The Congo Free State
was a corporate state
privately controlled by Leopold
II, King of the Belgians
through a dummy non-governmental
organization, the Association Internationale
. Leopold was the sole shareholder and chairman,
exploiting the state for rubber
and other minerals in the upper Lualaba River
basin. The state included the
entire area of the present Democratic
Republic of the Congo and existed from 1885 to 1908, when it was annexed
by the government of Belgium.
Congo Free State eventually earned infamy due to the brutal
mistreatment of the local peoples and plunder of natural
Under Leopold II's administration, the Congo Free State became the
site of one of the worst international scandals of the early
twentieth century. The report of
the British Consul Roger Casement led
to the arrest and punishment of white officials who had been
responsible for killings during a rubber-collecting expedition in
1903 (including one Belgian national for
causing the shooting of at least 122 Congolese natives).
the absence of a census (the first was made in 1924), it is
difficult to quantify the population loss of the period. According
to Roger Casement's report, depopulation was caused mainly by four
causes: "indiscriminate war", starvation, reduction of births and
The European and U.S. press agencies exposed the conditions in the
Congo Free State to the public in 1900. By 1908, public
pressure and diplomatic maneuvers led to the end of Leopold II's
rule and to the annexation of the Congo as a colony of Belgium, known as
the Belgian Congo.
Establishment of the Congo Free State
The Congo Free State was established as a neutral independent
sovereignty without reference to its inhabitants. Until the middle
of the 19th century, the Congo was on the edge of unexplored
Africa, as Europeans seldom ventured into its interior. The
and attendant malaria
, and other diseases
such as Sleeping sickness
made it a difficult environment for European exploration and
were at first
reluctant to colonize the area in the absence of obvious economic
benefits. In 1876 Leopold II, King
of the Belgians
organized the International African
with the cooperation of the leading African
explorers and the support of several European
governments for the promotion of African exploration and
colonization. In 1877, Henry Morton
called attention to the Congo region and was sent there
by the association, the expense being defrayed by Leopold.
corrupt treaties with native chiefs, rights were acquired to a
great area along the Congo, and
military posts were
The treaties were extremely one-sided in favor
of Leopold. In some cases chiefs not only handed over their lands,
but also promised to help provide workers for forced labor.
Christian de Bonchamps, a French
explorer who served Leopold in Katanga, expressed
cynicism towards such treaties shared by many Europeans, saying,
"The treaties with these little African tyrants, which generally
consist of four long pages of which they do not understand a word,
and to which they sign a cross in order to have peace and to
receive gifts, are really only serious matters for the European
powers, in the event of disputes over the territories.
do not concern the black sovereign who signs them for a
After 1879, the work was under the auspices of the Comité d'Études du Haut
, which developed into the International Association
of the Congo
. This organization sought to combine the numerous
small territories acquired into one sovereign state and asked for
recognition from the European Powers. On April 22, 1884, the
government, having decided that the cessions by the native
chiefs were lawful, recognized the International Association of the
Congo as a sovereign independent state, under the title of the
Congo Free State, and this example was followed by Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, the
United Kingdom, Italy, the
Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, and
Sweden. The international conference on African
affairs, which met at Berlin, 1884–85,
determined the status of the Congo Free State.
King Leopold initially gained ownership of the Congo largely
through the cooperation on the part of the major powers of Europe.
Leopold's profits from the region and a general increase in
European interest in colonizing Africa led to greater competition
in the continent. Leopold's activities in the Congo had already
pushed the French into claiming an area (the modern Republic of
the Congo) on the northern shore of Stanley Pool.
While no one (bar Leopold) particularly
wanted such economically unpromising colonies, the other European
powers were not prepared to stand idly by and see land snapped up
by their rivals, particularly the French.
In a succession of negotiations, Leopold, professing humanitarian
objectives in his capacity as chairman of the Association Internationale
, played one European rival against the
Other powers and their claims
- Britain was uneasy at French expansion and
had a technical claim on the Congo via Lieutenant Cameron's 1873
expedition from Zanzibar to bring home Livingstone's body, but was reluctant to
take on yet another expensive, unproductive colony.
- Portugal had a much older claim, dating back to Diogo Cão's discovery of the mouth of the
River in 1482 and, having ignored it for centuries, was
stimulated into remembering it. Portugal flirted with the
French at first, but the British offered to support Portugal's
claim to the entire Congo in return for a free trade agreement and
to spite their French rivals.
- Bismarck of
Germany had vast new
holdings in South-West
Africa, and had no plans for the Congo, but was happy to see
rivals Britain and France excluded from the colony.
King Leopold's campaign
began a publicity campaign in Britain, drawing attention to Portugal's slavery record to
distract critics and secretly telling British merchant houses that
if he was given formal control of the Congo he would give them the
same most favored nation (MFN)
status Portugal offered.
At the same time, Leopold promised
Bismarck he would not give any one nation special status, and that
German traders would be as welcome as any other.
Leopold then offered France the support of the Association
for French ownership of the entire northern bank, and sweetened the
deal by proposing that, if his personal wealth proved insufficient
to hold the entire Congo, as seemed utterly inevitable, that it
should revert to France.
He also enlisted the aid of the United States, sending President
Chester A. Arthur
carefully edited copies of the
cloth-and-trinket treaties British explorer Henry Morton Stanley
had extracted from
various local chiefs, and proposing that, as an entirely
disinterested humanitarian body, the Association
administer the Congo for the good of all, handing over power to the
locals as soon as they were ready for that grave
The Berlin Conference
In November 1884, Otto von
convened a 14-nation conference (the Berlin Conference
) to find a peaceful
resolution to the Congo crisis. After three months of negotiation
on February 5 1885
Leopold emerged triumphant. France was given 666,000 km² (257,000
square miles) on the north bank (modern Congo-Brazzaville and the Central African Republic), Portugal 909,000 km² (351,000 square miles)
to the south (modern Angola), and
Leopold's wholly owned, single-shareholder "philanthropic"
organisation received the balance: 2,344,000 km² (905,000
square miles), to be constituted as the Congo Free State.
still remained though for these territories to be occupied under
the conference's Principle of
In a display of diplomatic virtuosity, Leopold had the conference
agree not to a transfer of the Congo to one of his many
philanthropic shell organizations, nor even to his care in his
capacity as King of the Belgians, but simply to himself. He became
sole ruler of a population that Stanley had estimated at 30 million
people, without constitution, without international supervision,
without ever having been to the Congo, and without more than a tiny
handful of his new subjects having heard of him.
Leopold no longer needed the façade of the Association
and replaced it with an appointed cabinet of Belgians who would do
his bidding. To the temporary new capital of Boma, he sent a Governor-General and a chief of
The vast Congo basin
split up into 14 administrative districts, each district into
zones, each zone into sectors, and each sector into posts. From the
District Commissioners down to post level, every appointed head was
Three main problems presented themselves over the next few years.
- Beyond Stanley's eight trading stations, the Free State was
unmapped jungle, and offered no commercial return.
- Cecil Rhodes, then Prime Minister of the British Cape Colony (part of modern South Africa) was expanding his British South Africa Company's
charter lands from the south and threatening to occupy Katanga (southern
Congo) by exploiting the 'Principle of Effectivity' loophole in the
Berlin Treaty, supported by
Harry Johnston, British Commissioner for Central
Africa who was London's
representative in the region.
slaving gangs of Zanzibar trader Tippu Tip had
established a strong presence in the north and east of the country
and the area to the east of it (modern Uganda), and had effectively established an
Turning a profit
Leopold could not meet the costs of running the Congo Free State so
set in train a regime to maximise profitability. The first change
was the introduction of the concept of terres vacantes
"vacant" land, which was anything that no European was living on.
This was deemed to belong to the state, and servants of the state
(i.e., any white men in Leopold's employ) were encouraged to
Next, the state was divided into two economic zones: the Free Trade
Zone was open to entrepreneurs of any European nation, who were
allowed to buy 10- and 15-year monopoly leases on anything of
from a particular district, or
concession, for example. The other
zone — almost two-thirds of the Congo — became the Domaine
: the exclusive private property of the State, in turn
Further, in 1893, he excised the most readily accessible
259,000 km² (100,000 square miles) portion of the Free Trade
Zone and declared it to be the Domaine de la Couronne
Here the same rules applied as in the Domaine Privé
that all revenue went directly to Leopold.
Scramble for Katanga
Early in his rule, the second problem — the British South Africa
Company's expansionism into the southern Congo Basin — was
addressed. The distant Yeke
Kingdom in Katanga on the upper
Lualaba River had signed no treaties,
and was known to be rich in copper and
thought to have gold.
Its powerful mwami
, had already rejected a treaty brought
by Alfred Sharpe
on behalf of Rhodes.
In 1891 a Free State expedition extracted a letter from Msiri
agreeing to their agents coming to Katanga, and later that year
Leopold sent the well-armed Stairs
to take possession of Katanga one way or another.
Msiri tried to play the Free State off against Rhodes, and when
negotiations bogged down, Stairs
flew the Free State flag anyway,
and gave Msiri an ultimatum. Instead, Msiri decamped to another
stockade, Stairs sent a force to arrest him, but he stood his
ground, whereupon Captain Omer Bodson
shot Msiri dead and was fatally wounded in the resulting fight. The
expedition cut off Msiri's head and put it on a pole, after which
the replacement chief installed by Stairs signed the treaty.
War with African slavers
Main article :
Campagnes de l'État indépendant du Congo contre les
Arabo-Swahilis (in French)
In the short term, the third problem, that of the African slavers,
like Zanzibari/Swahili strongman Tippu Tip
was solved. Leopold negotiated an alliance and later appointed Tip
as Governor of Stanley Falls district. In the longer term this was
unsatisfactory. At home Leopold found it embarrassing to be allied
with Tip. Even worse, Tip and Leopold were direct commercial
rivals: every slave that Tippu Tip extracted from his realm, every
pound of ivory, was a loss to Leopold. War was inevitable.
Both sides fought by proxy, arming and leading the tribes of the
upper Congo forests in a conflict. Tip's muskets
were no match for Leopold's artillery and
. By early 1894 the war was
Clearing tropical forests ate away at
However, ample plots of cleared land were already
Above, a Congolese farming village (Baringa, Equateur) is
emptied and levelled to make way for a rubber plantation.
Meanwhile the quest for income was unrelenting. District officials'
salaries were reduced to a bare minimum, and made up with a
commission payment based on the profit that their area returned to
Leopold. After widespread criticism, this "primes system" was
substituted for the allocation de retraite
in which a
large part of the payment was granted, at the end of the service,
only to those territorial agents and magistrates whose conduct was
judged "satisfactory" by their superiors. This meant in practice
that nothing changed. Native communities in the Domaine
were not merely forbidden by law to sell items to anyone
but the State: they were required to provide State officials with
set quotas of rubber and ivory at a fixed, government-mandated
price and to provide food to the local post.
rubber came from wild vines in the jungle, unlike the rubber from
Brazil, which was
tapped from trees.
To extract the rubber, instead of tapping
the vines, the natives would slash them and lather their bodies
with the rubber latex. When the latex hardened, it would be scraped
off the skin in a painful manner, as it took off the natives' hair
with it. This killing of the vines made it even harder to locate
sources of rubber as time went on, but the government was
relentless in raising the quotas.
The Force Publique
called in to enforce the rubber quotas. The officers were white
agents of the State. Of the black soldiers, many were from tribes
of the upper Congo while others had been kidnapped during the raids
on villages in their childhood and brought to Roman Catholic
missions, where they received a military training in conditions
close to slavery. Armed with modern weapons and the chicotte
— a bull whip made of hippopotamus
hide — the Force Publique
routinely took and tortured hostages (mostly women), flogged, and
raped the natives. They also burned recalcitrant villages, and
above all, took human hands as trophies on the orders of white
officers to show that bullets hadn't been wasted. (As officers were
concerned that their subordinates might waste their ammunition on
hunting animals for sport, they required soldiers to submit one
hand for every bullet spent.)
Native labourers who failed to meet
rubber collection quotas were often punished by having their hands
Villages who failed to meet the rubber collection quotas were
required to pay the remaining amount in cut hands, where each hand
would prove a kill. Sometimes the hands were collected by the
soldiers of the Force Publique, sometimes by the villages
themselves. There were even small wars where villages attacked
neighboring villages to gather hands, since their rubber quotas
were too unrealistic to fill.
One junior white officer described a raid to punish a village that
had protested. The white officer in command "ordered us to cut off
the heads of the men and hang them on the village palisades ... and
to hang the women and the children on the palisade in the form of a
cross." After seeing a native killed for the first time, a Danish
missionary wrote: "The soldier said 'Don't take this to heart so
much. They kill us if we don't bring the rubber. The Commissioner
has promised us if we have plenty of hands he will shorten our
service.'" In Forbath's words:
The baskets of severed hands, set down at the feet of
the European post commanders, became the symbol of the Congo Free
The collection of hands became an end in
Force Publique soldiers brought them to the
stations in place of rubber; they even went out to harvest them
instead of rubber...
They became a sort of currency.
They came to be used to make up for shortfalls in
rubber quotas, to replace... the people who were demanded for the
forced labour gangs; and the Force Publique soldiers were
paid their bonuses on the basis of how many hands they
In theory, each right hand proved a killing. In practice, soldiers
sometimes "cheated" by simply cutting off the hand and leaving the
victim to live or die. More than a few survivors later said that
they had lived through a massacre by acting dead, not moving even
when their hands were severed, and waiting till the soldiers left
before seeking help. In some instances a soldier could shorten his
service term by bringing more hands than the other soldiers, which
led to widespread mutilations and dismemberment.
Estimates of the deaths during the period of Leopold's control vary
considerably. The reduction of the population of the Congo was
noted by all who have compared the country at the beginning of the
colonial rule and the beginning of the 20th century. Estimates of
contemporary observers, as well as modern scholars (most
authoritatively Jan Vansina
emeritus of history and anthropology at the University of
Wisconsin), suggest that the population halved during this
According to British diplomat Roger
, this depopulation had four main causes:
"indiscriminate war", starvation, reduction of births and diseases.
the country and was used by the regime to account for demographic
decrease. Opponents of King Leopold's rule stated, however, that
the administration itself was to be considered responsible for the
spreading of this dreadful epidemic. One of the greatest
specialists on sleeping sickness, P.G. Janssens, Professor
at the Ghent
It seems reasonable to admit the existence on the
territories of the Congo Free State, of French Congo and Angola of
a certain number of permanent sources that have been put again in
activity by the brutal changement of ancestral conditions and ways
of life that has accompanied theoccupation of the
In the absence of a census (the first was taken in 1924) to provide
an opening figure, it is even more difficult to quantify the
population loss of the period. Forbath said it was at least 5
million; Adam Hochschild
Isidore Ndaywel è
, 10 million; the Encyclopædia Britannica
and Fredric Wertham
's 1966 book
"A Sign For Cain: An Exploration of Human Violence
estimate that the population of the Congo dropped from 30 million
to 8 and 8.5 million, respectively, in that period. Similarly, the
New York Times
reports that "Under the reign of terror
instituted by King Leopold II of Belgium (who ran the Congo Free
State as his personal fief from 1885 to 1908), the population of
the Congo was reduced by half -- as many as 8 million
In 1900 Africa
had between 90 million
(African Studies Review 49.1 (2006) 179-181) and 133 million people
(World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision).
End of the Congo Free State
Leopold ran up high debts with his Congo investments before
salvation came with the beginning of the worldwide rubber
boom in the 1890s. Prices went up at a fevered
pitch throughout the decade as industries discovered new uses for
rubber in tires, hoses, tubing, insulation for telegraph
cables and wiring, and so on. By the late 1890s, wild rubber had
far surpassed ivory as the main source of revenue from the Congo
Free State. The peak year was 1903, with rubber fetching the
highest price and concessionary companies raking in the highest
However, the boom sparked efforts to find lower-cost producers.
Congolese concessionary companies started facing competition from
rubber cultivation in South-east
and Latin America
were begun in other tropical
areas — mostly under the ownership of the rival British firms —
world rubber prices started to dip. Competition heightened the
drive to exploit forced labour in the Congo in order to lower
production costs. Meanwhile, the cost of enforcement was eating
away at profit margins, along with the toll taken by the
increasingly unsustainable harvesting methods. As competition from
other areas of rubber cultivation mounted, Leopold's private rule
was left increasingly vulnerable to international scrutiny,
especially from Britain.
were allowed only on
sufferance and Leopold was able to keep quiet the Belgian Catholic
. Nevertheless, rumours circulated
so Leopold ran an enormous publicity campaign to discredit them,
even creating a bogus Commission for the Protection of the Natives
to root out the "few isolated instances" of abuse. Publishers were
bribed, critics accused of running secret campaigns to further
other nations' colonial ambitions, and eyewitness reports from
missionaries such as William
dismissed as attempts by Protestants
to smear honest Roman Catholic
priests. And for a decade or more, Leopold was successful. The
secret was out, but few believed it.
Eventually the most telling blows came from E. D. Morel, a clerk in a major Liverpool shipping office and a part-time journalist, began
to wonder why the ships that brought vast loads of rubber from the
Congo returned full of guns and ammunition for the Force
He left his job and became a full-time
investigative journalist and then a publisher with help from
merchants who wanted to break Leopold's monopoly or, in the case of
chocolate millionaire William
, philanthropists. Joseph
's novel Heart of
was released in 1902. Based on his brief
experience as a steamer captain on the Congo ten years before,
Conrad's novel encapsulated the public's growing concerns about
what was happening in the Congo. In 1903, Morel and those who agreed with
him in the House of Commons succeeded in passing a resolution which called on
the British government to conduct an inquiry into alleged
violations of the Berlin Agreement. Roger Casement
, then the British Consul at
Boma, delivered a long, detailed eyewitness report which was
published in 1904. The British Congo Reform Association
by Morel with Casement's support, demanded action. Other European
nations and the United States followed suit. The British Parliament
demanded a meeting of the 14 signatory powers to review the 1885
Berlin Agreement. The Belgian Parliament, pushed by Emile Vandervelde
and other critics of the
King's Congolese policy, forced Leopold to set up an independent
commission of inquiry, and despite the King's efforts, in 1905 it
confirmed Casement's report.
The mass-deaths in the Congo Free State became a cause
in the last years of the 19th century and a great
embarrassment not only to the King but to Belgium, which had
portrayed itself as progressive and attentive to human rights. The
Congo Reform Movement
included among its members Mark Twain
, Booker T. Washington
, and Bertrand Russell
, led a vigorous
international movement against the mistreatment of the indigenous
population of the Congo.
Leopold offered to reform his regime, but few took him seriously.
All nations were now agreed that the King's rule must be ended as
soon as possible, but no nation was willing to take on the
responsibility. No nation seriously considered returning control of
the land to the native population. Belgium was the obvious European
candidate to run the Congo, but the Belgians were still unwilling.
For two years, Belgium debated the question and held fresh
elections on the issue. Leopold opportunistically enlarged the
Domaine de la Couronne
so as to milk the last possible
ounce of personal profit while he could.
The Parliament of Belgium annexed the Congo Free State and took
over its administration on November 15
, four years after the Casement Report
and six years after the
first printing of Heart of Darkness
. However, the
international scrutiny was no major loss to Leopold or the
concessionary companies in the Belgian
. By then Southeast Asia and Latin America had become
lower-cost producers of rubber. Along with the effects of resource
depletion in the Congo, international commodity prices had fallen
to a level that rendered Congolese extraction unprofitable. The
state took over Leopold's private dominion and bailed out the
company, but the rubber boom was already over.
Order of the Crown
The still-existent Order of
, originally created in 1897 under the authority of
Leopold II, denoted supposed heroic deeds and service achieved
while serving in the Congo Free State. The Order was made an
institution of the Belgian state with its abolition.
Public recognition and legacy
Early 20th century exposure
- George Washington
Williams, an African American
politician and historian, the first ever to report the atrocities
in the Congo.
- William Henry Sheppard,
another African American, a Presbyterian missionary who furnished direct
testimony of the atrocities.
- E. D.
Morel, a British journalist and shipping
agent who understood, checking the commercial documents of the
Congo Free State, that while millions of dollars worth of rubber
and ivory were coming out of the Congo, all that was going back was
rifles and chains. From this evidence, he inferred that the Congo
was a slave state, and devoted the rest of his life to destroying
- Sir Roger Casement, British
diplomat and Irish patriot, who put the force of the British
government behind the international protest against the Belgians.
Casement's involvement had the ironic effect of drawing attention
away from British colonialism, Hochschild reports. The Congo Reform Association was formed
by Morel following Casement's instigation.
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
wrote, in 1909, a booklet/journal named The Crime of the Congo, which took
him eight days to write.
English language works alluding to Congo Free State
- Joseph Conrad's 1899-1902 novel, Heart of Darkness, which was met with
widespread disapproval by authorities and widespread controversy
amongst the public.
- Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 Apocalypse Now, a popular film about the
Vietnam War, draws heavily from Joseph Conrad's Heart of
Later English-Language works dedicated to Congo Free State
Lack of recognition and "genocide" misnomer
(EDM 2251) presented to the British Parliament on 24 May 2006 called for recognition of "the tragedy of King
Leopold's regime" as genocide; as of May
2006, it had gained 48 signatures.
characterize the deaths as the result of a deliberate policy of
genocide, but rather as the result of a brutal system of forced
Guardian reported in July 2001 that, after initial outrage
by Belgian historians following the publications of Hochschild's
book, the state-funded Museum of the Belgian Congo would finance an investigation into Hochschild's
The investigatory panel, likely to be headed by
Professor Jean-Luc Vellut
scheduled to report its findings in 2004. An exhibition by the
Museum of the Belgian Congo, called "The Memory of Congo" (February
4, 2005 - October 9, 2005), claimed to tell the truth of what
happened in Belgium's colony. Critics of the museum include
, who wrote an
article for the New York Review
commented on what he found to be distortions and
evasions in the exhibition and stated "The exhibit deals with this
question in a wall panel misleadingly headed 'Genocide in the
Congo?' This is a red herring, for no reputable historian of the
Congo has made charges of genocide; a forced labor system, although
it may be equally deadly, is different."
- New International Encyclopedia.
- René de Pont-Jest: L'Expédition du Katanga,
d'après les notes de voyage du marquis Christian de
Bonchamps published 1892 in: Edouard Charton (editor):
Le Tour du Monde magazine, website accessed 5 May 2007.
Section I: "D'ailleurs ces lettres de soumission de ces petits
tyrans africains, auxquels on lit quatre longues pages, dont, le
plus souvent, ils ne comprennent pas un mot, et qu'ils approuvent
d'une croix, afin d'avoir la, paix et des présents, ne sont
sérieuses que pour les puissances européennes, en cas de
contestations de territoires. Quant au souverain noir qui les
signe, il ne s'en inquiète pas un seul instant."
- Joseph Moloney: With Captain Stairs to Katanga.
Sampson Low, Marston & Co, London (1893), p11.
- Moloney (1893): Chapter X–XI.
- René de Pont-Jest: L'Expédition du Katanga,
d'après les notes de voyage du marquis Christian de
Bonchamps published 1892 in: Edouard Charton (editor):
Le Tour du Monde magazine, website accessed 5 May
- Cawthorne, Nigel. The World's Worst Atrocities, 1999.
Octopus Publishing Group. ISBN 0-7537-0090-5.
- Hochschild p.232-233
- Hochschild p.226-232
- Hochschild p.230-231
- R. J.
Rummel Exemplifying the Horror of European Colonization:Leopold's
- Andrew Osborn Belgium exhumes its colonial demons
- Hochschild, Adam, King Leopold's
Ghost, Pan Macmillan, London (1998). ISBN
- Adam Hochschild In the Heart of Darkness, New
York Review of Books, 26 October 2005
- Morel, E. D. (Edmund Dene), 1873-1924, E. D.
Morel's history of the Congo reform movement; [edited by]
Wm. Roger Louis and Jean Stengers, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1968
(includes Morel and the Congo Reform Association, 1904-1913, by W.
R. Louis and Morel and Belgium, by J. Stengers).
- Blanchard, Formation et constitution politique de l'etat
indépendant du Congo (Paris, 1899)
- Butcher, Tim, Blood River - A
Journey To Africa's Broken Heart, 2007. ISBN
- Report of the British Consul, Roger Casement, on the
Administration of the Congo Free State, reprinted in full in
The eyes of another race : Roger Casement’s Congo report and
1903 diary edited by Seamas O Siochain and Michael O’Sullivan.
- The reports of the Congo Reform Association, particularly the
"Memorial on the Present Phase of the Congo Question" (London,
- The Congo Report of Commission of Inquiry (New York,
- Czekanowski, in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, pages
- Forbath, Peter, The River Congo, 1977. Harper &
Row. ISBN 0-06-122490-1
- Grant, Kevin, A Civilised Savagery: Britain and the New
Slaveries in Africa, 1884-1926, Routledge (London, 2005). ISBN
- Hinde, The Fall of the Congo Arabs
- Hochschild, Adam, King Leopold's Ghost, Pan (1999).
- Johnston, George Grenfell and the Congo (two
volumes, London, 1908).
- Jozon, L'Etat indépendant du Congo (Paris, 1900)
- Kassai, La civilisation africaine, 1876–88 (Brussels,
- Overbergh (editor), Collection de monographies
ethnographiques (Brussels, 1907–11)
- Ó Síocháin, Séamas and Michael O’Sullivan, eds: The Eyes of
Another Race: Roger Casement's Congo Report and 1903 Diary.
University College Dublin Press, 2004. ISBN 1-900-62199-1.
- Ó Síocháin, Séamas: Roger Casement: Imperialist, Rebel,
Revolutionary. Dublin: Lilliput Press, 2008.
- Pakenham, Thomas, The scramble for Africa, Abacus.
(1991) ISBN 0-349-10449-2.
- Rodney, Walter, How Europe underdeveloped Africa,
Howard University Press. (1974) ISBN 0-88258-013-2
- Stanley, The Congo and
the Founding of the Congo Free State (London, 1885)
- Starr, Congo Natives: An
Ethnographic Album (Chicago, 1912).
- Torday and Joyce, Les Bushongo (Brussels, 1910)
- Verbeke, Le Congo (Molines, 1913)
- Wack, Story of the Congo Free State (New York,
- Wauters, Historie politique de Congo belge (Brussels,
- Ward, Voice from the Congo (New York, 1910)
- The Annales du Musée du Congo, especially "Notes
analytiques sur les collections ethnographiques du Musée du Congo"
- Bibliography of Congo Affairs from 1895 to 1900