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Dakshin chutneys
Chutneys
Mango chutney
Simple tomato chutney
Eggplant and lemon chutneys from Goa


Chutney is an Anglo-Indian loan word derived from ( , , ), a term for a class of spicy preparations used as an accompaniment for a main dish. Chutneys usually contain idiosyncratic spice and vegetable mix that complement one another.

Chutneys usually are wet, having a coarse to fine texture. The Anglo-Indian loan word refers to fresh and pickled preparations indiscriminately, with preserves often sweetened. At least several Northern Indian languages use the word for fresh preparations only. A different word achār applies to preserves that often contain oil but are rarely sweet. Vinegar or citrus juice may be added as preservatives, or fermentation in the presence of salt may be used to create acid.

In the old days, chutneys were ground with a mortar and pestle made of stone or an ammikkal (Tamil). In modern days, electric blenders replace the stone implements. Various spices are added and ground, usually in a particular order; the wet paste thus made is sauteed in vegetable oil, usually gingelly or groundnut oil.

Chutney is more familiar in North America and Europe in a form that can be stored. To this end, vegetable oil, vinegar, or lemon juice are used to enhance its preservation.

Types of chutney

Chutneys come in two major groups, sweet and hot; both forms usually contain various spices, including chilli, but differ by their main flavour. Chutney types and their preparations vary widely across Pakistan and India.



American and European styled chutneys are usually fruit, vinegar and sugar, cooked down to a reduction.

Flavorings are always added to the mix. These may include sugar, salt, garlic, tamarind, onion, or ginger.

Spices most commonly include fenugreek, coriander, cumin and asafoetida (hing).

Etymology

History

Beginning in the 1600 chutneys were shipped to European countries like Englandmarker and Francemarker as luxury goods. Western imitations were called "mangoed" fruits or vegetables. In the nineteenth century, brands of chutney like Major Grey's or Bengal Club or Nature Isle Tropical Gourmet created for Western tastes were shipped to Europe.

Generally these chutneys are fruit, vinegar, and sugar cooked down to a reduction.

The tradition of chutney making spread throughout the British empire, especially in the Caribbean and American South where chutney is still a popular condiment for ham, pork, and fish.

Chutney by Indian region



Notes



References

  • Weaver, William Woys. "Chutney." Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Ed. Solomon H. Katz. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 417-418. 3 vols. ISBN 0684805685


External links




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