climate of Russia is
formed under the influence of several determining factors.
The enormous size of the country and the remoteness of many areas
from the sea result in the dominance of the continental climate
, which is prevalent
in European and Asian Russia except for the tundra and the extreme
southeast. Mountains in the south obstructing the flow
of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean and the plain of the west and north makes the
country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences.
Due to the
moderating influence of the Atlantic or Pacific, the most
populous areas of the country in European Russia, in the south of West Siberia and in the south of the Russian Far East, including the cities of
Moscow and Saint Petersburg, experience a humid continental climate.
Dfa, Dwb, Dwa types). Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia between the
Scandinavian Peninsula and
Ocean has a subarctic
climate, with extremely severe winters (Dfd, Dwd) in the inner
regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly the Sakha Republic, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low
temperature of ), and more moderate (Dwc, Dfc) elsewhere.
of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the Arctic islands, have a polar climate
(extreme polar climate (EF) on some of the islands and tundra
climate (ET) elsewhere). A small portion of the Black Sea coast, most notably in Sochi, possesses a
humid subtropical climate
(Köppen's Cfa) with unusually wet winters.
Winter is dry
compared to summer in many regions of East Siberia and the Far East
(Dwa, Dwb, Dwc, Dwd types), while other parts of the country
experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter
precipitation in most parts of the country normally falls as
. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost
Siberia, possess a semi-arid
About 65% of the Russian territory is underlined by permafrost
Averages and records by city
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