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King Conrad III (Cunradus rex) in a 13th-century miniature.


Conrad III (1093 in Bambergmarker15 February 1152 in Bamberg) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. He was the son of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia, and Agnes, a daughter of the Salian Emperor Henry IV.

Life and reign

Conrad was appointed Duke of Franconia by his uncle, Henry V, in 1115. One year later he acted as regent for Germany, together with his elder brother, Frederick II of Swabia. At the death of Henry (1125), Conrad unsuccessfully supported Frederick for the kingship of Germany. Frederick was placed under a ban and Conrad was deprived of Franconia and the Kingdom of Burgundy, of which he was rector. With the support of the imperial cities, Swabia, and the Duchy of Austriamarker, Conrad was elected antiking at Nurembergmarker in December 1127.

Conrad quickly crossed the Alps to be crowned King of Italy by Anselm V, Archbishop of Milan. Over the next two years, he failed to achieve anything in Italy, however, and returned to Germany in 1130, after Nürnbergmarker and Speyermarker, two strong cities in his support, fell to Lothair in 1129. Conrad continued in his opposition, but he and Frederick were forced to acknowledged Lothair as emperor in 1135. After this they were pardoned and could take again possession of their lands.

After Lothair's death (December 1137), Conrad was elected king at Coblenzmarker on 7 March 1138, in the presence of the papal legate Theodwin. Conrad was crowned at Aachenmarker six days later (13 March) and was acknowledged in Bamberg by several princes of southern Germany. As Henry the Proud, son-in-law and heir of Lothair and the most powerful prince in Germany, who had been passed over in the election, refused to do the same, Conrad deprived him of all his territories, giving the Duchy of Saxony to Albert the Bear and that of Bavaria to Leopold III, Margrave of Austria. Henry, however, retained the loyalty of his subjects. The civil war that broke out is considered the first act of the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines, which later extended southwards to Italy. After Henry's death (October 1139), the war was continued by his son Henry the Lion, supported by the Saxons, and by his brother Welf VI. Conrad, after a long siege, defeated the latter at Weinsbergmarker in December 1140, and in May 1142 a peace agreement was reached in Frankfurtmarker.

In the same year, Conrad entered Bohemia to reinstate his brother-in-law Vladislav II as prince. The attempt to do the same with another brother-in-law, the Polish prince Ladislaus the Exile, failed. Bavaria, Saxony, and the other regions of Germany were in revolt.

In 1147, Conrad heard Bernard of Clairvaux preach the Second Crusade at Speyermarker, and he agreed to join Louis VII in a great expedition to the Holy Land. Before leaving, he had the nobles elect and crown his son Henry Berengar king. The succession secured in the event of his death, Conrad set out. His army of 20,000 men went overland, via Hungarymarker, causing disruptions in the Byzantine territories through which they passed. They arrived at Constantinoplemarker by September 1147, ahead of the French army.

Rather than taking the coastal road around Anatoliamarker through Christian-held territory, by which he sent most of his noncombatants, Conrad took his army across Anatolia. On 25 October 1147, they were defeated by the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Dorylaeum. Conrad and most of the knights escaped, but most of the foot soldiers were killed or captured. The remaining 2,000 men of the German army limped on to Nicaeamarker, where many of the survivors deserted and tried to return home. Conrad and his adherents had to be escorted to Lopadium by the French, where they joined the main French army of under Louis. Conrad fell seriously ill at Ephesusmarker and was sent to recuperate in Constantinople, where his host the Emperor Manuel I acted as his personal physician. After recovering, Conrad sailed to Acremarker, and from there reached Jerusalemmarker. He participated in the ill-fated Siege of Damascus and after that failure, grew disaffected with his allies. Another attempt to attack Ascalonmarker failed when Conrad's allies did not appear as promised, and Conrad returned to Germany.

In 1150, Conrad and Henry Berengar defeated the Welf VI and his son Welf VII at the Battle of Flochberg. Henry Berengar died later that year and the succession was thrown open. The Welfs and Hohenstaufen made peace in 1152 and the peaceful succession of one of Conrad's family was secured.

Conrad was never crowned emperor and continued to style himself "King of the Romans" until his death. On his deathbed, in the presence of only two witnesses, his nephew Frederick Barbarossa and the Bishop of Bamberg, he allegedly designated Frederick his successor, rather than his own surviving six-year-old son Frederick. Frederick Barbarossa, who had accompanied his uncle on the unfortunate crusade, forcefully pursued his advantage and was duly elected king in Cologne a few weeks later. The young son of the late king was given the Duchy of Swabia.

Conrad left no children by his first wife, Gertrude von Komburg. In 1136, he married Gertrude von Sulzbach, daughter of Berengar II of Sulzbach, and whose sister Bertha was married to Emperor Manuel. Gertrude was the mother of Conrad's children and the link which cemented his alliance with Byzantium.

Ancestry



See also



Sources

  • Baldwin, M. W. A History of the Crusades: the first hundred years, 1969.



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