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Chin State ( ) is a state located in western Burmamarker (Myanmar). The Chin State is bordered by Rakhine Statemarker in the south, Bangladeshmarker in south-west, Sagaing Divisionmarker and Magway Divisionmarker in the east, Indian state of Manipurmarker in the north and Indian state of Mizorammarker in the west. The (Chin) ethnic group make up the majority of the state's 500,000 people.

Falam was the state capital since the British Colonization. But after Ne Win took over the power, he moved Chin Affairs Office from Falam to Kalay although the Commissioner of Chin State was still executing in Falam. During that time, the minister of Chin State was Pu Za Hre Lian. Pu Za Hre Lian was arrested by Ne Win's government, and was released again after a while though the reason was unknown. Few years later, the presence of the Office of Chin Affairs in Kalay was opposed by Kalay Burmese and the committee members of Chin Affairs Office called for meeting to discuss about where to move the Chin Affairs Office within Chin State. Until now, what motivated Ne Win's government to move Chin Affairs Office from Falam to Kalay is not known.

During the meeting at Chin Affairs Office, Pu Put Pa suggested that the Office should be moved to the region around Khaikam. Chairman Pu Son Kho Lian suggested that the Office should be moved to about the centre of Chin State on the opposite of Gangaw. At this, a member from Mindat township, Pu Vomtu Hashing pointed out "Why should we move it to that jungle area, there are many big cities in our state. Haka is at the centre of Chin State and besides many houses can be built and water resources are good there. Therefore, we should move it to Haka". After a long discussion, the Chin Affairs Office decided that the Office is to be moved to Haka city.

The official language is 'Laizo' dialect, since early 20th century. Though there are numerous dialects among the ethnic Chin, they all have links and similarities, which make them easy to understand each other. After studying several years on all the dialects among the Chins, the research concluded that the Laizo dialect has the commonest and it's also the most understood language over all chin tribes including Mizo and is recognized as the Chin official language with the British scholars and learns through out the state until the junta disallowed to continue in the late 20th century. Laizo (Falam) dialect is being practiced as official Chin language in Myanmar as in radio broadcasting.

The state is covered with mountainous region with few transportation links, Chin State is sparsely populated and remains one of the least developed area of the country.

History

For much of history, sparsely populated Chin Hills were the westernmost region of Irrawaddy valley-based Burmese kingdoms. The extent of Burmese control of Chin Hills, which never had a political organization beyond chiefs, can only be inferred from the recorded history of the region's more established neighbors, the kingdoms of Manipurmarker and Assam. Manipur first came under Burmese suzerainty during the reign of King Bayinnaung in 1558. Conversely, at least northern parts of Chin Hills were likely part of an ascendant Manipuri kingdom whose forces were raiding northwestern Burma with regularity during 1730s and 1740s. Burma re-exerted control over the region in the 1750s as King Alaungpaya of Konbaung dynasty conquered Manipur in 1758 and made it a tributary to the Burmese kingdom once more. In the early 19th century, Burmese kings pursued an expansionist policy beyond Chin Hills and Manipur. King Bodawpaya annexed Manipur in 1813 and captured Assammarker in 1817. His successor King Bagyidaw was left to suppress rebellions in Manipur in 1819 and in Assam in 1821-22. The Chin Hills were one western region the Burmese retained after the rest of their western possessions--Assam, Manipur, and Arakan--were ceded to the British after the First Anglo-Burmese War of 1824-1826.

The British acquired the Chin Hills after the Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885. The ensuing Chin resistance to the British was suppressed only by 1890. The British administered the Chin Hills as part of Arakan Divisionmarker. Americanmarker missionaries began arriving in the 1890s and by the middle of 20th century, had converted most of the Chin people to Christianity.

The region was the westernmost advance of the Imperial Japanese Army, which occupied the region in November 1943, in World War II. After the war, Chin leaders participated in the Panglong Conference which discussed the future of an independent Union of Burma. Because of the region's heavy economic dependence on Burma Proper, Chin leaders, unlike other minority leaders, asked only for a "special administrative division", not a full fledged state.

Upon independence from the United Kingdom in 1948, Chin Hills Special Division was created out of Arakan Division, with the capital at Falam. On 4 January 1974, it was granted the state status and became Chin State. Today, the state has little infrastructure and remains extremely poor and undeveloped.

Administration

Chin State consists of two districts (North & South) further subdivided into nine townships. Falam is the state capital since the British Colonization. But after the military coup, the junta apply an ill strategy of Divide & Rule Policy and (shift) Hakha as the state capital (Like they (Burma Regime) declared Nay Pyi Daw (Pyin Mana)as the national capital, but still, the world recognized Rangoon (Yangon) as the capital city of Burma.

Districts



City

  • Haka of Norther Chin and the hole Chin Capital City
  • Matupiof Southern Chin State Capital City


Townships



Geography

Many natural watercourses are flowing among mountain ranges running from north to south forming a number of valleys and gorges. Mount Victoria or Mount Khawnusoum, OR Khonumthung, or Khonuamtung high is the highest peak in Chin State and the second highest peak in Myanmar. The state has a lot of rivers and the Manipura River flows through its northern territory. Longest water fall in Chin state is Bungtla water fall it is located in Matupi.



Demographics

Chin State has a population of about 518,144 and a population density of 37 persons per square mile on December 12, 2006.

The Chins are made up of many clans, which although historically related now speak divergent languages and have different cultural and historical identities. Some consider the name Chin seems an exonym, given by the Burmese and of unclear origin - ... These names are justified respectively by the fact that Chin are world known for Loyalty to the Masters and were well-known for their weaving skills and have been in trade relations with the lowlands for many years. The term Ciimnuai represent sometimes for Tedim, Tonzang, Kalay, Rih, Haimual, Cikha, Tamu and Lamka people while the term "Laimi" is the most common name for Falam, Haka, Thantlang and Matupi people.

Chin people are called by different clan names such as Zomi,Zotung, Laimi, Mizo, Kuki and others based on their own different dialects. Zomi is widely used for their names amongst the known-said Chin like among the Tedim, Tonzang, Cikha, Haimual, Rih, Sagaing Division, Mizo, Manipur, Kuki, Paite, Manipur and in the lowlands of Burma. Some Laimi educated leaders need to introduce the Laimi language to be used around the whole Chinlands. Some old men suggested that the term 'Chin' came from their ancestors the great Chin from China; There's a firm proof to say the name 'CHIN' is originated form the 'chin-the' or 'chin-theig', or 'chinthegi' a Burmese word for a lion, or lion-kind, or lionly; or the Cheetah club, or the Cheetahgroup. During British rule and former used there's legends of 'furious rage' and boldness and braveness and warriors of the Chintheigs' group of people, and they were well-known to this good name. The English conquering and Japanese arriving made the Chin 'chindits' made civilized greatly.

The Chinteh peoples [Zomi] were escaped to Burma and then moved around until they reached the high-lands of the then Zogam, now the 'Chin Sates', Manipur, Nagaland, Assam (all three in India), Mizoram, Bangladesh, even until the Nepal land (the Gurkha gam). Therefore, though 'Chin' is not included in their word, each tribe of Chin people has its own name, e.g. Zomi, Laimi, Mizo, Paite, Kuki, Kocho and others. These terms could well be cognates, but each has its own pronunciation and sometimes its own meaning. According to the record of Zam Sian Sang, Gualnam (BBA, Laws,) who'd surveyed the Seasons and Population of the called Chin (Zomi) Nationalities during the years 2004-2007 with the 'Zogam Survey' Researched team, the Different combination of all Chin peoples and their populations are as follows...

1. In Sagaing Division - Chin (427800 + )
                      - Lai (Haka,Thantlang),Zomi( Tedim,Tonzong)
                      - Mizo (50000 -/+ )
                      - Paite (23100 -/+)
                      - Kuki (54000 -/+ )
                      - Matupi (3000-/+)
                      - Asho (40000 -/+ ),they live mostly in the lowlands and mixed with Burmans.


2. In Chin State
                      - Laimi(From Falam, Hakha & Thantlang)+ Zomi in (Tedim/Tonzang/Haimual/Cikha),Zo(from
                        Zotung,Zophei,Mizo,Laizo,Zokhua..),Mara,Matu,Lautu,Senthang and other tribes totally numbered 500,000 in population.
                      - Plain Chin (340000 + ) all along the Chin States and in India.


3. In India -Laimi/Chin (estimated. 280000 + )
                      -Mizo (460000 -/+ )
                      -Manipur/Paite (312000 -/+ )
                      -Kuki (290000 -/+ )


No one can say the exact population of Laimi/Zomi/Kuki/Mizo/Matu (Chin) whilst they are dispersing in rush since the past 50 years even.

The whole ethnic Chin unitedly use the word 'Salai' indicates 'Mr.' (Mister) and 'Mai' as 'Miss since early 1970's under the leadership of Salai. Tin Maung Oo (the Chin Hero). Though the Laimi of ethnic Chin use 'Leng' as Miss and 'Val' as Mr, while the Zomi use 'Tang' as Mr and 'Lia' as 'Miss', 'Mang' for (Matu man), 'Tuem' for (Matu woman)and 'Pu' and 'Pi', and 'Pa' and 'Nu', are used commonly for elderly Chin and Chin leaders such as Pu. Hrang Thio (famous for is courageous in the nation wide). The title of 'Pu' is a term of respect, failure to use it where it might be expected may be interpreted as a sign of disrespect. The word 'Pi' is used to address elderly Chin women. Different tribes also practice different ways in naming people.

Owing to missionaries' work over the last hundred years, a great deal of the population now identifies itself as Christian. A sizable minority, however, adheres to animist beliefs and Theravada Buddhism.

Transport

The Government has been building many new miles of roads in the mountainous region. Earth roads have been upgraded into metalled ones, and the metaled roads to bituminous facilities. The Kalay-Falam-Haka road is already completed. Bituminous roads include
  • 70 miles and four furlong Gangaw-Haka road
  • 102 miles Mindat-Matupi road
  • 172 miles and seven furlong Haka-Matupi road
  • 115 miles and one furlong Kalay-Falam-Haka road
  • 53 miles long Haka-Hmandaw road is under construction and almost completed by the donation of Chin (Laimi peoples) communities around the world.
  • Kyaukhtu-Mindat road linking Chin State and Magway Division


have been built.

ASEAN Highway cross through the center of Zomi settling areas of Madalay-Kalay-Tamu-Lamka/BehiangThe sector wise upgrading of the gateways to Chin State
  • Mandalay-Sagaing-Monywa-Gangaw-Haka road
  • Pakokku-Pauk-Tabyin-Kyaukhtu-Mindat road


is in progress at present.

The Kyaukhtu Airport, built by Directorate of Military Engineers of the Ministry of Defence in Kyaukhtu, Saw Township, Gangaw District, Magway Division, was commissioned into service on July 10, 2004. The airport has helped develop the transport sector of southern Chin State linking Yaw and Pakokku regions in Magway Division. Cars can reach Kanpetlet, Mindat and Matupi in southern Chin State from Kyaukhtu via Saw.

In 1988, the state has two over bridges:
  • 270 foot Natzan Bridge in Tonzang Township
  • 240 foot Lemro Bridge in Matupi Township.


The Military Government has built the Var Bridge across Manipura River on Kalay-Haka Road in Falam Township in 1998 and 'Mansuang Hlei' Bridge across River Manipura on Tiddim-Kaptel-Rih Lake road in Tiddim District in 2002. The Manhsaung Bridge is being built across Manipura River on Tiddim-Rih Lake section.

List of bridges in Chin State

  • 270 foot Naakzang Bridge Narkzang Hlei in Tonzang Township
  • 240 foot Lemro Bridge Lemro Hlei in Matupi Township
  • 340 foot Var Bridge Var Hlei in Falam Township
  • 480 foot Kaptel Bridge Kaptel Hlei in Tiddim Township
  • 460 foot Manhsuang Bridge Mansuang Hlei, or Mansuangpi Hlei, or Laitui Hlei crossing the Manipur River near Laitui
  • ........Vuephu Bridge Vuephu Hlei, Vuephu Due in Zotung(Rezua) Township


Communication

Development in the communication sector of Chin State"Comparison between period preceding 1988 and after (up to 31-12-2006)
Subject Count 1988 31-12-2006 Progress
Post Office office 29 45 16
Telegraph Office office 11 24 13
computer offices/trainings1.Vontawi Compute in Sakollam_PaNangSuanGin2.Will Computer in Lawibual
Facsimile 22 22
Computer telegraph 3 3
Telephone
-telephone office office 8 29 21
-telephone line line 3390 4519 1129
-exchange exchange 8 18 10
-direct line line 2431 3402 3159
-auto/manual phone phone 2431 3402 3159
Microwave station station 5 5
Rural telephone exchange exchange 11 11
e-Mail/Internet 12 12
Satellite station
-VSAT station 1 1
-MPT satellite Terminal station 15 15


Electricity

The effective utilization of land and water resources in the state has helped develop the power generation capacity of the state.

In 1988, the state has four small scale hydro-power stations
  • the Zarlwi in Tiddim Township
  • the Daungvar in Haka Towhship
  • the Ngasitvar in Falam Township
  • the Paletwa in Paletwa Township.
The Military Government has built another 12 diesel power stations and six new hydel power plants, helping increase the power consumption of the state.

The four new hydraulic power plants are
  • the 0.2 megawatt Namhlaung Creek plant in Matupi Township
  • the 0.6 megawatt Laiva plant in Falam Township
  • the 0.2 megawatt Htweehsaung plant in Tonzang Township
  • the 0.2 megawatt Chichaung plant in Mindat Township.


The Manipura Multipurpose Dam Project will be implemented in chin State. The Table informs the reader about the development of the state's electricity sector.
Development in the electric power sector of Chin State"Comparison between period preceding 1988 and after (up to 31-12-2006)"
Subject Count 1988 31-12-2006 Progress
Electricity consumption unit (in million) 1.552 5.736 4.184
Maximum power megawatt 2.000 2.217 0.217
Installed power megawatt 2.709 5.787 3.078
Extend generating of electricity
-Hydel power plant completed Plant 4 10 6
-Small (up to 1 megawatt) Plant 4 10 6
-Diesel used plant Plant 19 31 12
-Private Plant Plant 0 99 99


List of Hydel Power Plants

  • Zalwi 0.40 megawatt
  • Dongva 0.40 megawatt
  • Ngasipva 1.00 megawatt
  • Paletwa 0.05 megawatt
  • Nanlaungchaung 0.20megawatt
  • Laiva 0.60 megawatt
  • Htwihsaung 0.20 megawatt
  • Chichaung 0.20 megawatt
  • Thinthe 0.05 megawatt
  • Linebon 0.05 megawatt


Industrial Sector

Due to the facilitation of the transport and communication sectors and increase in the power generation in the state, many new private industries have emerged in the region. The state now has 522 private industires, 179 more than 343 in 1988. The number of State owned industries has now reached nine from five in the past. The Government has been striving to develop the industrial sector of the state which will become a major tea-growing region in the future."Comparison between period preceding 1988 and after (up to 31-12-2006)"
Subject Count 1988 31-12-2006 Progress
Upgrading of industrial power Industry
-Private industry industry 343 522 179
-Cottage industry industry 0 2 2
-State owned industry industry 5 9 4


Education

According to official statistics, Chin State had only 25 high schools in 2003. The state does not have any secular colleges or universities. Students have to go outside the state to pursue higher education. The majority attend university in Kalaymarker, Sagaing Divisionmarker. However, there are few private theological colleges in Chin state and they are:
  • Chin Christian College (CCC, Haka)
  • Union Theological College (UTC, Matupi)
  • Zomi Theological College (ZTC, Falam)
AY 2002-2003 Primary Middle High
Schools 1058 83 25
Teachers 2708 818 333
Students 66,000 30,600 9900


Health care

The general state of health care in Myanmar is poor. The health care infrastructure outside of Yangonmarker and Mandalaymarker is extremely poor. Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment. The following is a summary of the public health system in the state.

2002-2003 # Hospitals # Beds
Specialist hospitals 0 0
General hospitals with specialist services 1 150
General hospitals 9 314
Health clinics 12 192
Total 22 656


References






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