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The Colonial Office was a United Kingdom government department first created to deal with colonial affairs in British North America and then again to oversee and supervise the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire.It was headed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, known as the Colonial Secretary.

First Colonial Office (1768 – 1782)

Prior to 1768 responsibility for the affairs of the British colonies was part of the duties of the Secretary of State for the Southern Department and a committee of the Privy Council known as the Board of Trade and Plantations.

In 1768 the separate American or Colonial Department was established, in order to deal with colonial affairs in British North America. With the loss of the American colonies, however, the Department was abolished in 1782. Responsibility for the remaining colonies was given to the Home Office, and subsequently (1794) transferred to the War Officemarker.

Second Colonial Office (1854 – 1968)

In 1801 the War Office was renamed the War and Colonial Office under a new Secretary of State for War and the Colonies to reflect the increasing importance of the colonies. In 1825 a new post of Permanent Under-Secretary for the Colonies was created within this office.

In 1854 this office was divided into two and a new Colonial Office was created to deal specifically with the needs of the colonies and assigned to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The Colonial Office did not have responsibility for all British possessions overseas. British possessions in India and certain other nearby areas were under the authority of the India Office, and certain informal protectorates and other areas (particularly Egyptmarker) were under the authority of the Foreign Office. In 1907 the Dominion Division of the Colonial Office was created, and from 1925 separate Secretaries of State for Dominion Affairs were appointed. After the independence of India in 1947, the Dominion Office was merged with the India Office to form the Commonwealth Relations Office.In 1966, the Commonwealth Relations Office re-merged with the Colonial Office, forming the Commonwealth Office. Two years later, this department was itself merged into the Foreign Office, establishing the modern Foreign and Commonwealth Officemarker.

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