) is a term
most often used today to denote a degree
-awarding tertiary educational institution
broadly, it can be the name of any group of colleague, for example, an electoral college, a College of Arms or the College of
Originally, it meant a group of persons
living together, under a common set of
= "together" +
= "law" or lego
= "I choose"); indeed, some
colleges call their members "fellows
precise usage of the term varies among the English-speaking
countries. In the United States and Ireland, for
example, the terms "college" and "university" may be regarded as loosely
interchangeable, whereas in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and other Commonwealth countries, a "college"
is usually an institution between school and
university level (although constituent schools within
universities are sometimes known as "colleges").
Educational institutions in the form of a school
in many civilizations. The earliest were in Mesopotamia
during the 3rd millennium BC
. In Sparta, the Agoge
was the name for an educational institution. Its
origins are thought to be between the 7th and 6th century BC, for
both men and women. Rome
around the 3rd century BC with their rhetoric schools. Ancient China also had
Shuyuan academies, while
ancient India had Gurukul schools.
The origin of the college, as distinct from a school or academy,
arose with the madrasah
of the medieval Islamic world
. The madrasah was
an Islamic college of law
, usually affiliated with a mosque
, and is funded by a charitable trust
known as Waqf
, the origin of the trust
. The internal organization of the first European colleges
was borrowed from the earlier madrasahs, being funded by trusts and
featuring a system of fellows
, with the Latin term for fellow,
, being a direct translation of the Arabic term for
often excluded from a madrasah's curriculum
, this varied among different
institutions, with some only choosing to teach the "religious
sciences", and others teaching both the religious and the "rational
sciences", usually logic
. Some madrasahs
further extended their curriculum to history
Kingdom, usage of the word "college" remains the loosest,
encompassing a range of institutions:
Primary and secondary schools
In general use, a college
is an institution between
, either a sixth form college
or a college of further education and adult education, which were
usually called technical
. Recently, however, with the phasing out of poly
technical colleges, the term has become less clear-cut.
In relation to universities, the term college
refers to a part of the university which does not have
degree-awarding powers in itself. Degrees are always awarded by
are institutions or
organizations which prepare students for the degree.
cases, colleges prepare students for the degree of a university of
which the college is a part (e.g. colleges of the University of London, University of
Cambridge, etc.) In other cases, colleges are independent
institutions which prepare students to sit as external candidates
at other universities or have authority to run courses that lead to
the degrees of those universities (e.g. many higher education
colleges and university
constituent parts of collegiate
universities, especially referring to the independent colleges
that make up the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and London.
constituent parts of collegiate
universities which provide accommodation and pastoral services
Andrews and Durham.
constituent parts of collegiate
universities, such as Lancaster, York and Kent.
universities, such as Imperial College London, which is a university in its own right.
School of Economics, University College London and King's College London, which are federal colleges of the University of London, but are also
de facto universities in their own right, as they can
award their own degrees.
name given to large groupings of faculties or departments, notably in
the University of Edinburgh,
and after recent restructuring, the University
- University colleges —
independent higher education institutions that have the power to
award degrees, but are not actually universities.
In American English
, the word, in
contrast to its many and varied British meanings, usually refers to
that provide education primarily at the undergraduate level
. But it can also
refer to schools which offer a vocational
curriculum. The term can
either refer to a self-contained institution that has no graduate
studies or to the
undergraduate school of a full university (i.e., that also has a
separate graduate faculty).
In popular usage, the word "college" is the generic term for any
post-secondary undergraduate education. Americans go to "college"
after high school, regardless of whether the specific institution
is formally a college or a university, and the word and its
derivatives are the standard terms used to describe the
institutions and experiences associated with American
post-secondary undergraduate education.
Colleges vary in terms of size, degree, and length of stay.
Two-year colleges, also known as junior
or community colleges
, usually offer an
, and four-year
colleges usually offer a bachelor's
. Often, these are entirely undergraduate
some have limited graduate school
Four-year institutions in the U.S. that emphasize a liberal arts
curriculum are known as liberal arts
. These schools have traditionally emphasized
instruction at the undergraduate
level, although advanced research may still occur at these
While there is no national standard in the United States, the term
"university" primarily designates institutions that provide
undergraduate and graduate
. A university
as its core and its largest internal division an undergraduate
college teaching a liberal arts
curriculum, also culminating in a bachelor's degree
. What often
distinguishes a university is having, in addition, one or more
engaged in both
teaching graduate classes and engaged in research. Often these
would be called a School of Law or School of Medicine, (but may
also be called a college of law, or a faculty of law, etc.).
On the other hand, public
typically more research-oriented institutions which service both an
student body. Graduate programs
may grant a Master of Arts
or a variety of Master's degrees
. The doctorate
is the highest academic degree in the
United States, and the PhD
given in many fields. Medical schools
while law schools
award the JD
. The extent to which graduate programs are
integrated with undergraduate studies varies by university and by
program. These institutions usually have a large student body.
Introductory seminars on the undergraduate level can have a class
size in the hundreds in some of the larger schools. Compared to
liberal arts colleges, the interaction between students and
full-time faculty can be limited and a higher number of
undergraduate classes may be taught by graduate student TAs
institutions, such as Dartmouth College, and The College of William &
Mary, have retained the term "college" in their names
for historical reasons or because of an undergraduate focus,
although they offer higher degrees.
And many colleges may
offer a Master of Arts degree in some field without a full
curriculum leading to a PhD.
Usage of the terms varies among the states
, each of which operates its own
institutions and licenses private ones. In 1996 for example,
Georgia changed all of its four-year institutions
previously designated as colleges to universities, and all of its
vocational technology schools to
(Previously, only the four-year research institutions, apart from the
well-established historic exception of the Georgia
Institute of Technology, were called "universities".) Other states have
changed the names of individual colleges, many
having started as a teachers' college or
vocational school (such as an
A&M — an agricultural and mechanical school) that ended up as a full-fledged
"University" and "college" do not exhaust all possible titles for
an American institution of higher education. Other options include
"institute" (Massachusetts Institute of
Technology), "academy" (United
States Military Academy), "union" (Cooper Union), "conservatory" (New England
Conservatory), and "school" (Juilliard School), although these titles are only for their official
In colloquial use, they are still referred to as
"college" when referring to their undergraduate studies.
The term college
is also, as in the United Kingdom, used
for a constituent semi-autonomous part of a larger university but
generally organized on academic rather than residential lines.
example, at many institutions, the undergraduate portion of the
university can be briefly referred to as the
college (such as The College of the University
of Chicago, Harvard
College at Harvard, or Columbia College at
Columbia) while at others each
of the faculties may be called a "college" (the "college of
engineering", the "college of nursing", and so forth).
exist other variants for historical reasons; for example, Duke
University, which was
called Trinity College until the 1920s, still calls its main
undergraduate subdivision Trinity College of Arts and
Sciences. Some American universities, such as Princeton, Rice, and Yale do have
residential colleges along the
lines of Oxford or Cambridge, but the name was clearly adopted in
homage to the British system.
Unlike the Oxbridge colleges,
these residential colleges are not autonomous legal entities nor
are they typically much involved in education itself, being
primarily concerned with room, board, and social life. At the University
of Michigan, University of California, San
Diego and the University
of California, Santa Cruz, however, each of the residential colleges do teach
its own core writing courses and has its own distinctive set of
The origin of the U.S. usage
founders of the first institutions of higher education in the
States were graduates of the University
of Oxford and the University of Cambridge.
The small institutions they founded would
not have seemed to them like universities — they were tiny and did
not offer the higher degrees in medicine and theology. Furthermore,
they were not composed of several small colleges. Instead, the new
institutions felt like the Oxford and Cambridge colleges they were
used to — small communities, housing and feeding their students,
with instruction from residential tutors (as in the United Kingdom,
described above). When the first students came to be
graduated, these "colleges" assumed the right to confer degrees
upon them, usually with authority—for example, The College
of William & Mary has a Royal Charter
from the British monarchy allowing it to confer degrees while
College has a charter permitting it to award degrees "as
are usually granted in either of the universities, or any other
college in our realm of Great Britain."
leaders of Harvard
College (which granted America's first degrees in 1642)
might have thought of their college as the first of many
residential colleges which would grow up into a New Cambridge
However, over time, few new colleges were
founded there, and Harvard grew and added higher faculties.
Eventually, it changed its title to
university, but the term "college" had stuck and "colleges" have
arisen across the United
In U.S. usage, the word "college" embodies not only a particular
type of school, but has historically been used to refer to the
general concept of higher education when it is not necessary to
specify a school, as in "going to college" or "college savings
accounts" offered by banks.
The Morrill Land-Grant Act
In addition to private colleges and universities, the U.S. also has
a system of government funded, public
, also, in many cases, known as State Colleges.
Many State Colleges were founded under the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges
to make higher education more easily accessible to the
citizenry of the country, specifically to improve agricultural
systems by providing training and scholarship in the production and
sales of agricultural products, and to provide formal education in
"…agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts, and other
professions that seemed practical at the time."
In the 1860s, when this act was established, the original colleges
on the east coast, primarily those of the Ivy
and several religious based colleges, were the only form
of higher education available, and were often confined only to the
children of the elite. A movement arose to bring a form of more
practical higher education to the masses, as “…many politicians and
educators wanted to make it possible for all young Americans to
receive some sort of advanced education.” In 1862 Congress
passed a measure that “…made it possible
for the new western states to establish colleges for the citizens.”
This was extended to allow all states, that had remained with the
union during the American Civil
and eventually all states, to establish such
Most of the colleges established under the Morrill Act have since
gone on to become full universities. Some are amongst the elite of
Numerous professional bodies in the U.S. also use the appellation
College. Examples in medicine include the American College of
, the American College of
, and the American College of Surgeons
College of Osteopathic Family Physicians
and the American College of
, and in dentistry the American College of Dentists
and the American
College of Prosthodontists
The rest of the English-speaking world
Influenced by their origins in the British Empire
, by contact with and sometimes
imitation of U.S. academia, and even by modern American pop culture
, the rest of the
English-speaking world seems to have adopted a mix of the U.S. and
, the term "college" has
several different, and unrelated, meanings.
- It can refer to an institution of tertiary education that is smaller than a
university, run independently or as part of a university. Following
a reform in the 1980s many of the formerly independent colleges now
belong to a larger university.
- The term can also be used to refer to parts of a university. In
that context there are residential colleges which provide
residence for students, both undergraduate and postgraduate, called
university colleges, as
in the United Kingdom. These Colleges often provide additional
tutorial assistance and some host theological study. Less commonly college can refer
to a superfaculty organizational unit, as in the ANU
- Most TAFEs, which offer certificate and
diploma vocational courses, are styled "TAFE colleges" or "Colleges
of TAFE". Some private institutions offering TAFE certificates,
university bridging courses, or theological courses of study (i.e.
Bible colleges) style themselves "Institutes" or "Colleges".
- Many private as well as state high
schools that provide secondary
education are called "colleges" in Australia. As secondary
education is managed by state authorities rather than nationally,
the term's use varies on a regional basis.
- Some professional and registration bodies, especially in the
medical arena, which are not educational bodies style themselves a
"College" or "Institute": for example, the Royal
Australian College of General Practitioners. In some cases,
they have legal status and members of a profession must obtain and
maintain College membership in order to be allowed to
Usage in secondary education by state or territory
Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, "college" refers to the final two years of high
school (years eleven and twelve), and the institutions which
In this context, "college" is a system
independent of the other years of high school. Here, the expression
is a shorter version of matriculation college
state of Victoria, most public schools providing secondary education
are known as secondary colleges, though most Victorians
still refer to this level of education as "high
Australia and the
Territory, "College" is used in the name of all state high
schools built since the late 1990s, and in some older ones which
have been renamed since that time.
The term for the sector,
however, is still "high schools", or in official Government usage,
"schools with secondary students". Many private or independent
schools, including many who accept K-7 students, are styled
Wales, some high schools, especially multi-campus schools
resulting from mergers, are known as "secondary
Queensland, the term college is used by some private secondary
institutions, although some newer schools which accept primary and
high school students are being styled "State College", whilst
schools which offer only secondary education are styled "State High
Canada, the term "college" usually refers to a community college or a technical,
applied arts, or applied science school.
These are post-secondary
, and bachelor's
. In Quebec, the term is
seldom used, the equivalent being CEGEP
(College d'enseignement général et professionnel, "college
of general and professional education"), a form of post-secondary
education specific to the Quebec
education system that is required in order to continue onto
university (unless one applies as a 'mature' student, meaning 21
years of age or over, and out of the educational system for at
least 2 years), or to learn a trade. In Ontario, British
Columbia and Alberta, there are also institutions which are designated
university colleges, as they only
grant under-graduate degrees.
This is to differentiate
between universities, which have both under-graduate and graduate
programs and those that do not. In contrast to usage in the United
States, there is a strong distinction between "college" and
"university" in Canada. In conversation, one specifically would say
either "They are going to university" (i.e., studying for a three-
or four-year degree at a university) or "They are going to college"
(suggesting a technical or career college).
Military College of Canada, a full-fledged degree-granting university, does
not follow the naming convention used by the rest of the country,
nor does its sister school Royal
Military College Saint-Jean or the now closed Royal Roads
The term "college" also applies to distinct entities within a
university (usually referred to as "federated colleges
" or "affiliated
colleges"),to the residential colleges in the United Kingdom. These
colleges act independently, but in affiliation or federation with
the university that actually grants the degrees. For example, Trinity
College was once an independent institution, but later
became federated with the University of Toronto, and is now one of its residential colleges.
case of Memorial University of
Newfoundland, located in St.
John's, the Corner
Brook campus is called Sir Wilfred
Occasionally, "college" refers to a subject
specific faculty within a university that, while distinct, are
Education, College of Medicine, College of Dentistry, among
There are also universities referred to as art colleges, empowered
to grant academic degrees of BFA, Bdes, MFA, Mdes and sometimes
collaborative PhD degrees. Some of them have "university" in their name
(Nova Scotia College of Art and Design
University and Emily
Carr University of Art and Design) and others do not (Ontario
College of Art & Design).
In a number of Canadian cities, many government-run secondary
schools are called "collegiates" or "collegiate institutes" (C.I.),
a complicated form of the word "college" which avoids the usual
"post-secondary" connotation. This is because these secondary
schools have traditionally focused on academic, rather than
vocational, subjects and ability levels (for example, collegiates
offered Latin while vocational schools offered technical courses).
private secondary schools in Toronto (such as Upper Canada
College) choose to use the word "college" in their
Some secondary schools elsewhere in the
country, particularly ones within the separate school
system, may also use the
word "college" or "collegiate" in their names.
A small number of the oldest professional associations use
"college" in the name in the British sense, such as the Royal College
of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
Ireland, the term "college" is usually limited to an
institution of tertiary
education, but the term is quite generic within this
University students often say they attend "college"
rather than "university", with the term college being more popular
in wider society. This is possibly due to the fact that, until
1989, no university provided teaching or research directly.
these were offered by a constituent college of the university, in
the case of the National
University of Ireland and University of Dublin — or at least in strict legal terms.
are many secondary education
institutions that use the word college. Many secondary schools,
formerly known as technical colleges, were renamed as community
colleges. These are secondary institutions in contrast to the
American community college
state's only ancient university,
of Dublin, is really English in its origins and, until
recently, its outlook. Created during the reign of Elizabeth I, it is modelled on the
universities of Cambridge and Oxford. However, only one constituent
college was ever founded, hence the curious position of
College, Dublin today.
For a time, degrees in Dublin Institute of
were also conferred by the university. However, that
institution now has its own degree awarding powers and is
considering applying for full university status.
Among more modern foundations, the National University of
, founded in 1908, consisted of constituent colleges and
recognised colleges until 1997. The former are now referred to as
— institutions that are
essentially universities in their own right. The National
University can trace its existence back to 1850 and the creation of
the Queen's University
and the creation of the Catholic University of
in 1854. From 1880, the degree awarding roles of
these two universities was taken over by the Royal University of
Ireland, which remained until the creation of the National
University in 1908 and the Queen's University Belfast.
state's two new universities Dublin City University and University of Limerick were initially National Institute for
Higher Education institutions.
offered university level academic
from the start of
their existence and were awarded university status in 1989 in
recognition of this. These two universities now follow the general
trend of universities having associated colleges offering their
Third level technical education in the state has been carried out
in the Institutes of
, which were established from the 1970s as Regional
Technical Colleges. These institutions have delegated
which entitles them to give degrees and diplomas
from the Higher Education
and Training Awards Council
in their own name.
A number of Private Colleges exist such as DBS
, providing undergraduate
courses validated by
and in some cases by other Universities.
Other types of college include Colleges of Education
as National College of
. These are specialist institutions, often linked to a
university, which provide both undergraduate
and postgraduate academic degrees
for people who want to
train as teachers.
Kong, the term "college" has a range of meanings, as in
the British case.
In the first case it can refer to a
. It is also used by
tertiary institutions as either part of their names or to refer to
a constituent part of the university, such as the colleges in the
collegiate Chinese University of Hong
Kong; or to a residence hall of a university, such as
College, University of Hong Kong.
university is more common than college in India.
Generally, colleges are located in different parts of a state and
all of them are affiliated to a regional university. The colleges
offer programmes under that university. Examinations are conducted
by the university at the same time for all colleges under its
affiliation. There are several hundred universities and each
university has affiliated colleges.
The first liberal arts and sciences college in India was C. M. S. College Kottayam, Kerala
1817), and the Presidency College, Kolkata
(estd. 1817), initially known as Hindu College. The first commerce
and economics college in India was Sydenham College, Mumbai, which was
established in the year 1913.
The first Missionary
institution to impart Western style education in India was the
(estd. 1830). The first modern university in
India was the University of
(estd. January 1857). The first research institution
for the study of the social sciences and ushering the spirit of
research was the Asiatic Society
, (estd. 1784). The first
college for the study of Christian theology and ecumenical enquiry
was Serampore College
Indian Institutes of
Technology (IITs), Indian Statistical Institute,
Indian Institute of
Institute of Science and Tata
Institute of Fundamental Research are specialized institutions that award their own
They are premier institutes in India. There are
fourteen IITs, four ISIs (along with another 15 SQC and OR Units),
7 IIMs, one IIS, and one TIFR at present.
Zealand the word "college" normally refers to a secondary school for ages 13 to
In contrast, most older schools of the same type are
"high schools". Also, single-sex schools are more likely to be
"Someplace Boys/Girls High School", but there are also very many
coeducational "high schools". The difference between "high schools"
and "colleges" is usually only one of terminology. However, many
private or integrated schools are known as "such and such college"
There does seem to be a geographical difference in terminology:
"colleges" most frequently appear in the North Island, whereas
"high schools" are more common in the South Island.
The constituent colleges of the former University of New Zealand
Canterbury University College) have become independent
universities. Some halls of residence associated with New
Zealand universities retain the name of "college", particularly at
of Otago (which although brought under the umbrella of the
University of New Zealand, already possessed university status and
degree awarding powers).
The institutions formerly known as
"Teacher-training colleges" now style themselves "College of
universities, such as the University of Canterbury, have divided their University into constituent
administrative "Colleges" - the College of Arts containing
departments that teach Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences,
College of Science containing Science departments, and so
This is largely modelled on the Cambridge model,
Like the United Kingdom some professional bodies in New Zealand
style themselves as "colleges", for example, the Royal Australasian
College of Surgeons, the R.A.C. of Physicians
In the Philippines, colleges usually refer to institutions of
learning that grant degrees but whose scholastic fields are not as
diverse as that of a university, such as the San Beda College
which specializes in
and the Mapua Institute of Technology
which specialized in engineering
, or to
component units within universities that do not grant degrees but
rather facilitate the instruction of a particular field, such as a
College of Science and College of Engineering, among many other
colleges of the University
of the Philippines
A state college may not have the word "college" on its name, but
may have several component colleges, or departments. Thus, the
Eulogio Amang Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology is a
state college by classification.
Usually, the term "college" is also thought of as a heirarchical
demarkation between the term "university", and quite a number of
colleges seek to be recognized as universities as a sign of
improvement in academic standards, and increase in the diversity of
the offered degree programs (called "courses"). For private
colleges, this may be done through a survey and evaluation by the
Commission on Higher Educations and accrediting organizations, as
was the case of Urios College which is now the Fr. Saturnino Urios University
For state colleges, it is usually done by a legislation by the
Congress or Senate. In common usage, "going to college" simply
means attending school for an undergraduate degree, whether it's
from an instutition recognized as a college or a university.
"college" in Singapore is generally only used for pre-university
educational institutions called "Junior Colleges", which provide
the final two years of secondary
education (equivalent to sixth form in British terms or grades
11-12 in the American system). Since 1 January 2005,
the term also refers to the three campuses of the Institute of Technical
Education with the introduction of the "collegiate system", in
which the three institutions are called ITE College East, ITE College Central, and ITE College West respectively.
The term "university
" is used to describe
higher-education institutions offering locally-conferred degrees.
Institutions offering diplomas are called "polytechnic
", while other
institutions are often referred to as "institutes" and so
In Sri Lanka the word "college" normally refers to a secondary
school, which usually
signifies above the 5th standard.
A limited number of exclusive secondary schools that were
established during the colonial period based on English public
school model and several Catholic schools traditionally carry their
name as colleges [eg Royal College, Ananda College, St Joseph's
College] depsite they having classes from primary school to
advanced level. Many post-independence (1948) schools adapted the
term college too.
There are several professional higher-education institutions that
offer higher-education without granting degrees that are referred
to as "colleges". This includes Sri Lanka Law College
Similar to New Zealand, in South Africa, the word "college"
normally refers to a secondary
school. Nevertheless, most secondary schools are called "Someplace
High (School)". The word "college" in South Africa generally
implies that the school is private. In many cases the high school
is exclusive and follows the English public school model. Thus no
less than six of South Africa's Elite
high schools call themselves "college" and fit this
description. A typical example of this category would be
St John's College.
Another category of private high schools also use the "college"
term. However, these schools do not follow the English public
school model, but rather are more informal in character and
specialize in improving children's marks through intensive focus on
examination needs. These "colleges" are thus often nick-named
Although the term "college" is hardly used in any context at any
university in South Africa, some non-university tertiary
institutions call themselves colleges. These include teacher
training colleges, business colleges and wildlife management
colleges to name a few.
The non-English-speaking world
Some languages beyond English use words similar to "college".
for example, has the Collège de France.) However, in other languages, confusion is
most likely to arise when an American is reading something
translated by someone using British conventions, or vice
Belgium, the term college is used for some
catholic secondary schools (public
secondary schools are often called atheneum).
For higher education
, there are two types of
institutions: the Hogeschool (Dutch) / Haute Ecole
(which literally means high school
be translated as university
or as vocational university
) and the
. With the current reform of
higher education under the Bologna
, the Hogescholen / Hautes Ecoles
professional bachelor's degrees
(3 years study in one
cycle) or academic bachelor's degrees
(first cycle of 3 years
study) and master's degrees
cycle of 1 or 2 years in addition to the academic bachelor's
offer academic bachelor's degrees,
master's degrees and doctorate's degree
(minimum 3 years). More information about the higher education
system can be found in the Higher Education Registers
Republic of China, Japan, South Korea and other East Asian
states, colleges and universities are collectively named 大學 or in
simplified writing 大学, which is a word originally introduced by
Confucius with his influential book of the
The original word and subsequently the book's
title is most frequently translated to "The Great Learning
". Today's pronunciation of
this word is country- and sometimes region- specific and includes
(대학) (Korean). In Japan, daigaku
usually considered distinct from senmon gakkou
which is more of a post-secondary
Republic of China, the college students are selected through the
annual National Higher
Education Entrance Examination.
The meaning of 大學 is
clear, but in the case of smaller institutions, the term 學院
("xueyuan" in Chinese) is often used and, like "college" in
English, can refer to either an institution of tertiary or
Denmark the term kollegium means dormitory.
A university is called a
. Some institutes of higher education call
literally means "high school" e.g. Handelshøjskolen i København
Finland the term college has no single
A general university is called
(in Swedish, universitet
). A university
on a specific field of study is korkeakoulu
). The Swedish term is högskola
translation they use "university", "school", or "academy". An
institute of the more practically oriented branch of tertiary
education is ammattikorkeakoulu
, in Swedish
. Some of them translate their name as
"polytechnic", some as "university of applied science".
collège generally refers to a middle school or junior high school.
it can also be used in a manner more similar to that of English,
such as in the term electoral
college or the Collège de France.
The latter use, though, is not as
Germany and Austria
Germany and Austria a Hochschule or
Universität is an institute of tertiary education.
is in some texts translated as college but
university is a more proper term to use as translation of it than
that. A direct translation is also misleading: Hochschule
literally means high school. It divides into three types:
(in which education is
research-oriented and academic teachers have to be engaged in
research following the principle of unity of research and
), Fachhochschule/University of applied
(University with close relationship between higher
education and industry) Berufsakademie/University of cooperative education
students part-time study and part-time already work on the job).
The Fachhochschule and Berufsakademie institutions lack the right
to offer doctorate
these two types of institutions are sometimes called colleges in
English texts, especially in the US. Traditionally, all three types
of Hochschule offered Diplom
With the implementation of the Bologna
these degrees are replaced by Bachelor and Master
There is a very limited number of higher education institutions in
Germany which use the English term college in their names.
the European College of
Liberal Arts in Berlin, the only German liberal arts college; the Baltic
College, a very small private Hochschule in the state of
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern which, while no Berufsakademie institution, is
specializing in cooperative education; and Touro College Berlin, a Jewish-sponsored American college in the German
capital which is a satellite campus
of Touro College in New York and additionally obtained state
approved recognition in Germany, the German equivalent of US
regional accreditation, in
Undergraduates of Touro College Berlin may
graduate with two degrees, an American Bachelor of Science degree,
awarded by its parent-institution in New York, and a German
Bachelor of Science degree, awarded by Touro College Berlin
secondary education often takes
place in an institution called in German an Oberschule, with its specific
forms Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium, and in some states also Gesamtschule, together with
vocational secondary education in the Berufsschule (in North
Rhine-Westphalia called Berufskolleg).
German Gymnasium, the Französisches Gymnasium
Berlin, is also wellknown under its French name
Collège Français de Berlin.
(literally: college) is used in some states
for institutions of adult education
where graduates of a
can graduate with an Abitur
(which one will otherwise only achieve by
graduating successfully from the Gymnasium
). Within Germany, the
first up to two years of College in the US are often considered the
equivalent of the German Oberstufe
(12th and 13th grade)
in the Gymnasium
graduated from the Gymnasium
with an Abitur
in Austria) enables one to
go to university, and many US colleges actually offer students with
that qualification advanced
. A Graduiertenkolleg
is a German Graduate school
and a Studienkolleg
is a special university-preparatory school for foreign students
whose foreign high school diploma is not recognised to be
equivalent to a German Abitur. In the Austrian capital Vienna, there is also a school called Polycollege
which is the oldest folk high
school within that country.
Greece the term college is mainly used to refer to private
secondary education institutions (high schools and junior high
schools), while Πανεπιστήμιο (University) is the term utilized for
Hungary the term kollégium refers to a
dormitory that may or may not be
independent from an educational institution; it can also refer to a
university's autonomous student organisation, dedicated to the
advanced study of a certain science, topic etc, for example the
"College for Social Theory".
Indonesia the term kolese refers to a school that be
organized by Jesuits.
institutions accredited to confer a Bachelor's (and in some
cases also a Master's) degree, which are not universities, are
called Colleges (Hebrew: מכללות, Mikhlalot); the primary
distinction is that only universities may award doctorate degree.
There are over twenty
colleges as well as a similar number of teacher training colleges,
most of which can award only a Bachelor of Education
see the full
of colleges, as well as ofuniversities in
In Republican Rome, a collegium
could be a voluntary
association of men who met at a particular tavern at a major
crossroads. A crossroads college was a social club, not a school.
Business deals and even assassinations could be planned there,
quietly, over a carafe of wine. (Source: Colleen McCullough, "The
First Man in Rome,"1990.)
Italy the term
collegio, in school context, refers to a particular school
(with elite, alternative or stricter education; a collegio
offered by the State to the children of some of its civil
employees, or a collegio related to a military education,
is more commonly called convitto), many of these also
accomodate their students in lodging.
Malaysia, majority of the private higher educational
institutions use the term college or institute.
allowed to use the name College provided they are registered with
Ministry of Higher Education. Under Private Higher Educational
Institutions Act 1996. Ministry Official Website
Netherlands the term
college is used for institutes of secondary education.
is also used for classes or lectures at
university. Confusingly, college
is also used to
refer to both the mayor
of a municipality, who form the municipal
Norway the term "university
college" is used as an official English translation for
spelt høyskole and høgskule), a term used for
institutions providing tertiary, but not quaternary education.
Similarly to the situation in Germany, Sweden and Denmark, the
literally means "high school".Before you can study at a
or a university, you must have graduated from the
to high school). That means that the common
/university student is 19 years old and
Portugal the term college (colégio) is mainly used
to refer to private primary
education institutions, while Universidade
(University), Faculdade, Instituto or Escola
Superior are the terms generally used for several kind of
higher education institutions.
Romania, college is the next step you can study after high
school (Liceu in Romanian).
It can be a college that usually
lasts two years or University that can last 2, 3, or 4 years
depending on the field. But in the last 20 years many top high
schools had been renamed into Colegiul National (National College)
dwelling on a between-war formula.
Russia, upon finishing 9th grade students can choose to
either continue attending high school
and then go on to universities, or go to college.
provide high school and technical
. After graduating from college students can continue
their education in universities.
Spain, Spanish-speaking countries (Latin America)
Spain and the
Spanish speaking countries of
Latin America the term
colegio (school) refers to either institutions for
primary and secondary education or some homogeneous grouping of people who
refer to themselves as a colegio inasmuch as they are
colleagues. For example, in Peru the
professional organizations that group the lawyers of Lima or the
biologists of Peru are called "Colegio de Abogados de Lima" (or
College of Lawyers of Lima) and Colegio de Biólogos del
Perú; in Colombia, an example of professional body is the "Colegio
Colombiano de Archivistas - CCA", called in English Colombian College of
Archivists - CCA.
An exception is Puerto Rico
. On the island the word "colegio"
usually refers to elementary to secondary private schools, while
the word "escuela" is used to refer to elementary to secondary
public schools. A unit of the University of Puerto Rico system
is called El Colegio ( the University of Puerto Rico at
Mayagüez ) for traditional reasons.
The University of
Puerto Rico was founded during the American sovereignty. Therefore,
the graduates of this unit even at the Ph.D. level are
Sweden the term "university
college" is used as an official English translation for
högskola, a term used
for independent educational institutions
providing tertiary, but not
Similarly to the situation in Norway, the Swedish
means "high school". The same term is also used for a number of
institutions which function as specialized universities
rather than university colleges,
providing quaternary education and conducting research
.Before studying at a "högskola" or
university (universitet), you must have fulfilled the Gymnasium
, being the grades from 10 to
12. That means that the common högskola/university student is 19
years old and above.
Examples of Swedish universities are found at List of universities in
cantons of the French
speaking part of Switzerland and also on the border to the Swiss German speaking part (i.e. in Fribourg) the French term “Collège” (German: Kollegium) is
used for middle school or junior high school and sometimes for the
Gymnasium (10th to 13th grade)
which lends to the matura.
It is also
used as a name for the physical building in which obligatory
education takes place (e.g., Le Collège de La
Turkey, the term college (kolej in Turkish)
refers to private high schools. The name originates
College, the first American educational institution founded
outside the United
Though founded as a college, the school
also had middle and secondary sections over the years after its
foundation in 1863. Since 1971, Robert College operates as a private high school; however, the
term kolej (college) is widely used
by the private high schools that flourished over the last few
decades, as an imitation of foreign schools, like Robert
College, in Turkey.
According to the Turkish education system
, official name
for a private high school is the direct translation, özel
, not kolej
In Vietnam there are 2 ways to use the word "college".
Vietnamese usually say "college" refers to "cao đẳng". "Cao đẳng"
is a higher education institute in Vietnam. The courses last for 3
years, 1 year shorter than "đại học" (Vietnamese, means
"university"). After graduation from a college, students are
awarded a degree. This degree is evaluated below a degree from a
university. If necessary, the student with a colleges' degree can
transfer to a university and study in one year or more to complete
their course at a suitable university. Vietnamese students would
rather attend a university than a college. The university enjoys
more prestige and popularity than colleges.
The second usage is not common. "College" refer to a school in a
university, like some in the US. Vietnam National University, Hanoi
has 5 colleges in its divisions.
- Toby E. Huff (2003), The Rise of Early Modern Science:
Islam, China and the West, Cambridge University Press, pp.
- Eton College website using school as the educational
institute but College as the name
- Lightcap, Brad. The Morrill Act of 1862. ND.edu
- Private Elementary and Secondary Schools search
form on the Ministry of Education of Ontario web site—enter
"college" in the "name contains" field and check the "secondary"
- Find a School or School Board search form on the
Ministry of Education of Ontario web site—click “Secondary” and
Higher Education Register: official register of higher education in
- Enseignement supérieur en Communauté française de