(born November 14, 1954) is a
professor, diplomat, author, and national security expert. She
served as the 66th United States Secretary of
, and the second to hold that office in the administration
of President George W. Bush
Rice was the first African-American woman secretary of state, as
well as the second
), and the second
). Rice was President Bush's National Security
during his first term. Before joining the Bush administration, she was a
professor of political science at
University where she served as Provost from 1993 to 1999.
served as the Soviet and East European Affairs Advisor to President
George H.W. Bush
during the dissolution of the Soviet Union
and German reunification
When beginning as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered a policy of
, with a focus on democracy in the greater Middle East
. Her emphasis on
supporting democratically elected governments faced challenges as
Hamas captured a popular majority in Palestinian elections yet
supported Islamist militants, and influential countries including
Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained authoritarian systems with U.S.
support. While Secretary of State
chaired the Millennium
's board of directors.
2009, Rice returned to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and
Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.
dolcezza, which means "with sweetness") was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and grew up
in the neighborhood of Titusville.
She traces her roots to pre-Civil War
African Americans in the
, where her family
worked as sharecroppers. She is the only child of Presbyterian
minister Reverend John Wesley Rice, Jr.
, and wife,
. Reverend Rice was a
guidance counselor at Ullman High School and minister of
Westminster Presbyterian Church, which had been founded by his
father. Angelena was a science, music, and oratory teacher at
Condoleezza Rice as an undergraduate
student at the University of Denver
Rice started learning French, music, figure skating and ballet at
age three. At age 15, she began classes with the goal of becoming a
. Her plans changed when she
realized that she did not play well enough to support herself
through music alone. While Rice is not a professional pianist, she
still practices often and plays with a chamber music group.
use of her pianist training to accompany cellist Yo-Yo Ma for Brahms's Violin Sonata in D Minor at
Hall in April 2002 for the National Medal of Arts
High school and university education
the family moved to Denver, Colorado.
attended St. Mary's Academy, a private all-girls Catholic high school in
Hills Village, Colorado.
studying piano at the Aspen Music Festival and
School, Rice enrolled at the University of Denver, where her father both served as an assistant dean
and taught a class called "The Black Experience in America."
Dean John Rice opposed institutional racism, government oppression,
and the Vietnam War
Rice attended a course on international politics taught by Josef Korbel
, the father of future Secretary of
State Madeleine Albright
experience sparked her interest in the Soviet Union and international relations and made her
call Korbel "one of the most central figures in my
Rice graduated from St. Mary's Academy in 1970. In 1974, at age 19,
Rice earned her BA degree in
political science, Phi Beta Kappa, from the University
of Denver. In 1975, she obtained her Master's Degree in political science from the University
of Notre Dame. She first worked in the State
Department in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in
the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.
In 1981, at
the age of 26, she received her PhD
degree in Political Science from
Korbel School of International Studies
at the University of
Denver. Her dissertation along with some of her earliest
publications, centered on military policy and politics in
Early political views
Rice was a Democrat
until 1982 when she changed her political affiliation to Republican
averse to former President Jimmy
's foreign policy. She cites influence from her father,
John Wesley, in this decision, who himself switched from Democrat
to Republican after being denied voting registration by the
Democratic registrar. In her words to the 2000 Republican National
Convention, "My father joined our party because the Democrats in
Jim Crow Alabama of 1952 would not register him to vote. The
However, despite her party switch, Rice served as foreign policy
advisor to the presidential campaign of Democratic U.S.
Gary Hart of Colorado during the 1984
hired by Stanford
University as an Assistant
Professor of Political Science
Condoleezza Rice during a 2005
interview on ITV in London
She was promoted to Associate Professor
in 1987, a post she
held until 1993. She was a specialist on the Soviet Union and gave lectures on the subject for the
Berkeley-Stanford joint program led by UC
Berkeley Professor George Breslauer in the
At a 1985 meeting of arms control experts at Stanford, Rice's
performance drew the attention of Brent
, who had served as National Security
under Gerald Ford
. With the
election of George H. W. Bush
Scowcroft returned to the White House as National Security Adviser
in 1989, and he asked Rice to become his Soviet expert on the
National Security Council
. According to R. Nicholas
, President Bush was "captivated" by Rice, and relied
heavily on her advice in his dealings with Mikhail Gorbachev
and Boris Yeltsin
Because she would have been ineligible for tenure at Stanford if
she had been absent for more than two years, in 1991, she returned
to Stanford. She was now taken under the wing of George P. Shultz
from 1982–1989), who was a fellow at the Hoover Institution
. Shultz included Rice
in a "luncheon club" of intellectuals who met every few weeks to
discuss foreign affairs. In 1992, Shultz, who was a board member of
Rice for a spot on the Chevron board. Chevron was pursuing
a $10 billion development project in Kazakhstan and, as a Soviet specialist, Rice knew the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev.
traveled to Kazakhstan on Chevron's behalf and, in honor of her
work, in 1993, Chevron named a 129,000-ton supertanker SS
. During this period, Rice was also
appointed to the boards of Transamerica Corporation
At Stanford, in 1992, Rice volunteered to serve on the search
committee to replace outgoing president Donald Kennedy
. The committee ultimately
recommended Gerhard Casper
Provost of the University of Chicago. Casper met Rice during this
search, and was so impressed that in 1993, he appointed her as
, the chief
budget and academic officer of the university in 1993 and she also
was granted tenure
and became full Professor
Rice was the first female, first
minority, and youngest Provost at Stanford. She was also named a
of the Institute for
, and a Senior Fellow (by courtesy) of the
Former Stanford President Gerhard
said the university was "most fortunate in persuading
someone of Professor Rice's exceptional talents and proven ability
in critical situations to take on this task. Everything she has
done, she has done well; I have every confidence that she will
continue that record as provost." Rice’s Stanford appointment was
considered, by Casper, an effort to address concerns about alleged
bias at Stanford University. Casper told the New Yorker in 2002
that it "would be disingenuous for me to say that the fact that she
was a woman, the fact that she was black... weren't in my
Balancing school budget
As Stanford's Provost, Rice was responsible for managing the
university's multi-billion dollar budget. The school at that time
was running a deficit of $20 million. When Rice took office, she
promised that the budget deficit would be balanced within "two
years." Coit Blacker, Stanford's deputy director of the Institute
for International Studies, said there "was a sort of conventional
wisdom that said it couldn't be done... that [the deficit] was
structural, that we just had to live with it." Two years later,
Rice announced that the deficit had been eliminated and the
university was holding a record surplus of over $14.5
Special interest issues
Rice drew protests when, as provost, she departed from the practice
of applying affirmative action to tenure decisions and
unsuccessfully sought to consolidate the university's ethnic
Return to Stanford
During a farewell interview in early December 2008, Rice indicated
she would return to Stanford and the Hoover Institution
, "back west of the
where I belong", but
beyond writing and teaching did not specify what her role would be.
Rice's plans for a return to campus were elaborated in an interview
with the Stanford Report in January 2009. She returned to Stanford
as a political science professor and senior fellow at the Hoover
Institution on March 1, 2009.
Yo-Yo Ma with Rice after performing
together at the 2001 National Medal of Arts and National Humanities
Rice is an accomplished pianist and has performed in public since
she was a young girl. At the age of 15, she played Mozart with the
Denver Symphony, and to this day she plays regularly with a chamber
music group in Washington. She does not play professionally, but
has performed at diplomatic events at embassies, including a
performance for Queen
, and she has performed in public with cellist
. She has stated that her favorite
composer is Johannes Brahms
she thinks Brahms's music is "passionate but not sentimental." On a
contrary note, on Friday, April 10, 2009 on The Tonight Show
with Jay Leno
, she stated that her favourite band was
Rice headed Chevron's committee on public policy until she resigned
on January 15, 2001, to become National Security
to President George W.
. Chevron, for unspecified
reasons, honored Rice by naming an oil
tanker Condoleezza Rice
after her, but controversy led
to its being renamed Altair Voyager.
She also served on the board of
for the Carnegie
, the Charles
, the Chevron
, Hewlett Packard
the Rand Corporation
, the Transamerica Corporation
, and other
Rice founded the Center for New Generation, an after-school program
created to raise the high school graduation numbers of East Palo
Alto and eastern Menlo Park, California. After her tenure as secretary of state, Rice
was approached in February 2009 to fill an open position as a
Pac-10 Commissioner, but chose instead to
return to Stanford
University as a political science professor and the Thomas and
Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.
Early political career
In 1986, while an international affairs fellow of the Council on Foreign Relations
Rice served as Special Assistant to the Director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
through March 1991 (the period of the fall of Berlin Wall and the final days of the Soviet Union), she served in President George H.W. Bush's
administration as Director, and
then Senior Director, of Soviet and East European Affairs in the
, and a Special Assistant to the President for
National Security Affairs. In this position, Rice helped develop
Bush's and Secretary of
State James Baker
's policies in
favor of German reunification
She impressed Bush, who later introduced her to Soviet leader
as the one who
"tells me everything I know about the Soviet Union."
In 1991, Rice returned to her teaching position at Stanford,
although she continued to serve as a consultant on the former
Soviet Bloc for numerous clients in both the public and private
sectors. Late that year, California
Governor Pete Wilson
to a bipartisan committee that had been formed to draw new state
legislative and congressional districts in the state.
In 1997, she sat on the Federal Advisory Committee on
Gender-Integrated Training in the Military.
During George W. Bush's 2000 presidential
election campaign, Rice took a one-year leave of absence from
University to help work as his foreign policy advisor.
of advisors she led called itself The
Vulcans in honor of the monumental Vulcan statue, which sits on a hill overlooking her hometown of
would later go on to give a
at the 2000 Republican National
. The speech asserted that "...America's armed forces
are not a global police force. They are not the world's 911."
National Security Advisor (2001–2005)
On December 17, 2000, Rice was named as National Security
and stepped down from her position at Stanford. She was
the first woman to occupy the post. Rice earned the nickname of
"Warrior Princess," reflecting strong nerve and delicate
On January 18, 2003, the Washington
reported that Rice was involved in crafting Bush's
position on race-based preferences. Rice has stated that "while
race-neutral means are preferable," race can be taken into account
as "one factor among others" in university admissions
During the summer of 2001, Rice met with CIA
Director George Tenet
to discuss the
possibilities and prevention of terrorist attacks on American
targets. Notably, on July 10, 2001, Rice met with Tenet in what he
referred to as an "emergency meeting" held at the White House at
Tenet's request to brief Rice and the NSC staff about the potential
threat of an impending al Qaeda
Rice responded by asking Tenet to give a presentation on the matter
to Secretary Donald Rumsfeld
When asked about the meeting in 2006, Rice asserted she did not
recall the specific meeting, commenting that she had met
with Tenet that summer about terrorist threats.
Moreover, she stated that it was "incomprehensible” to her that she
had ignored terrorist threats two months before the September 11 attacks
In March 2004, Rice declined to testify before the National
Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States
). The White House claimed executive
privilege under constitutional separation of powers and cited past
Under pressure, Bush agreed to allow her to
testify so long as it did not create a precedent of presidential
staff being required to appear before United States Congress
requested. Her appearance before the commission on April 8, 2004,
was accepted by the Bush administration in part because she was not
appearing directly before Congress. She thus became the first
sitting National Security Advisor to testify on matters of
In April 2007, Rice rejected, on grounds of executive privilege, a
House subpoena regarding the prewar claim that Iraq sought
yellowcake uranium from Niger.
Rice was proponent of the 2003
invasion of Iraq
. After Iraq delivered
its declaration of weapons
of mass destruction to the United
Nations on December 8, 2002, Rice wrote an editorial for The New York Times entitled "Why We
Know Iraq Is Lying".
Leading up to the 2004 presidential
, Rice became the first National Security Advisor to
campaign for an incumbent president. She stated that while: "Saddam
Hussein had nothing to do with the actual attacks on America,
Saddam Hussein's Iraq was a part of the Middle East
that was festering and unstable,
[and] was part of the circumstances that created the problem on
Weapons of mass destruction
In a January 10, 2003 interview with CNN's Wolf Blitzer
, Rice made headlines by stating
regarding Iraqi WMD
problem here is that there will always be some uncertainty about
how quickly he can acquire nuclear weapons. But we don't want the
smoking gun to be a mushroom cloud."
After the invasion, when it became clear that Iraq did not have
nuclear WMD capability, critics called Rice's claims a "hoax,"
"deception" and "demagogic scare tactic.""Either she missed or
overlooked numerous warnings from intelligence agencies seeking to
put caveats on claims about Iraq's nuclear weapons program, or she
made public claims that she knew to be false," wrote Dana Milbank
and Mike Allen in the Washington Post.
Rice characterized the August 6, 2001 President's Daily Brief Bin Ladin Determined To
Strike in US
as historical information. Rice indicated "It
was information based on old reporting." Sean Wilentz of
magazine suggested that the PDB contained current
information based on continuing investigations, including that Bin
Laden wanted to "bring the fighting to America."
Role in authorizing use of torture techniques
A Senate Intelligence
reported that on July 17, 2002, Rice met with CIA
director George Tenet
convey the Bush administration's approval of the proposed waterboarding
of alleged Al Qaeda leader
. "Days after Dr Rice gave
Mr Tenet her approval, the Justice Department approved the use of
waterboarding in a top secret August 1 memo."
Waterboarding is considered to be torture by a wide range of authorities, including legal experts, war veterans, intelligence officials, military judges, human rights organizations,
the U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, and many senior politicians, including U.S. President Barack Obama.
In 2003 Rice, Vice President Dick Cheney
and Attorney General John Ashcroft
with the CIA again and were briefed on the use of waterboarding and
other methods including week-long sleep deprivation
, forced nudity and the
use of stress positions. The Senate report says that the Bush
administration officials "reaffirmed that the CIA program was
lawful and reflected administration policy".
The Senate report also "suggests Miss Rice played a more
significant role than she acknowledged in written testimony to the
Senate Armed Services Committee submitted in the autumn." At that
time, she had acknowledged attending meetings to discuss the CIA
interrogations, but she claimed that she could not recall the
details, and she "omitted her direct role in approving the
programme in her written statement to the committee."
conversation with a student at Stanford University in April 2009, Rice stated that she did not
authorize the CIA to use the enhanced interrogation
Said Rice, "I didn't authorize anything. I
conveyed the authorization of the administration to the agency that
they had policy authorization, subject to the Justice Department's
clearance. That's what I did." She added, “We were told, nothing
that violates our obligations under the Convention Against Torture.
And so, by definition, if it was authorized by the president, it
did not violate our obligations under the Conventions Against
Secretary of State (2005–2009)
On November 16, 2004, Bush nominated Rice to be Secretary of State
January 26, 2005, the Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of
85-13. The negative votes, the most cast against any nomination for
Secretary of State since 1825, came from Senators who, according to
Senator Barbara Boxer
, wanted "to hold
Dr. Rice and the Bush administration accountable for their failures
in Iraq and in the war on terrorism." Their reasoning was that Rice
had acted irresponsibly in equating Hussein's regime with Islamist
terrorism and some could not accept her
previous record. Senator Robert Byrd
voted against Rice’s appointment, indicating that she "has asserted
that the President holds far more of the war power than the
Constitution grants him."
As Secretary of
, Rice has championed the expansion of democratic
governments. Rice stated that the September 11 attacks
in 2001 were
rooted in "oppression and despair" and so, the US must advance
democratic reform and support basic rights throughout the greater
Middle East. Rice has also reformed and restructured the
department, as well as US diplomacy as a whole. "Transformational Diplomacy
the goal that Rice describes as "work[ing] with our many partners
around the world... [and] build[ing] and sustain[ing] democratic,
well-governed states that will respond to the needs of their people
and conduct themselves responsibly in the international
As Secretary of State, Rice traveled widely and initiated many
diplomatic efforts on behalf of the Bush administration. Her
diplomacy relied on strong presidential support and is considered
to be the continuation of style defined by former Republican
secretaries of state Henry Kissinger and James Baker.
Speculation on 2008 presidential campaign, views on
There had been previous speculation that Rice would run for the
Republican nomination in the 2008 primaries, which she ruled out on
Meet the Press
. On February
22, 2008, Rice played down any suggestion that she may be on the
Republican vice presidential ticket, saying, "I have always said
that the one thing that I have not seen myself doing is running for
elected office in the United States." During an interview with the
editorial board of the Washington
on March 27, 2008, Rice said she was "not
interested" in running for vice president. However, in a Gallup poll
from March 24 to 27, 2008, Rice was
mentioned by eight percent of Republican respondents to be their
first choice to be Senator John McCain's
Republican Vice-Presidential running mate, slightly behind Mike Huckabee
. There was speculation that she was not chosen as a
Vice-Presidential candidate because of rumors that she was a
, which could have soured
evangelicals to the ticket.
Republican strategist Dan Senor
ABC's This Week
on April 6, 2008, that "Condi Rice has been actively, actually in
recent weeks, campaigning for" the vice presidential nomination. He
based this assessment on her attendance of Grover Norquist
's Americans for Tax Reform
conservative leader's meeting on March 26, 2008. In response to
Senor's comments, Rice's spokesperson denied that Rice is seeking
the vice presidential nomination, saying, "If she is actively
seeking the vice presidency, then she's the last one to know about
In August 2008, the speculation about a potential McCain-Rice
ticket finally ended when Governor Sarah
was selected as McCain's running-mate.
December 2008, Rice praised President-elect Barack Obama's selection of New York Senator
Hillary Clinton to succeed her as
Secretary of State, saying "she's terrific".
Rice, who has
spoken to Clinton since her selection, said Clinton "is someone of
intelligence and she'll do a great job".
Rice's policy as Secretary of State
as a matter of
being preventative, and not merely punitive. In an interview that
took place on December 18, 2005, Rice stated: "We have to remember
that in this war on terrorism, we're not talking about criminal
activity where you can allow somebody to commit the crime and then
you go back and you arrest them and you question them. If they
succeed in committing their crime, then hundreds or indeed
thousands of people die. That's why you have to prevent, and
intelligence is the long pole in the tent in preventing
Rice has also been a frequent critic of the intelligence
community's inability to cooperate and share information, which she
believes is an integral part of preventing terrorism. In 2000, one
year after Osama bin Laden told Time “[h]ostility toward America is
a religious duty,” and a year before the September 11 terrorist
, Rice warned onWJR Detroit: "You really have to get the intelligence agencies
better organized to deal with the terrorist threat to the United States itself. One of the problems that we have is a kind
of split responsibility, of course, between the CIA and foreign intelligence and the FBI and domestic
She then added: "There needs to be better
cooperation because we don't want to wake up one day and find out
that Osama bin Laden
successful on our own territory."
Rice also has promoted the idea that counterterrorism involves not
only confronting the governments and organizations that promote and
condone terrorism, but also the ideologies that fuel terrorism. In
a speech given on July 29, 2005, Rice asserted that "[s]ecuring
America from terrorist attack is more than a matter of law
enforcement. We must also confront the ideology of hatred in
foreign societies by supporting the universal hope of liberty and
the inherent appeal of democracy."
In January 2005, during Bush's second
, Rice first used the term "outposts of tyranny
" to refer to
countries felt to threaten world peace and human rights.
has been called a descendant of Bush's phrase, "Axis of Evil," used to describe Iraq, Iran and North Korea. She identified six such "outposts" in which
she said the United States has a duty to foster freedom: Cuba, Zimbabwe, Burma and Belarus, as well as Iran and North Korea.
Rice said "If you go back to 2000 when I helped the president in
the campaign. I said that I was, in effect, kind of libertarian on
this issue. And meaning by that, that I have been concerned about a
government role in this issue. I am a strong proponent of parental
choice - of parental notification. I am a strong proponent of a ban
on late-term abortion. These are all things that I think unite
people and I think that that's where we should be. I've called
myself at times mildly pro-choice." She would not want the federal
government "forcing its views on one side or the other."
Rice said she believes President Bush "has been in exactly the
right place" on abortion, "which is we have to respect the culture
of life and we have to try and bring people to have respect for it
and make this as rare a circumstance as possible" However, she
added that she has been "concerned about a government role" but has
"tended to agree with those who do not favor federal funding for
abortion, because I believe that those who hold a strong moral view
on the other side should not be forced to fund" the
Rice experienced firsthand the injustices of Birmingham's
discriminatory laws and attitudes. She was instructed to walk
proudly in public and to use the facilities at home rather than
subject herself to the indignity of "colored" facilities in town.
As Rice recalls of her parents and their peers, "they refused to
allow the limits and injustices of their time to limit our
However, Rice recalls various times in which she suffered
discrimination on account of her race, which included being
relegated to a storage room at a department store instead of a
regular dressing room, being barred from going to the circus or the
local amusement park, being denied hotel rooms, and even being
given bad food at restaurants. Also, while Rice was mostly kept by
her parents from areas where she might face discrimination, she was
very aware of the civil rights struggle and the problems of
Birmingham. A neighbor,
Juliemma Smith, described how "[Condi] used to call me and say
things like, 'Did you see what Bull
did today?' She was just a little girl and she did that
all the time. I would have to read the newspaper thoroughly because
I wouldn’t know what she was going to talk about." Rice herself
said of the segregation era: "Those terrible events burned into my
consciousness. I missed many days at my segregated school because
of the frequent bomb threats."
During the violent days of the Civil Rights
, Reverend Rice armed himself and kept guard over the
house while Condoleezza practiced the piano inside. According to
J.L. Chestnut, Reverend Rice called local civil rights leader
followers "uneducated, misguided Negroes." Also, Reverend Rice
instilled in his daughter and students that black people would have
to prove themselves worthy of advancement, and would simply have to
be "twice as good" to overcome injustices built into the system.
Rice said “My parents were very strategic, I was going to be so
well prepared, and I was going to do all of these things that were
revered in white society so well, that I would be armored somehow
from racism. I would be able to confront white society on its own
terms.”While the Rices supported the goals of the civil rights
movement, they did not agree with the idea of putting their child
in harm's way.
eight when her schoolmate Denise McNair, aged 11, was killed in the
bombing of the primarily black Sixteenth
Street Baptist Church by white
supremacists on September 15, 1963.
Rice has commented
upon that moment in her life: Rice states that growing up during
determination against adversity, and the need to be "twice as good"
as non-minorities. Segregation also hardened her stance on the
to bear arms
; Rice has said in interviews that if gun registration
had been mandatory, her
father's weapons would have been confiscated, leaving them
defenseless against Ku Klux Klan
Public perception and criticisms
Rice has been criticized for her involvement in the George W. Bush administration
the United States and abroad. Protesters have sought to exclude her from
appearing at schools such as Princeton University and Boston College, which prompted the resignation of an adjunct
professor at Boston.
There has also
been an effort to protest her public speeches abroad.
Time and Forbes magazines
Rice has appeared on the Time 100
, Time magazine
's list of the world's
100 most influential people, four times. Rice is one of only nine
people in the world whose influence has been considered enduring
enough to have made the list—first compiled in 1999 as a
retrospective of the twentieth century and made an annual feature
in 2004—so frequently. However, the list contains people who have
the influence to change for better or for worse, and Time
has also accused her of squandering her influence, stating in
February 1, 2007, that her "accomplishments as Secretary of State
have been modest, and even those have begun to fade" and that she
"has been slow to recognize the extent to which the U.S.'s prestige
has declined." In its March 19, 2007 issue it followed up stating
that Rice was "executing an unmistakable course correction in U.S.
In 2004 and 2005, she was ranked as the most powerful woman in the
world by Forbes
magazine and number
two in 2006 (following the Chancellor of
, Angela Merkel
Criticisms from Senator Barbara Boxer
California Democratic Senator Barbara
Boxer has also criticized Rice in relation to the war in Iraq: "I personally believe — this is my
personal view — that your loyalty to the mission you were given, to
sell the war, overwhelmed your respect for the truth."
On January 11, 2007, Boxer, in a debate over the war in Iraq
, said, "Now, the issue is who pays
the price, who pays the price? I’m not going to pay a personal
price. My kids are too old, and my grandchild is too young. You’re
not going to pay a particular price, as I understand it, within
immediate family. So who pays the price? The American military and
their families, and I just want to bring us back to that
The New York Post
White House Press
Secretary Tony Snow
considered this an
attack on Rice's status as a single, childless female and referred
to Boxer's comments as "a great leap backward for feminism." Rice
later echoed Snow's remarks, saying "I thought it was okay to not
have children, and I thought you could still make good decisions on
behalf of the country if you were single and didn’t have children."
Boxer responded to the controversy by saying "They’re getting this
off on a non-existent thing that I didn’t say. I’m saying, she’s
like me, we do not have families who are in the military."
Criticisms from John R. Bolton
According to the Washington
in late July 2008, former Undersecretary of State and
U.N. Ambassador John R. Bolton
was referring to Rice and her allies
in the Bush Administration who he believes have abandoned earlier
hard-line principles when he said: "Once the collapse begins,
adversaries have a real opportunity to gain advantage. In terms of
the Bush presidency, this many reversals this close to the end
destroys credibility... It appears there is no depth to which this
administration will not sink in its last days."
Rice has also been criticized by other conservatives. Stephen Hayes
of the Weekly Standard accused her of jettisoning the Bush
Doctrine. Christian Whiton
served as an envoy under Rice, asserted she "devised diplomatic
theories that sounded smart in the salons of academe but did not
work in the real world." Other conservatives criticized her for her
approach to Russia policy and other issues. Many criticize Rice in
particular for her opposition to the change of strategy in Iraq and
surge in U.S. forces that began in 2007.
Views within the black community
Rice's ratings saw decreases following a heated battle for her
confirmation as Secretary of State and following Hurricane Katrina
in August 2005. Rice's
rise within the George
initially drew a largely positive response from
many in the black community. In a 2002 survey, then National
Security Advisor Rice was viewed favorably by 41% of black
respondents, but another 40% did not know Rice well enough to rate
her and her profile remained comparatively obscure. As her role
increased, some black commentators began to express doubts
concerning Rice's stances and statements on various issues. In
2005, Washington Post
asked, "How did [Rice] come to a worldview so
radically different from that of most black Americans?"
Other writers have also noted what they perceive to be a distance
between Rice and the black community. The Black Commentator
described sentiments given in a speech by Rice at a black gathering
as "more than strange — they were evidence of profound personal
disorientation. A black woman who doesn’t know how to talk to black
people is of limited political use to an administration that has
few black allies." When Rice invoked the civil rights movement
to clarify her
position on the invasion of
, Margaret Kimberley, another writer for The Black
, felt that her use of the rhetoric was
"offensive." Stan Correy, an interviewer from the
Corporation, characterized many blacks involved with civil
rights and politics as viewing this rhetoric as "cynical."
also described by Bill Fletcher, Jr., the former leader of the
TransAfrica Forum, a foreign policy lobbying organization in Washington,
D.C., as "very cold and distant and only black by
In August 2005, American musician, actor, and
social activist Harry Belafonte
, who serves on the Board of
TransAfrica, referred to blacks in the Bush administration as
"black tyrants." Belafonte's comments received mixed
Rice has defended herself from such criticisms on several
occasions. During a September 14, 2005 interview, she said, "Why
would I worry about something like that? ... The fact of the matter
is I've been black all my life. Nobody needs to tell me how to be
Notable black commentators have defended Rice from across the
aisle, including Mike Espy
, Andrew Young
, C. Delores
(chair of the National Congress of Black Women),
, Colbert King
(chair and president emerita of the National Council of Negro
) and Kweisi Mfume
Congressman and former CEO of the NAACP
Family and personal life
Condoleezza Rice is an only child. Her mother, Angelena Rice, died
of breast cancer in August 1985, aged 61. In July 1989,
Condoleezza's father, John Wesley Rice, married Clara Bailey, to
whom he remained married until his death, in December 2000, aged
77. He was a football and basketball coach throughout his
Rice has never married, and has no children. She has been engaged
once, to Rick Upchurch
, in the
Rice claims to be a "sports fanatic", and that she would love to
own or manage a team. She was the honorary game captain for
Stanford's 2009 football game against Notre Dame.
- Condoleezza Rice on returning to campus.
Stanford Report, January 28, 2009.
- Condoleezza Rice plays piano for the Queen,
Telegraph, 1 December 2008
- Rice performs recital for the Queen,
BBC News, 2 December
- A rough draft is also available.
- "Torture can never, ever be accepted" by
Hammarberg, Commissioner for Human Rights,
- UK Commons report casts doubt on US denial of
torture techniques by Andrew Gilmore, JURIST, July 20, 2008
- UK 'must check' US torture denial,
BBC News, 19 July
- Torture and America's Crisis of Faith - The
Senate's retreat from its initial demand that now-Attorney General
Michael Mukasey denounce waterboarding is detrimental to the
country's moral fabric. For the first time, torture bears an
imprimatur of democratic approval by Jonathan Hafetz,
The American Prospect, November 28 2007
- White House nears completion of new torture
guidelines; Critics say administration's endorsement of 'enhanced
interrogation' is 'immoral,' draw comparisons to Nazi war
crimes By Arthur Bright, The Christian Science Monitor,
May 31 2007
U.S. Has a History of Using Torture. By Alfred W. McCoy.
History News Network
- Kessler, Glenn, " Rice Defends Use Of Enhanced Techniques",
Washington Post, May 1, 2009, p.
- Question: "And would you consider vice president?" Rice: "Not
- " Gallup Polls on GOP VP Preferences",
- U.S. State Department Interview on Fox News Sunday With Chris Wallace.
December 18, 2005.
- Rice Quotes Contradict Clarke Account. NewsMax. March
- U.S. State Department Remarks With Senator Richard Lugar on the U.S. Department
of State and the Challenges of the 21st century. July 29,
- 2008 run, abortion engage her politically
Washington Post, March 2005
- "Birmingham native Condoleezza Rice confirmation vote delayed
as next U.S. Secretary of State" Birmingham Times January
- Chestnut 2005. Chestnut, J. L., Jr. "Condi
Rice's Disdain for the Civil Rights Movement." Black
Commentator. Retrieved August 2, 2006.
- Chestnut, J.L. Jr.. Condi Rice's disdain for Civil Rights movement
Catholic New Times, December 18, 2005. Retrieved April 12,
- Profile: Condoleezza Rice. BBC News. September
25, 2001. Retrieved August 2, 2006.
- Russakoff, Dale Lessons of Might and Right: How Segregation and an
Indomitable Family Shaped National Security Adviser Condoleezza
Rice Washington Post Magazine Published September 9, 2001.
Retrieved April 2, 2007.
- Derrick Z. Jackson. A lesson from Condoleezza Rice. November 20,
2002. Retrieved February 21, 2006.
- Michael Juel-Larsen. Students, community members protest Rice's
visit. Daily Princetonian, September 30, 2005.
- Steve Almond. Condoleezza Rice at Boston College? I quit.
Globe, May 12, 2006.
- Rice visit meets with protests BBC News, March 31, 2006. February
- "Rice's Toughest Mission", Time, February
- "Cheney In Twilight", Time, March 19,
- MacDonald, Elizabeth and Chana R. Schoenberger. "The World's Most Powerful Women",
Forbes, September 1, 2006.
- Why the Crass Remarks About Rice?.
Washington Post, January 22, 2005.
- "White House Spokesman Blasts Sen. Boxer's Exchange
With Secretary Rice", Fox News, January 12, 2006.
- "Exchange Turns Into Political Flashpoint",
The New York Times, January 12,
- Jonathon Tilove. For Black America, The Thrill of Powell and Rice Is
Gone. Newhouse News Service, March 11, 2004.
- Eugene Robinson. What Rice Can't See. The Washington
Post, October 25, 2005.
- Condoleezza's Crimes. The Black
Commentator, April 1, 2004.
- Stan Correy. Condoleezza, Condoleezza. ABC Radio National, April 3,
- Marc Merano. Harry Belafonte Calls Black Republicans
'Tyrants'. Cybercast News Service, August 8, 2005
- Interview with Bill O'Reilly of the O'Reilly Factor
on Fox News. September 14, 2005.
- Mrs President. October 25, 2005.
- Susan Jones. Black Democrats Don't Like Senate's Treatment of
Rice. CNS News, January 26, 2005.
- Associated Press. NAACP: Calling Rice ‘Aunt Jemima’ is wrong.
November 22, 2004.
- John Wesley Rice Jr., 77, Father of Bush
Adviser New York Times. Published December 29, 2000. Retrieved
January 20, 2009.
- "Give and Take with Condoleezza Rice", The
Viking, May 12, 2009
- "Chuck Versus the Best Friend"
- author unknown. " Smart, savvy, strong-willed Rice charts her own
course". CNN. (2001)
- Cornwell, Rupert From the axis of evil to the outposts of
tyranny. The Independent. (January 20, 2005)
- Marinucci, Carla. " Critics knock naming oil tanker Condoleezza".
San Francisco Chronicle. (April 2001)
- Marinucci, Carla. " Security adviser Rice weighs run for governor".
San Francisco Chronicle. (February 27, 2003)
- Nordlinger, Jay. " Star-in-waiting: meet George W.'s foreign-policy
czarina". National Review. (August 30, 1999)
- Plotz, David. " Condoleezza Rice: George W. Bush's celebrity
adviser". Slate. (May 12, 2000)
- Richter, Paul " Rice Reshaping Foreign Policy" Los Angeles
Times. (March 15, 2005)
- Richter, Paul. " Under Rice, Powell's Policies Are Reborn".
Los Angeles Times. (October 11, 2005)
- Sullivan, Andrew. Bush-Rice 2004?. London Sunday Times.
(March 24, 2002)
- Against Me!, "From her lips to God's ears (The Energizer)" from
the 'searching for a former clarity' album
- Rice, Condoleezza with Zelikow,
Philip D. Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study
in Statecraft. Harvard University Press. hardcover (1995), 520 pages,
ISBN 0-674-35324-2; trade paperback, 1997, 520 pages, ISBN
- Rice, Condoleezza & Dallin,
Alexander (eds.) (1986). The Gorbachev Era. Stanford Alumni
Association, trade paperback (1986), ISBN 0-916318-18-4;
Garland Publishing, Incorporated, hardcover (1992), 376 pages, ISBN
- Rice, Condoleezza (1984). The Soviet Union and the
Czechoslovak Army: Uncertain Allegiance. Princeton University
Press. ISBN 0-691-06921-2
- Rice, Condoleezza, "Campaign 2000: Promoting the national
interest" in Foreign
Affairs, 2000. 
- Rice, Condoleezza, with Kiron K. Skinner, Serhiy Kudelia, and
Bruce Bueno de Mesquita.
The Strategy of Campaigning: Lessons from
Ronald Reagan and Boris Yeltsin (2007), paperback, 356
pages, ISBN 978-0-472-03319-5. University of Michigan Press,
- John P. Burke; "Condoleezza Rice as NSC Advisor A Case Study of
the Honest Broker Role" Presidential Studies Quarterly v
35 #3 pp 554+.
- James Mann. Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War
Popular books and commentary
- Cunningham, Kevin (2005). Condoleezza Rice: U.S.
Secretary Of State (Journey to Freedom) Child's World ISBN
- Ditchfield, Christin (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National
Security Advisor (Great Life Stories) middle school audience
Watts ISBN 0-531-12307-3
- Felix, Antonia (2002). Condi: The Condoleezza Rice
Story. Newmarket Press. ISBN 1-55704-539-9
- Flanders, Laura. (2004). Bushwomen: Tales of a Cynical
Species (Verso) ISBN 978-1859845875
- Kessler, Glenn (2007). The Confidante: Condoleezza Rice and
the Creation of the Bush Legacy.  ISBN 978-0312363802
- Kettmann, Steve. Bush's Secret Weapon Salon.com
- Morris, Dick with Eileen McGann.
(2005) Condi vs. Hillary: The Next Great Presidential Race
Regan Books ISBN 0-06-083913-9
- Ryan, Bernard, Jr. (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National
Security Advisor and Musician (Ferguson Career Biographies)
File ISBN 0-8160-5480-0
- Wade, Linda R. (2002). Condoleezza Rice: A Real-Life Reader
Biography (Real-Life Reader Biography) Mitchell Lane
Publishers ISBN 1-58415-145-5, middle school audience
- Wade, Mary Dodson (2003). Condoleezza Rice: Being The
Best Millbrook Press Lerner Books ISBN 0-7613-1927-1, middle school