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The Cleveland Clinic (formally known as the Cleveland Clinic Foundation) is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Clevelandmarker, Ohiomarker, United Statesmarker. Currently regarded as one of the top hospitals in the United States, the Cleveland Clinic was established in 1921 by four physicians for the purpose of providing patient care, research, and medical education in an ideal medical setting. One of the largest private medical centers in the world, the Cleveland Clinic saw more than 2,800,000 patient visits in 2005, with almost 70,000 hospital admissions. Patients arrive at the Cleveland Clinic from all 50 states and more than 100 nations. The Cleveland Clinic's approximately 1,700 salaried staff physicians represent 120 medical specialties and subspecialties. The Cleveland Clinic was ranked number one in America for cardiac care from 1994 to 2009.


The original Clinic building opened its doors in 1921
The Cleveland Clinic was founded in February 1921 by four renowned Clevelandmarker physicians. Three of the founders, George Washington Crile, Frank Bunts, and William Lower, were surgeons who had worked together in an army medical unit in Francemarker during World War I.

Upon their return to the United States, they desired to establish a group practice and invited an internist, John Phillips, to join in their endeavor. The concept of group practice in medicine was relatively new at the time. Only the Mayo Clinicmarker and military units were known to follow this model. The founders established the Clinic with the vision: “Better care of the sick, investigation of their problems, and further education of those who serve.” Dr. Crile was a surgeon of national prominence and attracted patients from around the country, especially for his expertise in thyroid surgery. The Clinic saw rapid growth in its early years but suffered a major setback in 1929 that almost closed its doors permanently. On May 15, 1929, a fire started in the basement of the hospital caused by nitrocellulose x-ray film that spontaneously ignited. The fire claimed 123 lives, including that of one of the founders, Dr. Phillips. Following this fire and the subsequent Great Depression, the Cleveland Clinic regained momentum and eventually obtained national recognition especially in cardiovascular disease. In the decades since World War II, the Clinic has grown to become internationally prominent and is currently the second-largest medical group practice in the world, after the Mayo Clinicmarker.


The Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute is home to all laboratory-based, translational and clinical research at Cleveland Clinic, having total annual research expenditures exceeding $258 million from the National Institutes of Healthmarker and other funding sources in 2008. With more than 1,300 residents and fellows, the Cleveland Clinic’s graduate medical education program is the third largest in the country. A new medical school, the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve Universitymarker, was opened in 2004. The program's curriculum was devised by Cleveland Clinic staff physicians to train and mentor a new generation of physician-investigators.

Departed faculty

Three well-known faculty members and researchers have recently departed from the Cleveland Clinic. Jay Yadav, an interventional cardiologist, was fired in 2006 for improper disclosure of conflicts of interest. Dr. Yadav filed a lawsuit against the Cleveland Clinic in 2007, based on the circumstances surrounding his departure.

The Cleveland Clinic removed former chief academic officer and provost of Lerner Medical School, Dr. Eric Topol, from his position in 2007 for the purpose of streamlining the administration . At the time Dr. Topol was leading a committee examining conflicts of interest for top officials of the clinic. Topol was also a critic of Vioxx and the Clinic's investment fund, Atricure. Dr. Topol has published articles examining physician connections to the investment industry and investigator conflicts of interest.

Dr. Andrea Natale, former medical director of the Center for Atrial Fibrillation and section head of pacing and electrophysiology was not reappointed in 2007, allegedly for performing procedures outside of Cleveland Clinic without permission .

Rankings and achievements

The Cleveland Clinic was ranked as the fourth best hospital in America for complex and demanding situations according to the 2009 U.S. News & World Report America's Best Hospitals report, and ranked number one for cardiac care for 15 years in a row. The urology, gastroenterology, and rheumatology departments were ranked second best in the country. The Clinic's Glickman Urological Institute has the largest full-time urology faculty in the United States.

Altogether, thirteen specialties at the Cleveland Clinic were ranked among the best in the nation by U.S. News & World Report in 2009: heart (cardiology) and cardiac surgery (#1); digestive disorders (gastroenterology) (#2); urology (#2); rheumatology (#2); orthopedic surgery (#3); nephrology (#4); respiratory disorders (pulmonology) (#5); neurology and neurosurgery (#6); endocrinology (#6); gynaecology (#8); ophthalmology (#11); otolaryngology (#11); cancer (oncology) (#13); geriatrics (#14); physical medicine and rehabilitation (#19); and psychiatry (#22).

In 2007, Steven Nissen, MD, Chairman of the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, was named one of the 100 most influential people in the world (Time 100) by Time.

Medical firsts

The Cleveland Clinic has been the site of numerous medical firsts, including:

Campus and location

The main campus of the Cleveland Clinic consists of 41 buildings on more than near University Circle, in the Fairfax Neighborhood of Clevelandmarker, Ohiomarker. The Cleveland Clinic operates 12 family health and ambulatory surgery centers in surrounding communities, a multispecialty hospital Weston, Floridamarker, and an outpatient clinic in Torontomarker, Ontariomarker.. The Cleveland Clinic serves its community through ten northeast Ohio hospitals plus affiliates. These are: Main Campus, Euclid Hospital, Fairview Hospital, Hillcrest Hospitalmarker, Huron Hospital, Lakewood Hospital, Lutheran Hospital, Marymount Hospital, Medina Hospital and South Pointe Hospital. Ashtabula County Medical Center (ACMC) is one of the affiliates of the Cleveland Clinic. The Cleveland Clinic has a children's hospital located within the main campus and at its Shaker Campus. On October 23, 2008, the Clinic opened a new facility to house its number-one-ranked heart center.

Future growth

The Clinic is building a new home for its urological institute, in addition to a 4,000 space parking garage for staff and visitors. To help ensure its growth, the Cleveland Clinic announced in 2006 a historic 5-year philanthropic campaign to raise $1.25 billion. The Clinic is also looking to expand its presence to other locations in the United States as well abroad. In September 2006, the Clinic announced plans to operate a world-class specialty hospital in Abu Dhabimarker, UAEmarker, to be built and owned by the UAE government. This facility is scheduled to open in 2010. The current CEO and President of the Clinic, Delos M. "Toby" Cosgrove, M.D., recently indicated plans to expand into other markets abroad including Austriamarker and Singaporemarker.

Economic development

The Cleveland Clinic is heavily involved in efforts to expand Cleveland's economy and produce growth for the region. The Clinic is the largest private employer in northeast Ohio, and the third largest in the state of Ohio, with over 36,000 employees all over the United States and revenues exceeding $4.4 billion annually. At $2.7 billion, the Clinic's endowment rivals those of top American universities. In addition to its clinical facilities and research institute, the Clinic operates a startup incubator known as CCF Innovations. CCF Innovations is charged with commercializing Clinic research and creating successful startup companies with such research. In addition to CCF Innovations, the Cleveland Clinic was awarded the State of Ohiomarker's first "Wright Mega-Center for Innovation" award, totalling $60 million, to build a Global Cardiovascular Innovation Center. This center, funded as part of the state's "Third Frontier" program to generate economic growth for the state, will be charged with generating companies, jobs, and economic growth for the region based on the Clinic's expertise in heart disease.

Notable patients

The Cleveland Clinic has treated many famous patients. Some of these include:

See also


  1. Cleveland Clinic Overview
  6. Topol, E. J. and D. Blumenthal (2005). "Physicians and the investment industry." JAMA 293(21): 2654-7.
  7. Topol, E. J. and D. Blumenthal (2005). "Physicians and the investment industry." JAMA 293(21): 2654-7
  12. February, 2009, Cleveland Plain Dealer
  13. Overview
  14. Story not found -
  15. Ohio Department of Development statistics
  17. Forest City Fusion - TIME
  19. - Bob Dole to undergo surgery to correct enlarged aorta - June 26, 2001
  22. King Hussein in Cleveland - New York Times
  23. Transplant Week - Your Online Transplant Newsletter
  25. A Trip to Cleveland Tonic for Nicklaus
  27. Ilham Aliyev Visits His Father in Cleveland
  28. Ring TALK
  29. Cleveland Clinic For World'S Powerful - New York Times
  30. BRAZIL'S PRESIDENT FLIES TO U.S. FOR HEART TESTS - Free Preview - The New York Times
  31. A Clinic That Caters To Foreign Celebrities - New York Times
  32. Shenouda III (Gayyid) of Alexandria - OrthodoxWiki
  33. - Glazer recovers from second stroke - May 20, 2006
  34. - Entertainment - Liza Minnelli hospitalized with viral encephalitis - October 23, 2000
  35. - Transcripts
  36. Hamilton Has Cancer Surgery - New York Times
  37. Heart Procedure for Parcells - New York Times
  38. N.F.L. Training Camp Report - New York Times
  39. Corzine goes to Ohio for a physical - The Record (Bergen County, NJ) - HighBeam Research
  40. GOVERNOR RELEASED.(NEWS) - The Cincinnati Post (Cincinnati, OH) - HighBeam Research
  42. Falwell resting after tests at Cleveland Clinic |
  43. WBNS-10TV, Central Ohio's News Leader - News - Restaurant Company Founder Bob Evans Enters Cleveland Clinic
  45. Robin Williams Recovering from Heart Surgery

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