNLMS Abraham van der Hulst
    • Almirante Riveros (FF-18), ex-HNLMS Tjerk Hiddes
  • 1 × Type 22 frigate
Almirante Lynch (FF-07)
  • 3 × Type 23 frigate
    • Almirante Cochrane (FF-05), ex-
    • Almirante Condell (FF-06), ex-
    • Almirante Lynch (FF-07), ex-
  • 3 × Sa'ar 4 class missile boat
  • 4 × (Type 148)
  • 2 + 2 [Proyecto Patrulleros de Zona Marítima OPV]] (PZM) offshore patrol vessels (Fassmer design, built by ASMAR, two operational the others being completed)
  • 20 coastal patrol craft (5 Taitao class, 15 Protector class, all built by ASMAR)
  • 8 Dabur class inshore patrol craft
  • 2 × BATRAL class landing ship tank
    • Rancagua (LST-92)
    • Chacabuco (LST-95)
  • 1 ×
    • Valdivia (LST-93), ex-
  • 2 × Elicura class landing ship medium
    • Elicura (LSM-90)
    • Orompello (LSM-94)
  • 12 × Support ships
Valdivia (LST-1189)

Recently decommissioned ships

  • 2 × s
    • (sold to Ecuador)
    • (sold to Ecuador)


The two s were stricken from Chilean Navy service, after the arrival of their Type 23 frigate replacements in 2007. Despite their age, and due to their excellent condition and constant modernization, both ships were sold and delivered to the Ecuadorian Navy in 2008.

Aircraft inventory

AS 532SC Cougar de la Chilean Navy
Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service Notes
Bell 206 JetRanger Utility helicopter Model 206B

TH-57 Sea Ranger
4

2
CASA C-212 Aviocar Tactical transport C-212A 3
Cessna O-2 Skymaster Liaison O-2A 8
Embraer EMB-111 Maritime patrol aircraft
transport
EMB-111AN
EMB-111C
3

1
Eurocopter Bo 105 Utility helicopter Bo 105C 2
Eurocopter AS 532 Cougar Naval helicopter AS 532SC 5 1 lost in night-time ASW

training accident, 5 remaining
Eurocopter AS 365 Dauphin SAR helicopter AS 365 8 4 former Irish Coast Guard
CASA C-295 Maritime patrol aircraft C-295 Persuader 3 3 acquired, with

option for 5 more
Lockheed P-3 Orion Maritime patrol aircraft

VIP transport
P-3ACH 4 (+ 4 spares) To be replaced by C-295

in the near future
Pilatus PC-7 Turbo Trainer Trainer 7 Originally 10 PC-7 in fleet.

None lost in accidents


Marines

Chilean Navy special forces sailors seen here using the MP5N.
The Chilean Marines or (Infanteria de Marina de Chile) is the land/amphibious attack force of the Chilean Navy. The 5,200 man force combines special training and tactics with state of the art equipment.

Equipment Chilean Marines

Vehicles



Weapons



Gallery

Image:Combate naval.jpg|Naval Battle of Iquique. The Esmeralda versus the HuascarImage:HMS_Canada.jpg|Battleship Almirante Latorre. 32.000 TonsImage:CS Simpson SS-21.jpg|CS Simpson (SS-21) entering Pearl Harbor, Hawaiimarker in 2004Image:Capitan Prat.jpg|Capitan Prat on the North SeaImage:Cougar chile unitas 47-06.jpg|Chilean Navy CougarImage:Almirante Blanco Encalada (FF-15).jpg|Chilean frigate Almirante Blanco Encalada (FF-15) at Pearl Harbormarker, 2006Image:Type 23 Frigate Chilean Navy (Cochrane).gif|Type 23 frigatesImage:Type M frigate Chilean Navy (Riveros).gif|Type M frigatesImage:Type L frigate Chilean Navy (Latorre).gif|Type L frigatesImage:Type 22 Frigate Chilean Navy (Williams).gif|Type 22 frigates

Grades

Navy Enlisted Personnel Ranks
Insignia Rank
Seaman / Marine (in the Marines)
Able Rate
Leading Rate
Chief Petty Officer
Warrant Officer
Chief Warrant Officer
   
Navy Officer Ranks
Insignia Rank
Midshipman
Sub-Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Lieutenant-Commander
Corvette Captain
Frigate Captain
Ship-of-the-Line Captain
Rear Admiral
Vice Admiral
Admiral


Commanders-in-chief

Picture Rank Name Entered

Office
Exited

Office
Position
Colonel Francisco de la Lastra de la Sotta 1812 1814 Valparaíso governor
Lieutenant Colonel Rudecindo Alvarado 1817 1817 Valparaíso governor
Colonel Francisco de la Lastra de la Sotta 1817 1818 Valparaíso governor
Navy Captain 1st Class Manuel Blanco Encalada 1818 1821 Navy General Commander
Colonel José Ignacio Zenteno del Pozo 1821 1825 Navy General Commander
General Francisco de la Lastra de la Sotta 1825 1829 Navy General Commander
Division General José María de la Cruz Prieto 1829 1831 Navy General Commander
José Matías López Orrego 1831 1833 Navy General Commander
Colonel of Militia Diego Portales Palazuelos 1833 1834 Navy General Commander
Colonel Ramón de la Cavareda Trucios 1834 1837 Navy General Commander
Colonel Victorino Garrido 1837 1842 Navy General Commander
Division General José María de la Cruz Prieto 1842 1843 Navy General Commander
Commodore Robert Winthrop Simpson 1843 1844 Navy General Commander
Division General José Joaquín Prieto Vial 1844 1845 Navy General Commander
Navy Captain Robert Winthrop Simpson 1845 1846 Navy General Commander
General José Santiago Aldunate Toro 1846 1847 Navy General Commander
Vice Admiral Manuel Blanco Encalada 1847 1852 Navy General Commander
Rear Admiral Robert Winthrop Simpson 1852 1853 Navy General Commander
Julián Riesco Droguett 1853 1856 Navy General Commander
Domingo Espiñera Riesco 1856 1858 Navy General Commander
Manuel Valenzuela Castillo 1858 1858 Navy General Commander
Jovino Novoa Vidal 1859 1859 Navy General Commander
General Juan Vidaurre-Leal Morla 1859 1859 Navy General Commander
Colonel Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez 1860 1860 Navy General Commander
General José Santiago Aldunate Toro 1861 1864 Navy General Commander
Juan Ramón Lira 1864 1865 Navy General Commander
Vicente Villalón 1865 1865 Navy General Commander
Juan Ramón Lira 1865 1866 Navy General Commander
José María de la Cruz Salvo 1867 1867 Navy General Commander
Commodore José Anacleto Goñi Prieto 1867 1868 Navy General Commander
Juan Ramón Lira 1868 1868 Navy General Commander
Commodore José Anacleto Goñi Prieto 1869 1870 Navy General Commander
Francisco Echaurren García-Huidobro 1870 1876 Navy General Commander
Eulogio Altamirano Aracena 1876 1879 Navy General Commander
Rear Admiral José Anacleto Goñi Prieto 1879 1880 Navy General Commander
Eulogio Altamirano Aracena 1880 1880 Navy General Commander
Commodore Oscar Viel Toro 1881 1883 Navy General Commander
Domingo Toro Herrera 1884 1885 Navy General Commander
Rear Admiral Juan José Latorre Benavente 1886 1887 Navy General Commander
Rear Admiral Luis Uribe Orrego 1887 1889 Navy General Commander
Rear Admiral Juan Williams Rebolledo 1890 1891 Navy General Commander
Rear Admiral Oscar Viel Toro 1891 1891 Navy General Commander
Rear Admiral Francisco Javier Molinas Gacitúa 1892 1892 Navy General Commander
Rear Admiral Luis Anacleto Castillo Goñi 1893 1897 Navy General Commander
Vice Admiral Jorge Montt Alvarez 1897 1913 Navy General Director
Vice Admiral Luis Alberto Goñi Simpson 1913 1916 Navy General Director
Vice Admiral Lindor Pérez Gacitúa 1916 1916 Navy General Director
Vice Admiral Joaquín Muñoz Hurtado 1916 1922 Navy General Director
Vice Admiral Francisco Nef Jara 1922 1924 Navy General Director
Vice Admiral Salustio Valdés Cortés 1924 1925 Navy General Director
Vice Admiral Luis Langlois Vidal 1925 1925 Navy General Director
Vice Admiral Juan Schroeder Peña 1925 1927 Navy General Director
Vice Admiral Jose Toribio Merino Saavedra 1927 1928 Navy Inspector General
Rear Admiral Felipe Wiegand Rodríguez 1928 1929 Navy Inspector General
Rear Admiral Alejandro García Castelblanco 1929 1930 Navy Inspector General
Vice Admiral Hipólito Marchant Morales 1930 1931 Navy Inspector General
Rear Admiral Alejandro García Castelblanco 1931 1931 Navy Inspector General
Vice Admiral Hipólito Marchant Morales 1931 1932 Navy Inspector General
Rear Admiral Edgardo von Schröeders Sarratea 1932 1932 Navy Inspector General
Rear Admiral Carlos Jouanne de la Motte du Portail 1932 1932 Navy General Director
Rear Admiral Luis Alvarez Jaramillo 1932 1932 Navy General Director
Rear Admiral Calisto Rogers Ceas 1932 1932 Navy General Director
Vice Admiral Olegario Reyes del Río 1932 1938 Navy Commander-in-chief
Vice Admiral Luis Alvarez Jaramillo 1938 1938 Navy Commander-in-chief
Vice Admiral Julio Allard Pinto 1938 1943 Navy Commander-in-chief
Vice Admiral Vicente Merino Bielich 1943 1947 Navy Commander-in-chief
Vice Admiral Emilio Daroch Soto 1947 1948 Navy Commander-in-chief
Vice Admiral Carlos Torres Hevia 1948 1952 Navy Commander-in-chief
Vice Admiral Danilo Bassi Galleguillos 1952 1952 Navy Commander-in-chief
Vice Admiral Enrique Lagreze Echavarría 1952 1954 Navy Commander-in-chief
Vice Admiral Francisco O'Ryan Orrego 1954 1958 Navy Commander-in-chief
Vice Admiral Leopoldo Fontaine Nakin 1958 1962 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Hernán Cubillos Leiva 1962 1964 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Jacobo Neumann Etienne 1964 1966 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Ramón Barros González 1966 1968 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Fernando Porta Angulo 1968 1970 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Hugo Tirado Barros 1970 1970 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Raúl Montero Cornejo 1970 1973 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral José Toribio Merino Castro 1973 1990 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Jorge Martínez Busch 1990 1997 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Jorge Arancibia Reyes 1997 2001 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Miguel Ángel Vergara Villalobos 2001 2005 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Rodolfo Codina Díaz 2005 2009 Navy Commander-in-chief
Admiral Edmundo González Robles 2009 Present Navy Commander-in-chief


Historic ships



References

  1. "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 15 January 2007.
  2. The Chilean Navy purchases EADS CASA C-295 aircraft, 18 October 2007


External links




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