Coahuila de Zaragoza ( ), is one of Mexico's 31
located in the north of the country.
To the north, Coahuila accounts for a stretch of the U.S.
border, adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas along the
course of the Rio Grande
.Coahuila also borders the Mexican states of
León to the east, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi to the south, and Durango and Chihuahua to the west.
With an area of , it is the
nation's third-largest state. It comprises 38 municipalities
. In 2005,
Coahuila's population was 2,495,200 inhabitants.
capital of Coahuila is Saltillo, and it's largest city is Torreón.
also includes the cities of Monclova (a former state capital), Piedras
Negras, and Ciudad
The Spanish explored the north of Mexico some decades after their
victory in the capital of the Aztecs. Such exploration was delayed
because the northern climate was harsher and there was no gold. The
first Spanish settlement in the region now called Coahuila was at
Minas de la Trinidad (now Monclova) in 1577. And Saltillo was in
1586, when it formed part of the province of Nueva Vizcaya
of the vice-royalty
of New Spain
. Later it became the province
of Nueva Extremadura
. Francisco Cano
was one of the earliest
Europeans to explore Nueva Extremadura.
Coahuila y Tejas
Texas") was one of the constituent states of the newly independent
United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution
, and included
Texas, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon. Later in the same year Nuevo Leon
was detached, but Texas remained a part of the state until 1835,
when it seceded to form the Republic
. Monclova was the capital of the state from 1833 to
In 1840 Coahuila briefly became a member of the short lived
Republic of the Rio
February 19, 1856, Santiago
Vidaurri annexed Coahuila to his state, Nuevo León, but it regained its separate status in
Mexican Revolution, Francisco Villa attacked the city of
4, 2004, the border city of Piedras Negras was flooded.
More than 30 people died and
more than 4000 lost their homes.
In 2007, Coahuila became the first state in Mexico to offer
(Pacto Civil de
Solidaridad) to same-sex couples.
The Sierra Madre Oriental
northwest to southeast through the state, and the higher elevations
are home to the Sierra Madre Oriental
East of the range, the land slopes gently toward the Rio Grande,
and is drained by several rivers, including the Salado
and its tributary the Sabinas
. The Tamaulipan mezquital
, a dry shrubland ecoregion
, occupies the western portion of the
state, and extends across the Rio Grande into southern Texas.
The portion of the state west of the Sierra Madre Oriental lies on
the Mexican Plateau
, and is part of
the Chihuahuan Desert
Bolsón de Mapimí
large endorheic basin
much of the western portion of the state and extends into adjacent
portions of Chihuahua, Durango, and Zacatecas. The Nazas River
, which flows east from Durango, and
the Aguanaval River
, which flows
north from Zacatecas, empty into lakes in the Bolsón. Torreón, the most populous city in the state, lies on the
Nazas in the irrigated Laguna Region,
the (Comarca Lagunera), which straddles the border of
Coahuila and Durango.
The state contains two biosphere
. Maderas del Carmen
lies on the northern border of the state, and includes sections of
the Chihuahuan desert and sky islands
pine-oak forest in the Sierra del
. The springs, lakes, and wetlands of Cuatro
Ciénegas lie west of Monclova on the west slope of the
The state is largely arid or semi-arid, but the rivers of the state
support extensive irrigated agriculture, particularly cotton
. The Parras district in
the southern part of the state produces wines and brandies.
of the Sierra Madre produce timber.
The last population census run across Mexico in the year 2005,
reports Coahuila de Zaragoza as having roughly 2,500,000
inhabitants, which, considering its size, means that the state has
a very low density, in fact as low as only 15 persons per sq.
Coahuila's population is comprised mainly of people of Criollo
(European) extraction. History reveals how
colonizers destroyed the disperse
and nomadic tribes which inhabited these territories, and as such
less than 7,500 natives reside in Coahuila, or merely 0,3% of the
total population. The rest of the population is composed of
American, Canadian, and Japanese
The rest of the demographic particulars in the state are very
similar to national averages, such as a high life expectancy
(reaching 75 years of age) and a Catholic
Coahuila residents have about of 8.5 years of education, comparable
to the national average.
Institutions of higher education include:
About 95% of Mexico's coal reserves are found in Coahuila, which is
the country's top mining state. Saltillo also has a growing
automobile industry, hosting General Motors
As of 2005, Coahuila’s economy represents 3.5% of Mexico’s total
gross domestic product
22,874 million USD. Coahuila's economy has a strong focus on export
oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora
). As of 2005, 221,273 people are
employed in the manufacturing sector. Foreign direct investment in
Coahuila was 143.1 million USD for 2005. The average wage for an
employee in Coahuila is approximately 190 pesos per day.
Coahuila is subdivided into five regions and 38 municipalities
.For a full list
with municipal seats, see: municipalities of Coahuila
List of governors
This list is incomplete
- http://www.gay.com/news/article.html?2007/01/12/1 "Mexican
state moves to allow same-sex unions", Advocate News,
Gay.com, January 11, 2007