Chin State ( ) is a state located in western
Burma (Myanmar). The Chin State is bordered by Rakhine State in the south, Bangladesh in south-west, Sagaing Division and Magway Division in the east, Indian state of Manipur in the north
and Indian state of Mizoram in the
) ethnic group
make up the majority of the state's 500,000 people.
was the state capital since the British
Colonization. But after Ne Win took over the power, he moved Chin
Affairs Office from Falam to Kalay although the Commissioner of
Chin State was still executing in Falam. During that time, the
minister of Chin State was Pu Za Hre Lian. Pu Za Hre Lian was
arrested by Ne Win's government, and was released again after a
while though the reason was unknown. Few years later, the presence
of the Office of Chin Affairs in Kalay was opposed by Kalay Burmese
and the committee members of Chin Affairs Office called for meeting
to discuss about where to move the Chin Affairs Office within Chin
State. Until now, what motivated Ne Win's government to move Chin
Affairs Office from Falam to Kalay is not known.
During the meeting at Chin Affairs Office, Pu Put Pa suggested that
the Office should be moved to the region around Khaikam. Chairman
Pu Son Kho Lian suggested that the Office should be moved to about
the centre of Chin State on the opposite of Gangaw. At this, a
member from Mindat township, Pu Vomtu Hashing pointed out "Why
should we move it to that jungle area, there are many big cities in
our state. Haka is at the centre of Chin State and besides many
houses can be built and water resources are good there. Therefore,
we should move it to Haka". After a long discussion, the Chin
Affairs Office decided that the Office is to be moved to Haka
The official language is 'Laizo' dialect, since early 20th century.
Though there are numerous dialects among the ethnic Chin, they all
have links and similarities, which make them easy to understand
each other. After studying several years on all the dialects among
the Chins, the research concluded that the Laizo dialect has the
commonest and it's also the most understood language over all chin
tribes including Mizo and is recognized as the Chin official
language with the British scholars and learns through out the state
until the junta disallowed to continue in the late 20th century.
Laizo (Falam) dialect is being practiced as official Chin language
in Myanmar as in radio broadcasting.
The state is covered with mountainous region with few
transportation links, Chin State is sparsely populated and remains
one of the least developed area of the country.
For much of history, sparsely populated Chin Hills were the
westernmost region of Irrawaddy valley-based Burmese kingdoms.
of Burmese control of Chin Hills, which never had a political
organization beyond chiefs, can only be inferred from the recorded
history of the region's more established neighbors, the kingdoms of
Manipur and Assam.
Manipur first came under Burmese suzerainty
during the reign of King Bayinnaung
in 1558. Conversely, at least northern
parts of Chin Hills were likely part of an ascendant Manipuri
kingdom whose forces were raiding northwestern Burma with
regularity during 1730s and 1740s. Burma re-exerted control over
the region in the 1750s as King Alaungpaya
of Konbaung dynasty
conquered Manipur in 1758
and made it a tributary to the Burmese kingdom once more. In the
early 19th century, Burmese kings pursued an expansionist policy
beyond Chin Hills and Manipur. King Bodawpaya
annexed Manipur in 1813 and captured Assam in
His successor King Bagyidaw
was left to suppress rebellions in Manipur in 1819 and in Assam in
1821-22. The Chin Hills were one western region the Burmese
retained after the rest of their western possessions--Assam,
Manipur, and Arakan--were ceded to the British after the First Anglo-Burmese War
The British acquired the Chin Hills after the Third Anglo-Burmese War
of 1885. The
ensuing Chin resistance to the British was suppressed only by 1890.
British administered the Chin Hills as part of Arakan Division. American missionaries
began arriving in the 1890s and by the middle of 20th century, had
converted most of the Chin people to Christianity.
The region was the westernmost advance of the Imperial Japanese Army
occupied the region in November 1943, in World War II
. After the war, Chin leaders
participated in the Panglong
which discussed the future of an independent Union
of Burma. Because of the region's heavy economic dependence on
Burma Proper, Chin leaders, unlike other minority leaders, asked
only for a "special administrative division", not a full fledged
Upon independence from the United Kingdom in 1948, Chin
Hills Special Division
was created out of Arakan Division,
with the capital at Falam
. On 4 January 1974,
it was granted the state status and became Chin State. Today, the
state has little infrastructure and remains extremely poor and
Chin State consists of two districts (North & South) further
subdivided into nine townships. Falam is the state capital since
the British Colonization. But after the military coup, the junta
apply an ill strategy of Divide & Rule Policy and (shift) Hakha
as the state capital (Like they (Burma Regime) declared Nay Pyi Daw
(Pyin Mana)as the national capital, but still, the world recognized
Rangoon (Yangon) as the capital city of Burma.
- Haka of Norther Chin and the hole Chin
- Matupiof Southern Chin State Capital
Many natural watercourses are flowing among mountain ranges running
from north to south forming a number of valleys and gorges.
or Mount Khawnusoum
, OR Khonumthung, or
high is the highest peak in
Chin State and the second highest peak in Myanmar. The state has a
lot of rivers and the Manipura River flows through its northern
territory. Longest water fall in Chin state is Bungtla water fall
it is located in Matupi.
Chin State has a population of about 518,144 and a population
density of 37 persons per square mile on December 12, 2006.
The Chins are made up of many clans
although historically related now speak divergent languages and
have different cultural and historical identities. Some consider
the name Chin seems an exonym
, given by the
Burmese and of unclear origin - ... These names are justified
respectively by the fact that Chin are world known for Loyalty to
the Masters and were well-known for their weaving skills and have
been in trade relations with the lowlands for many years. The term
Ciimnuai represent sometimes for Tedim, Tonzang, Kalay, Rih,
Haimual, Cikha, Tamu and Lamka people while the term "Laimi" is the
most common name for Falam, Haka, Thantlang and Matupi
Chin people are called by different clan names such as Zomi,Zotung,
Laimi, Mizo, Kuki and others based on their own different dialects.
Zomi is widely used for their names amongst the known-said Chin
like among the Tedim, Tonzang, Cikha, Haimual, Rih, Sagaing
Division, Mizo, Manipur, Kuki, Paite, Manipur and in the lowlands
of Burma. Some Laimi educated leaders need to introduce the
language to be used around the whole Chinlands. Some
old men suggested that the term 'Chin' came from their ancestors
the great Chin
from China; There's a firm proof to
say the name 'CHIN' is originated form the 'chin-the' or
'chin-theig', or 'chinthegi' a Burmese word for a lion, or
lion-kind, or lionly; or the Cheetah club, or the Cheetahgroup.
During British rule and former used there's legends of 'furious
rage' and boldness and braveness and warriors of the Chintheigs'
group of people, and they were well-known to this good name. The
English conquering and Japanese arriving made the Chin 'chindits'
made civilized greatly.
The Chinteh peoples [Zomi] were escaped to Burma and then moved
around until they reached the high-lands of the then Zogam, now the
'Chin Sates', Manipur, Nagaland, Assam (all three in India),
Mizoram, Bangladesh, even until the Nepal land (the Gurkha gam
). Therefore, though 'Chin' is not
included in their word, each tribe of Chin people has its own name,
e.g. Zomi, Laimi, Mizo, Paite, Kuki, Kocho and others. These terms
could well be cognates, but each has its own pronunciation and
sometimes its own meaning. According to the record of Zam Sian
Sang, Gualnam (BBA, Laws,) who'd surveyed the Seasons and
Population of the called Chin (Zomi) Nationalities during the years
2004-2007 with the 'Zogam Survey' Researched team, the Different
combination of all Chin peoples and their populations are as
1. In Sagaing Division - Chin (427800 + )
- Lai (Haka,Thantlang),Zomi( Tedim,Tonzong)
- Mizo (50000 -/+ )
- Paite (23100 -/+)
- Kuki (54000 -/+ )
- Matupi (3000-/+)
- Asho (40000 -/+ ),they live mostly in the lowlands and mixed with Burmans.
2. In Chin State
- Laimi(From Falam, Hakha & Thantlang)+ Zomi in (Tedim/Tonzang/Haimual/Cikha),Zo(from
Zotung,Zophei,Mizo,Laizo,Zokhua..),Mara,Matu,Lautu,Senthang and other tribes totally numbered 500,000 in population.
- Plain Chin (340000 + ) all along the Chin States and in India.
3. In India -Laimi/Chin (estimated. 280000 + )
-Mizo (460000 -/+ )
-Manipur/Paite (312000 -/+ )
-Kuki (290000 -/+ )
No one can say the exact population of Laimi/Zomi/Kuki/Mizo/Matu
(Chin) whilst they are dispersing in rush since the past 50 years
The whole ethnic Chin unitedly use the word 'Salai' indicates 'Mr.'
(Mister) and 'Mai' as 'Miss since early 1970's under the leadership
of Salai. Tin Maung Oo (the Chin Hero). Though the Laimi of ethnic
Chin use 'Leng' as Miss and 'Val' as Mr, while the Zomi use 'Tang'
as Mr and 'Lia' as 'Miss', 'Mang' for (Matu man), 'Tuem' for (Matu
woman)and 'Pu' and 'Pi', and 'Pa' and 'Nu', are used commonly for
elderly Chin and Chin leaders such as Pu. Hrang Thio (famous for is
courageous in the nation wide). The title of 'Pu' is a term of
respect, failure to use it where it might be expected may be
interpreted as a sign of disrespect. The word 'Pi' is used to
address elderly Chin women. Different tribes also practice
different ways in naming people.
Owing to missionaries' work over the last hundred years, a great
deal of the population now identifies itself as Christian. A
sizable minority, however, adheres to animist
beliefs and Theravada Buddhism
The Government has been building many new miles of roads in the
mountainous region. Earth roads have been upgraded into metalled
ones, and the metaled roads to bituminous facilities. The
Kalay-Falam-Haka road is already completed. Bituminous roads
- 70 miles and four furlong Gangaw-Haka road
- 102 miles Mindat-Matupi road
- 172 miles and seven furlong Haka-Matupi road
- 115 miles and one furlong Kalay-Falam-Haka road
- 53 miles long Haka-Hmandaw road is under construction and
almost completed by the donation of Chin (Laimi peoples)
communities around the world.
- Kyaukhtu-Mindat road linking Chin State and Magway
have been built.
ASEAN Highway cross through the center of Zomi settling areas of
Madalay-Kalay-Tamu-Lamka/BehiangThe sector wise upgrading of the
gateways to Chin State
- Mandalay-Sagaing-Monywa-Gangaw-Haka road
- Pakokku-Pauk-Tabyin-Kyaukhtu-Mindat road
is in progress at present.
The Kyaukhtu Airport, built by Directorate of Military Engineers of
the Ministry of Defence in Kyaukhtu, Saw Township, Gangaw District,
Magway Division, was commissioned into service on July 10, 2004.
The airport has helped develop the transport sector of southern
Chin State linking Yaw and Pakokku regions in Magway Division. Cars
can reach Kanpetlet, Mindat and Matupi in southern Chin State from
Kyaukhtu via Saw.
In 1988, the state has two over bridges:
- 270 foot Natzan Bridge in Tonzang Township
- 240 foot Lemro Bridge in Matupi Township.
The Military Government has built the Var Bridge across Manipura
River on Kalay-Haka Road in Falam Township in 1998 and 'Mansuang
Hlei' Bridge across River Manipura on Tiddim-Kaptel-Rih Lake road
in Tiddim District in 2002. The Manhsaung Bridge is being built
across Manipura River on Tiddim-Rih Lake section.
List of bridges in Chin State
- 270 foot Naakzang Bridge
Narkzang Hlei in Tonzang Township
- 240 foot Lemro Bridge Lemro Hlei in
- 340 foot Var Bridge Var Hlei in Falam
- 480 foot Kaptel Bridge Kaptel Hlei
in Tiddim Township
- 460 foot Manhsuang Bridge
Mansuang Hlei, or Mansuangpi Hlei, or Laitui Hlei crossing the
Manipur River near Laitui
- ........Vuephu Bridge Vuephu Hlei,
Vuephu Due in Zotung(Rezua) Township
Development in the communication sector of Chin
"Comparison between period preceding 1988 and after
(up to 31-12-2006)
|computer offices/trainings1.Vontawi Compute in
Sakollam_PaNangSuanGin2.Will Computer in Lawibual
|Rural telephone exchange
|-MPT satellite Terminal
The effective utilization of land and water resources in the state
has helped develop the power generation capacity of the
In 1988, the state has four small scale hydro-power stations
- the Zarlwi in Tiddim Township
- the Daungvar in Haka Towhship
- the Ngasitvar in Falam Township
- the Paletwa in Paletwa Township.
The Military Government has built another 12 diesel power stations
and six new hydel power plants, helping increase the power
consumption of the state.
The four new hydraulic power plants are
- the 0.2 megawatt Namhlaung Creek plant in Matupi Township
- the 0.6 megawatt Laiva plant in Falam Township
- the 0.2 megawatt Htweehsaung plant in Tonzang Township
- the 0.2 megawatt Chichaung plant in Mindat Township.
The Manipura Multipurpose Dam Project will be implemented in chin
State. The Table informs the reader about the development of the
state's electricity sector.
Development in the electric power sector of Chin
"Comparison between period preceding 1988 and after
(up to 31-12-2006)"
||unit (in million)
|Extend generating of electricity
|-Hydel power plant completed
|-Small (up to 1 megawatt)
|-Diesel used plant
List of Hydel Power Plants
- Zalwi 0.40 megawatt
- Dongva 0.40 megawatt
- Ngasipva 1.00 megawatt
- Paletwa 0.05 megawatt
- Nanlaungchaung 0.20megawatt
- Laiva 0.60 megawatt
- Htwihsaung 0.20 megawatt
- Chichaung 0.20 megawatt
- Thinthe 0.05 megawatt
- Linebon 0.05 megawatt
Due to the facilitation of the transport and communication sectors
and increase in the power generation in the state, many new private
industries have emerged in the region. The state now has 522
private industires, 179 more than 343 in 1988. The number of State
owned industries has now reached nine from five in the past. The
Government has been striving to develop the industrial sector of
the state which will become a major tea-growing region in the
future."Comparison between period preceding 1988 and after (up to
|Upgrading of industrial power Industry
|-State owned industry
According to official statistics, Chin State had only 25 high
schools in 2003. The state does not have any secular colleges or
universities. Students have to go outside the state to pursue
higher education. The majority attend university in Kalay, Sagaing
However, there are few private theological colleges in Chin state
and they are:
- Chin Christian College (CCC, Haka)
- Union Theological College (UTC, Matupi)
- Zomi Theological College (ZTC, Falam)
The general state of health care in Myanmar is poor. The health care
infrastructure outside of Yangon and Mandalay is extremely poor.
Although health care is
nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and
treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals
lack many of the basic facilities and equipment. The following is a
summary of the public health system in the state.
|General hospitals with specialist services