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Circus is the sixth studio album by American pop singer Britney Spears. It was released on November 28, 2008 by Jive Records. Spears started working on the album earlier that year with a range of new producers, as well as with Bloodshy & Avant and Danja, combining the electropop and urban sound from her previous album Blackout with producers of her first early pop hits such as Max Martin.

The album received mostly positive reviews from music critics. After its release, the album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, making Spears the youngest female artist in history to have five albums debut at number one, thus earning a place in the Guiness Book of World Records.

The album's first single, "Womanizer", was an international hit, reaching the top of the charts in ten countries, including the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States. The second single, "Circus", debuted at number three in the US and reached top ten positions in seven countries worldwide. Other single releases include "If U Seek Amy" and "Radar". Spears promoted the album with a series of live performances, including her first world tour in five years, The Circus Starring: Britney Spears.

Conception

Background

In May 2008, it was confirmed that Spears was in the first stages of a new album. Spears's manager, Larry Rudolph, announced in a July 2008 press release that Spears would be working on the album during the summer and "[they]'re very excited about what she's accomplished so far." In an August 2008 interview with OK! magazine, Spears said that the album is "more urban. I'm working with producers who are just amazing [...] There is this fresh new energy." "I'm writing every day, right here at the piano in this living room... This is my best work ever."

Rolling Stone magazine's fall music preview stated that Spears had recorded around thirty tracks for her sixth studio album. Spears continued, "I came into the studio because I had some free time, but once I started working, I was like, 'This is cool!' It just happened." Shannon Holtzapffel, a dancer in the leaked video of Spears dancing to "Mannequin", told The Daily Telegraph, "When we were finished rehearsing, they'd take the CD and put it in a safe. I've never experienced anything like it before."

In the United Kingdommarker, the album was in direct competition with the new Take That album, titled The Circus, released on the same day. Take That's manager claimed the album's title choice was a coincidence, and that the band had worked months in advance and would not be changing the title.

Production

Spears said that she wrote a lot of songs at the early stages of the album and she experimented with pop producers from her earliest albums. For example, Max Martin, who produced Britney's first hit single "...Baby One More Time", produced "If U Seek Amy" for the album. Guy Sigsworth, who previously produced the singles "Everytime" and "Someday ", spent time in the studio with Spears in June 2008. "Out from Under" and "My Baby" were both produced by Sigsworth. Danja and Bloodshy & Avant, who produced several tracks from Blackout, both announced independently that they were recording with Spears again. Vocal producer Jim Beanz told Us Weekly that he had also been in the studio with Spears. He said of Spears: "Everyone has personal stuff, but a true professional doesn’t bring it into the studio." Nicole Morier, who co-wrote Blackout's "Heaven on Earth", wrote several songs with Britney in spring 2008, including "Mmm Papi" and "Rock Me In".

In her interview with OK! magazine, Spears revealed that she "wanted to experiment with producers I haven't worked with much before, like the Underdogs, who have a Timbaland kind of sound." Dr. Luke produced songs for the album, including the title track, with up-and-comer Benny Blanco. Another notable collaborator is The Outsyders, an Atlanta-based production team, who produced the album's first single. Fernando Garibay revealed on his official website that he was working on two songs for Spears, "Amnesia" and "Quicksand", which both became bonus tracks.

Danja reported that he worked on the tracks at Chalice Recording Studios in Los Angelesmarker, and Spears recorded them at Glenwood Place Studios in Burbankmarker. He said he was inspired by Hans Zimmer's scores, such as Pirates of the Caribbean soundtracks.

Lil Jon, Rodney Jerkins, Sean Garrett, and Taio Cruz, among others all announced they were working with Spears, but none of their tracks appear on the album or as bonus tracks.

Music

Style and lyrics

Circus takes influence from a variety of pop genres, such as electropop and dance and has been called a sequel to Spears' previous album, Blackout. She described the album as more lighter than its predecessor, which was more urban sounding. The songs of the album have been compared to the styles of many artists, such as Madonna, Janet Jackson, Eurythmics, New Order and the songwriting of Prince, Leiber & Stoller and Phil Spector. To a lesser degree, the album draws elements from other genres, such as a 1960's go-go rock guitar in "Mmm Papi".

Circus focuses on different themes and Spears "does double duty as a dance diva and brokenhearted balladeer". Lyrically, it has been compared to Blackout, due to the fact that they are "fiery" and "confrontational". In songs such as "Circus" and "Kill the Lights", the lyrics discuss fame, a theme she has previously acknowledged in "Lucky" and "Piece of Me". The album's opening track, "Womanizer" as well as "Shattered Glass" are songs that talk about a womanizing man. The third track, "Out from Under", chronicles the end of her relationship with Kevin Federline.

Songs

"Womanizer" was chosen as the lead single and was described by Spears as a girl anthem. It became the album's best-selling and most popular single, and peaked at number one in the Billboard Hot 100, becoming her first single to do so since her debut "…Baby One More Time". Its accompanying music video was made as a sequel to 2004's "Toxic" video and shows scenes of Spears naked in a steam room. The song received generally favourable reviews, most complimenting its hook and naming it a "comeback single". The second song, "Circus", talks about Spears' feelings as an entertainer and the emotions she feels while performing. It received positive response from music critics; commercially, it charted equally well and reached the top ten in eleven countries, peaking at number one on the Mainstream Top 40. Its music video was shot by Francis Lawrence.

The third track, "Out from Under", was well-received by critics, with one reviewer referring to it as Spears' best ballad since "I'm Not a Girl, Not Yet a Woman". The song is believed to be about Spears' relationship with ex-husband Kevin Federline. "Kill the Lights", the fourth track, is a dance-pop song that talks about the paparazzi and draw comparisons to "Piece of Me". It received positive reviews and an animated music video was produced for the song but it was not released as a single. The fifth track, "Shattered Glass", is a pop song produced by Dr. Luke and Benny Blanco and was positively reviewed by music critics.

"If U Seek Amy", was released as the third single from the album. The song received positive reviews and cause controversy for its double entendre name. It peaked at number nineteen on the Billboard Hot 100 and reached the top twenty in many countries. The seventh track, "Unusual You", is a synthpop song, that deals with a woman finding unexpected love. It was compared to Eurythmics's work during the 1980s and was called one of the standout tracks of the album. "Blur", produced by Danja, recalls a morning after a party. It was compared to In the Zone 's "Early Mornin'" and was well received by critics. "Mmm Papi", the ninth track, received mixed reviews, some saying the latin dance hall track was fun, but panning it for appearing to "revisit the Lolita persona of …Baby One More Time". It has been suggested that its lyrics deal with either her father Jamie Spears or paparazzi Adnan Ghalib.

"Mannequin", was produced by The Underdogs. The song received mixed reviews, some critics praising it for being risky and futuristic, while some others saying her vocals sound "lifeless" on it. "Lace and Leather", the eleventh track, received good reviews and was compared to a Vanity 6 track from the 1980s. The closing track, "My Baby", written by Spears and Guy Sigsworth about her sons, received mixed reviews, some saying it's not as sophisticated as the rest of the album.

Critical reception

Circus received generally positive response from contemporary pop music critics, earning a rating of 64 out of 100 on Metacritic. Billboard reported that the album "gives Brit pop a whole new meaning" and when working with the right producers, "she is in a class of her own". Sputnikmusic called it a "top-rate pop album" that can rival her first two albums in single material, with the exception that Circus doesn’t have any fillers. They continued saying that the album has the simplicity of her earlier records and "it’s the most straightforward pop rock record she’s put out in years". Jam! called it "unoriginal and predictable as its title". The Sun expressed the opinion that the album had similarities to Madonna's Hard Candy. The Hartford Courant did not feel that it was her best performance, writing "It's too bad the best songs here don't really match up with her best performances, but that's nothing new for Spears." Slant Magazine gave an unfavorable review as well, writing that Circus "doesn't quite feel like a comeback".

The album was heavily compared to her previous album, Blackout. The Guardian commented that Circus was not a bad album, but it was "substantially less edgy and exciting than its predecessor". The Sunday Times said that while the album is not as good as Blackout, "[it] knocks for six recent efforts by rivals such as Madonna and Beyoncé". According to Nick Levine of Digital Spy, it has many similarities to her last studio album, although she sounds more confident and there is less reliance on the vocoder. Vibe and Jam! agreed and added that Spears sounds more engaged. Allmusic was in a similar agreement with The Guardian, writing that the album "never feels as sleek or addictive as its predecessor".

Chart performance

Circus debuted at number-one on the US Billboard 200, moving over 505,000 units in its first week. It earned Spears a place in the 2010 Guiness Book of World Records for being the youngest female artist in history to have five albums debut at number one. The feat made Spears the only act in Nielsen SoundScan history to have five albums debut with 500,000 or more copies sold. It also moved 219,000 units in its first day of release, making it the sixth fastest-selling album of 2008. In addition, the album sold 486,000 worth of digital track downloads, with 11 tracks on the top 200. In the first three months of US release, the album had sold over 1.5 million copies. The album has spent nine weeks in the top 10, making it Spears' longest-running top 10 album since Oops!... I Did It Again, which spent twenty-three weeks in the top 10 in 2000. Circus was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America on January 29, 2009. According to Nielsen SoundScan, as of September 2009, the album has sold over 1,601,868 copies in the United States.

With over 51,000 units sold, the album opened at number-one in the Canadian Albums Chart, her best sales effort since Oops!... I Did It Again, which racked up 95,000 copies in May, 2000. In less than a month, Circus became the ninth best-selling album of 2008, with 143,000 copies, and one of the top ten selling digital albums of the same year with over 10,100 downloads. In March 2009, Circus was certified 3× platinum by the Canadian Recording Industry Association, denoting 240,000 shipped copies to retailers. In Mexicomarker, the album debuted at the top of the international chart and at No. 3 in the overall chart, selling over 46,000 copies and going gold in its first week.

Circus first appeared on the European Top 100 Albums chart, where the album had its earliest release. The album debuted at number one on the chart.. In Francemarker the album sold 18,319 copies in its first two days of release, debuting at number five on the French Weekly Album Chartsmarker. The following week the album moved up two places to a new position at number three. In Ireland, it debuted at number two. The album debuted at number four on the UK Albums Chart, moving over 76,000 copies in its first week. It has since sold over 300,000 copies, and was certified Platinum by the BPI.

In Oceania, the album has been a top ten hit. It debuted at number three in Australia and was certified Platinum after three weeks, selling over 70,000 copies. In New Zealandmarker, the album debuted at number eight and was certified Platinum after selling 15,000 copies. In the albums fifth week, it reached a new peak at number six becoming her highest charting album since Oops!... I Did It Again. The album spent eighteen weeks on the chart.

Circus was ranked as the 15th best-selling album of 2008, according to IFPI. Worldwide, Circus had sold over 3 million copies.

Accolades

For the second year in a row Britney Spears was awarded the Billboard Readers' Choice Album of the Year. According to Billboard magazine, more than 16,000 votes were cast in the poll. This marks Spears as the first artist to have an album named Album of the Year two years in a row.

Publication Country Accolade Year #
Billboard United States Billboard Readers' Choice Album of the Year 2008 1
TV Azteca Mexico 44 Greatest Albums of 2008 2008 1
Univision Latin America The 50 Best Albums of the Year 2008 1


Promotion

In order to promote the album Jive Records set up a hotline where fans could leave a message for Spears, with some of the callers receiving a return phone call from Spears. Some tracks off the album were previewed via the website of the New York radio station WKTU and Amazon.com. MTV aired a 90-minute documentary titled Britney: For the Record November 30, 2008. The show was about her return to the pop music spotlight. Spears's official website released a series of posters to promote Circus. On December 3, 2008, a pre-taped holiday greeting from Spears was shown during the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Treemarker. In May, 2009, Jive's official website held a Britney Spears Global Fan-Fiction Contest, in which requires a fan to submit a 200 word story based on one of the songs from Circus. Other people would vote for their favorite and the winner would get their story turned into a short animated music video. The winner was announced shortly after. The winning story was based on "Kill the Lights." The video premiered on July 27, 2009. The video can be viewed here.

Spears' live comeback began on November 6, 2008 with a cameo appearance at the Dodger Stadiummarker show of Madonna's Sticky & Sweet Tour. Midway through "Human Nature", Spears joined Madonna on stage.The week before the release of the album saw a string of performances in several different countries with the Circus Promo Tour. On November 27, 2008 Spears performed "Womanizer" live at the Bambi Awards in Offenburgmarker, Germany, where she received an award for "Best Pop International Artist". The following day, Spears again performed the song live on Frenchmarker show Star Academy. In addition, she performed "Womanizer" on The X Factor, in the United Kingdommarker, on November 29, finishing the European pre-release promotional tour. Her performance on The X Factor was watched by an average of 11,880,000 UK citizens.

Spears premiered her second single "Circus" on the Big Apple Circus at the "Good Morning America" in New York, and also performed "Womanizer" on December 2, 2008 which coincides with her 27th birthday and the release of Circus album, most fans often considered it as her official comeback.On December 15, 2008, Britney visited the popular musical variety show in Japan, "Hey! Hey! Hey!" and performed "Womanizer" there. The following day after that, she performed on NTV Japanmarker's-3000 "Best Artist of 2008"

The album received further promotion with The Circus Starring: Britney Spears, her first tour in five years, which began in New Orleansmarker in March 3, 2009. The tour reached North America and Europe, and also marked the first time that she toured Australia. It is currently the highest grossing tour of the year in the United States and the third highest grossing worldwide.

Track listing

# Title Writer(s) Producer(s) Time
1. "Womanizer" Nikesha Briscoe, Rafael Akinyemi K.Briscoe, The Outsyders 3:43
2. "Circus" Lukasz Gottwald, Claude Kelly, Benjamin Levin Dr. Luke, Benny Blanco 3:12
3. "Out from Under" Shelly Peiken, Arnthor Birgisson, Wayne Hector Guy Sigsworth 3:54
4. "Kill the Lights" Nathaniel Hills, James Washington, Luke Boyd, Marcella Araica Danja 3:59
5. "Shattered Glass" Gottwald, Kelly, Levin Dr. Luke, Benny Blanco 2:53
6. "If U Seek Amy" Max Martin, Shellback, Savan Kotecha, Alexander Kronlund Max Martin 3:37
7. "Unusual You" Christian Karlsson, Pontus Winnberg, Henrik Jonback, Kasia Livingston, L.A. Zaldaña Bloodshy & Avant 4:23
8. "Blur" Hills, Stacy Barthe, Araica Danja 3:09
9. "Mmm Papi" Britney Spears, Henry Walter, Adrien Gough, Peter-John Kerr, Nicole Morier Let's Go To War 3:22
10. "Mannequin" Spears, Harvey Mason, Jr., Rob Knox, James Fauntleroy II Harvey Mason, Jr., Rob Knox 4:06
11. "Lace and Leather" Gottwald, Levin, Frankie Storm, Ronnie Jackson Dr. Luke 2:48
12. "My Baby" Spears, Sigsworth Guy Sigsworth 3:20
13. "Radar" (Standard editions bonus track) Christian Karlsson, Winnberg, Jonback, Balewa Muhammad, Candice Nelson, Ezekiel "Zeke" Lewis & Patrick "J.Que" Smith Bloodshy & Avant, The Clutch 3:49

Deluxe Edition tracks

# Title Writer(s) Producer(s) Time
14. "Rock Me In" (Deluxe Edition bonus track) Spears, Greg Kurstin, Morier Greg Kurstin 3:17
15. "Phonography" (Deluxe Edition & Britney.com bonus track) Karlsson, Winnberg, Jonback, Muhammad, Nelson, Lewis, Smith, L.A. Zaldaña Bloodshy & Avant, The Clutch 3:35
16. "Amnesia" (UK Deluxe Edition, Japanese & Britney.com bonus track) Fernando Garibay, Kasia Livingston Fernando Garibay 3:56


Digital bonus tracks

# Title Writer(s) Producer(s) Time
14. "Quicksand" (European iTunes bonus track) (Excluding the United Kingdommarker) Lady Gaga, Garibay Fernando Garibay 4:05
14. "Trouble" (iTunes Pre-order bonus track) Karlsson, Winnberg, Jonback, Muhammad, Nelson, Lewis, Smith, L.A. Zaldaña Bloodshy & Avant, The Clutch 3:35
14. "Rock Boy" (bonus track on several digital stores) Tina Parol, N. Hills, M. Araica Michael Shimshack Danja 3:23


Bonus remixes

  • "Womanizer" (Kaskade Radio Edit #2) (Britney.com MP3 Premium Edition bonus track) - 3:12
  • "Womanizer" (Junior Vasquez Superstar Mix) (Britney.com MP3 Premium Edition bonus track) - 7:29


Deluxe Edition

First confirmed by Amazon and the promo packet released by Jive Records, a two-disc Deluxe Edition of Circus was released on December 2, 2008.The Deluxe Edition contains two additional tracks, "Rock Me In" and "Phonography", and a bonus DVD. It was released on November 28, 2008 in most of the European Union, November 29, 2008 in Australia and Philippinesmarker, and December 1, 2008 in the United Kingdommarker. The Deluxe Edition also includes a special collector's two sided poster.

Deluxe Edition DVD contents:

# Title Time
1. Making of the Album 9:33
2. Womanizer (Director's Cut Music Video) 3:45
3. Photo Gallery 2:00
4. Making of "Circus" Music Video (Japanese bonus video) 3:20
5. Circus (Music Video) (Japanese bonus video) 3:34


Taiwan Remix Promo CD contents:
# Title Remix Time
1. "Womanizer" Sodaboys Remix 3:57
2. "Womanizer" Benny Benassi Extended Mix 6:16
3. "Womanizer" Tonal Extended Mix 5:30
4. "Circus" Linus Loves Remix 4:39
5. "Circus" Villains Remix 5:15
6. "Circus" Joe Bermudez Radio Remix 3:40
7. "If U Seek Amy" Mike Rizzo Funk Generation Radio Remix 3:25
8. "If U Seek Amy" Weird Tapes Radio Mix 5:15
9. "Radar" Tonal Radio Remix 4:00
10. "Radar" Bloodshy & Avant Remix 5:44


Personnel



  • Percussion: Lukasz Gottwald, Benny Blanco
  • Background vocals: Claude Kelly, Cathy Dennis, Myah Marie, Leah Haywood, Windy Wagner, Kinnda, Max Martin, Britney Spears, Kasia Livingston, Luke Boyd, Debi Nova, Kesha Sebert
  • Strings: Guy Sigsworth, Andy Page
  • Piano: Andy Page


Charts and certifications

Chart Provider(s) Peak

position
Certification Sales/shipments
Argentina Albums Chart CAPIF 2 Gold 20,000
Australian ARIA Albums Chart ARIA 3 2× Platinum 140,000
Austrian Albums Chart IFPI 9
Belgian Walloon Albums Chart IFPI 4
Gold
15,000
Belgian Flanders Albums Chart 7
Canadian Albums Chart CRIA 1 3× Platinum 300,000
Czech Republic Albums Chart IFPI 23
Danish Albums Chart IFPI 4
Dutch Album Chart IFPI 10
European Top 100 Albums IFPI 1
Finland Albums Chart YLE 16
France Albums Chart SNEP 3 Gold 100,000+
German Albums Chart IFPI 9 Gold 100,000
Greek International Albums Chart IFPI 1
Gold
3,000+
Greek Albums Chart 13
Hungarian Albums Chart Mahasz 22 Gold 3,000
Irish Albums Chart IRMA 2 Platinum 15,000+
Italian Albums Chart FIMI 10
Japan Oricon Album Chart RIAJ n/a Gold 100,000+
Japan Oricon International Album Chart n/a
Mexican Albums Chart AMPROFON 3 Gold 50,000+
Mexican Albums Chart - International 1
New Zealand Albums Chart RIANZ 6 Platinum 15,000+
Norwegian Albums Chart 21
Portugal Albums Chartmarker AFP 28
Polish Music Charts ZPAV 32 Gold 10,000+
Russian Top 25 1 2× Platinum 40,000+
Spanish Albums Chartmarker PROMUSICAE 10
Swedish Albums Chart IFPI 19
Swiss Albums Chartmarker IFPI 1 Gold 15,000+
UK Albums Chart BPI 4 Platinum 300,000+
U.S.marker Billboard 200 Nielsen SoundScan 1 Platinum 1,615,000+


End of year charts

Year Country Chart Rank
2008 Mexico AMPROFON #20
Greece IFPI (International) #23
Australia ARIA #25
New Zealand RIANZ #36
United Kingdom BPI/OCC #61


Chart procession and succession

Awards

Year Awards ceremony Award Results
2008 Virgin Media Music Awards Best Album Nominated
Best Track Nominated
Best International Act Nominated
Legend Of The Year Nominated
Best Comeback Nominated
2009 NRJ Music Awards Best International Female Artist Won
Music Video of the Year Won
Rockbjörnen 2008 Foreign Artist of the Year Nominated
Teen Choice Awards Ultimate Choice Award Won
Bravo A List Awards A-List Album Won
MTV Video Music Brasil Best International Artist Won


Release history

Country Date
European Union November 28, 2008
Indonesiamarker
South Africa
Australia
United Kingdommarker December 1, 2008
New Zealandmarker
Hong Kongmarker
United Statesmarker December 2, 2008
Mexicomarker
Canadamarker
Malaysiamarker
Philippinesmarker
United Arab Emiratesmarker
Brazilmarker
Israelmarker
Taiwanmarker December 3, 2008
Germanymarker
Argentinamarker December 4, 2008
Latin America
Chilemarker December 15, 2008
Turkeymarker December 25, 2008
Thailandmarker December 26, 2008


References

External links




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