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The British Commander-in-Chief in India (or Commander-in-Chief of India) was the chief military commander for the British administration in Indiamarker and liaisoned with the civilian Governor-General of India. The Commander-in-Chief's staff were known as India Command and most were based at the General Headquarters India (GHQ India).

Following Indian Independence the post was merged into the office of the President of the Republic of Indiamarker. Thus, the Indian President is the Commander in Chief of the Indian Armed Forces.

This is a list of people who were the military Commander-in-Chief, India. The rank and title are the final ones for the person's career and not necessarily applicable to his tenure as Commander-in-Chief, India.

List of Commanders-in-Chief

Commanders-in-Chief of India, 1748-1798

Name Notes Served
Major-General Stringer Lawrence Foiled French plans to conquer southern India.

Reorganized the Madras Army.
1748 January
Lieutenant-General John Adlercron 1754
Major-General Robert Clive Established the military supremacy of the East India Company in southern Indiamarker and Bengalmarker. 1756 December
Brigadier-General John Caillaud Active in southern India against the French until 1759 when he was dispatched to Bengal. 1760 February
Brigadier-General John Carnac Defeated the Delhi Emperor near Biharmarker. 1760 December
Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote Captained the 39th Regiment, the first British regiment sent to India. 1761 April
Major Thomas Adams Officiating 1763
Brigadier-General John Carnac 2nd time appointment as Commander-in-Chief.

Promoted to Brigadier-General during this time.
1764 January
General Sir Hector Munro Suppressed sepoy mutiny at Patnamarker. Won the victories of Buxarmarker against Shuja-ud-Dowlah, the nawab wasir of Oudh, and Mir Kasim, which ranks amongst the most decisive battles ever fought in Indiamarker. 1764 July
Brigadier-General John Carnac 3rd appointment as Commander-in-Chief.

Defeated the Maratha Empire in the Doab.
1765 January
Major-General Robert Clive 2nd time appointment as Commander-in-Chief.

Conquered Bengalmarker from Nawab Siraj ud Dullah.
1765 May
Brigadier-General Richard Smith Exerted considerable influence in the East India Company, and was a prominent creditor of the Nawab of Arcot. 1767 January
Brigadier-General Sir Robert Barker Signed a treaty with the Rohillas against the Maratha Empire. 1770 March
Colonel Charles Chapman Civil servant of the East India Company who studied tribal ethnicities and cultures, and reported his findings to the Bengal Government. 1773 December
Brigadier-General Alexander Champion 1774 January
Lieutenant-General Sir John Clavering 1774 November
Lieutenant-General Giles Stibbert Officiating 1777 October
Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote Reappointment. Won the Battle of Porto Novomarker against odds of five to one, regarded as one of the greatest feats by the British in India. 1779 March
Lieutenant-General Giles Stibbert Reappointment 1783 April
General Sir Robert Sloper 1785 July
General Charles Cornwallis Promulgated the Permanent Settlement of Bengal.

Served twice as Governor-General of India.
1786 September
General Sir Robert Abercromby Officiating 1793 October
Major-General Charles Morgan Officiating 1797 January
Field Marshal Sir Alured Clarke 1798 May


Commanders-in-Chief of India, 1801-1857

Name Notes Served
General Sir James Henry Craig Officiating 1801 February
General Gerard Lake Improved the Indian Army by making all arms, infantry, cavalry and artillery, more mobile and more manageable. 1801 March
General Charles Cornwallis Reappointment. With Sir Arthur Wellesley, he supervised the Second Anglo-Maratha War against the Sindhia and the Holkar. 1805 July
General Gerard Lake Reappointment. Upon Cornwallis' death, Lake pursued the Holkar to the Punjab. The Holkar capitulated at Amritsarmarker in December 1805. 1805 October
John Graves Simcoe Appointed to post in Englandmarker, but died before departing for India and replaced by Lake
General Gerard Lake Reappointment following death of John Graves Simcoe, who died after accepting the appointment in England 1806
General Sir George Hewett Transformed Meerutmarker into a British stronghold that would be used as a launching point for future military campaigns into northern India. 1807 October
Lieutenant-General Forbes Champagné Officiating 1807 December
Field Marshal Sir George Nugent 1811 January
General Francis Rawdon-Hastings Oversaw British forces in the Gurkha War; conquered the Marathas; repaired the Mogul canals in Delhimarker; instituted educational reforms. 1813 October
General Sir Edward Paget 1823 January
Field Marshal Stapleton Cotton 1st Viscount Combermere 1825 October
General George Ramsay Began the British suppression of the Thuggee murder-cults. 1830 January
Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Barnes Constructed the military road between Colombomarker and Kandymarker, made the first census of the population, and introduced coffee cultivation. 1832 January
General Lord William Bentinck Suppressed the Hindu custom of suttee. 1833 October
General Lord William Bentinck Reappointment 1834 April
General Sir James Watson Established the famous police organisation known as the "Thuggee and Dacoity Department" within the Government of India. 1835 March
General Sir Henry Fane 1835 September
General Sir Jasper Nicolls Officiating 1839 December
Field Marshal Hugh Gough Defeated the Mahrattas at Maharajpur. Conducted operations against the Sikhs and won the battles of Mudki, Ferozeshah and Sobraon. Soonafter, the Sikhs surrendered at Lahoremarker. 1843 August
General Sir Charles James Napier Conquered Sindhmarker and made it part of Bombay Presidency. 1849 May
Field Marshal Sir William Gomm 1851 December
Major-General George Anson Outbreak of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Died of cholera during his march against the Indian mutineers at Delhimarker in May, 1857. 1856 January
Lieutenant-General Sir Patrick Grant Directed operations against the Indian mutineers, sending forces under Havelock and Outram for the relief of Cawnporemarker and Lucknowmarker, until the arrival of Sir Colin Campbell from England. 1857 June
General Colin Campbell Abandoned then recaptured Lucknowmarker. Supervised military operations in Oudh until the Indian Rebellion had been subdued. 1857 August


Commanders-in-Chief of India, 1861-1947

Name Notes Served
Lieutenant-General Sir Hugh Rose Improved discipline and enabled the amalgamation of the East India Company's army into the Queen's army to be carried out. 1861 June 4
General Sir William Mansfield Prior to his appointment, Mansfield served in the Sutlej campaignmarker, commanded the 53rd Regiment in the Punjab, and was part of Peshawarmarker operations in the northwest frontiermarker. 1865 March 23
General Robert Napier 1st Baron Napier of Magdala. He did much to benefit the army and to encourage good shooting. 1870 April 9
General Sir Frederick Haines 1876 April 10
General Sir Donald Stewart 1881 April 8
Lieutenant-General Frederick Roberts 1st Baron Roberts of Kandahar 1885 November 28
General Sir George Stuart White 1893 April 8
General Sir Charles Nairne Officiating 1898 March 20
General Sir William Lockhart 1898 November 4
General Sir Arthur Palmer 1900 March 19
General Horatio Kitchener 1st Viscount Kitchener. Reconstructed the disorganised Indian Army against the wishes of the viceroy Lord Curzon. 1902 November 28
General Sir Garrett O'Moore Creagh 1909 September 10
General Sir Beauchamp Duff 1914 March 8
General Sir Charles Monro 1916 October 1
General Henry Rawlinson 1920 November 21
General Sir Claud Jacob 1925 April 3
Field Marshal Sir William Birdwood 1925 August 6
Field Marshal Sir Philip Chetwode 1930 November 30
General Sir Robert Cassels 1935 November 30
General Sir Claude Auchinleck 1941 January 27
General Sir Archibald Wavell Left to take command of the short lived ABDACOM 1941 July 5
General Sir Alan Hartley 1942 January 5
Field Marshal Sir Archibald Wavell Reappointment. Sir Alan Hartley appointed Deputy Commander-in-Chief. 1942 March 7
Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck Reappointment: 1947 August 15. Became Supreme Commander of Indiamarker and Pakistanmarker. Oversaw division of the Armed forces between the two new countries. 1943 June 20
General Sir Robert Lockhart Commander-in-Chief of Post-Partition India 1947 August 15
General Sir Francis Bucher Commander-in-Chief of Post-Partition India 1947 December 31


See also



References




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