Cork ( , — from
corcach meaning "swamp") is the second largest city in the
Ireland and the island of Ireland's third most
populous city. It is the principal city and administrative
centre of County
Cork and the largest city in the province of Munster.
Cork has a population of 119,143,
while the addition of the suburban areas contained the county
brings the total to 190,384. Metropolitan Cork
has a population of
approximately 274,000, while the Greater
area is about 380,000.
Cork has a reputation for rebelliousness dating back to the town's
support of the English Pretender Perkin
in 1491 following the Wars
of the Roses
. As a result, County Cork has earned the nickname
of "the Rebel County", while Corkonians often refer to the city as
the "real capital of Ireland", and themselves as the
The city is built on the River
which divides into two channels at the western end of the
city. The city centre is located on the island created by the
channels. At the eastern end of the city centre they
converge; and the Lee flows around Lough
Mahon to Cork
Harbour, the world's second largest natural harbour after
Harbour in Australia.
city is a major Irish seaport
; there are
along the banks of the Lee on the city's east side.
Cork was originally a monastic settlement founded by Saint Finbarr
in the sixth century. Cork
achieved an urban character at some point between 915 and 922 when
settlers founded a trading port. It has been proposed that, like
Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global
Scandinavian trade network.
The city was once fully walled, and some wall sections and gates
remain today. For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an
outpost of Old English culture
in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic
countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin.
Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman
lords extorted "Black Rent"
from the citizens in order to keep them from attacking the city.
The main overlords of south western Ireland were the Fitzgerald
Earl of Desmond
dynasty, with the
lordships of the MacCarthy and Barry families abutting directly
onto Cork city. The Cork municipal government was dominated by
about 12-15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas
trade with continental Europe - in particular the export of wool
and hides and the import of salt, iron and wine. Of these families,
only the Ronayne family were of Gaelic Irish origin.The medieval
population of Cork was about 2000 people. It suffered a severe blow
in 1349 when almost half the townspeople died of bubonic plague
when the Black Death
arrived in the town. In 1491 Cork
played a part in the English Wars of
when Perkin Warbeck
pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to
recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England
. The mayor of Cork
and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but
when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed.
Cork's nickname of the 'rebel city' originates in these
A description of Cork written in 1577 speaks of the city as, "the
fourth city of Ireland" that is, "so encumbered with evil
neighbours, the Irish outlaws, that they are fayne to watch their
gates hourly...they trust not the country adjoining [and only marry
within the town] so that the whole city is linked to each other in
Patrick Street c.
The city's charter was granted by King
in 1185. The title of Mayor
was established by royal charter in 1318, and the title
was changed to Lord Mayor
in 1900 following the Knighthood
of the incumbent Mayor by Queen Victoria on her visit to the
In the War of
, the centre of Cork was gutted by fires started by
the British Black and Tans
, and the
city saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces.
During the Irish Civil War
, Cork was
for a time held by anti-Treaty
forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army
in an attack from the sea.
The climate of Cork, like the rest of Ireland, is mild and
changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature
extremes. Cork lies in Plant Hardiness
10. Met Éireann
maintain a climatological weather station at Cork Airport, a few kilometres south of the city - it should be
noted that as the airport is at an altitude of 151 m
(500 ft); temperatures can often differ by a few degrees
between the airport and the city itself. There are also smaller
synoptic weather stations at University College Cork, Clover Hill and Fota Island.
below 0 °C or above 30 °C
are rare, though not unheard of. Cork Airport records an average of
1194.4mm of precipitation
annually, most of
which is rain - hail
and snow are rare. The airport records an
average of 8 days of hail and 16 days of snow or sleet a year;
though it only records lying snow for 6 days of the year. The low
altitude of the city, and moderating influences of the harbour,
mean that lying snow very rarely occurs in the city itself. There
are 151 'rainy' days a year (over 1 mm of rainfall), of which
there are 75 days with 'heavy rain' (over 5 mm).
Cork is also a generally foggy city, with an average of 100 days of
fog a year - most common during mornings at times of high pressure
or else during winter. Despite this, however, Cork is also one of
Ireland's sunniest cities, with an average of 3.8 hours of sunshine
every day and only having 69 days where there is no 'recordable
sunshine', mostly during and around winter.
Music, theatre, dance, film and poetry all play a prominent role in
Cork city life. The Cork School of
and the Crawford College of Art and
provide a constant throughput of new blood, as do the
active theatre components of many courses at University College
Cork (UCC). Highlights include: Corcadorca Theatre Company
which Cillian Murphy
was a troupe
member prior to Hollywood fame; Cork
, a major supporter of the art of the short film;
The Institute for Choreography and Dance, a national contemporary
dance resource; the Triskel Arts Centre; Cork Jazz Festival
; the Cork Academy of
Dramatic Art (CADA).
Palace Theatre and the Granary Theatre both play host to large
amounts of dramatic plays throughout the year.
The Glucksman Gallery at UCC
Cork is home
to the RTÉ Vanbrugh String Quartet, and to many musical acts,
including John Spillane
, The Frank And Walters
, Sultans Of Ping
, Simple Kid
and the late Rory Gallagher
. Singer songwriter Cathal Coughlan
and Sean O'Hagan
also both hail from Cork. The opera singers Cara
O'Sullivan, Mary Hegarty, Brendan Collins, and Sam McElroy are also
Cork born. The short story writers Frank
and Sean O'Faoláin
hailed from Cork. Contemporary writers of national and
international status include Thomas McCarthy
, Gerry Murphy
, and novelist and poet
. There is a thriving
literary community centring on The Munster Literature Centre and
the Triskel Arts Centre.
been gaining cultural diversity for many years as a result of
immigration, from Western Europe (particularly France and Spain) in
the mid to late nineties, and more recently from Eastern European
countries such as Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, Hungary etc. and in
small amount from various African and Asian nations.
reflected in the recent growth of multi-cultural restaurants and
shops, including specialist shops for East-European or
Middle-Eastern food, Chinese and Thai restaurants, French
patisseries, Indian buffets, and Middle Eastern kebab houses. Cork
saw significant Jewish immigration from Lithuania and Russia in the
late 19th century. Jewish citizens such as Gerald Goldberg
(several times Lord Mayor),
(novelist) and Louis Marcus
(documentary maker) played
important roles in 20th century Cork. Today, the Jewish community
is relatively small in population, although the city still has a
Jewish quarter and local synagogue. Cork also features various
Christian churches, as well as a mosque
Catholic masses around the city are said in Polish
and other languages, in addition
to the traditional Latin and local Irish and English
Recent additions to the arts infrastructure include modern
additions to Cork Opera House and the Crawford Municipal Art
. The new Lewis
opened in the Autumn of 2004 at UCC, was
nominated for the prestigious Stirling
in the United Kingdom, and the building of a new €
60 million School of Music was completed in September
2007. Construction of the €
Brookfield UCC Medical School complex was completed in 2005.
Cork was the European
Capital of Culture
There is a rivalry between Cork and Dublin, similar to the rivalry
between London and Manchester, or Madrid and Barcelona. Corkonians
generally view themselves as different to the rest of Ireland, and
refer to themselves as "The Rebels"; the county is known as the
. This distinctly Corkonian
view has in recent years manifested itself in humorous references
to the region as The People's Republic of Cork
of the Real Capital
can be seen adorning themselves with
t-shirts and other items which celebrate The People's Republic
, printed in various languages, including English
. The Cork
is flown at public and civic buildings, including the
main courthouse, bus station, railway station and major department
stores; it is flown along with the Irish
, or alone.
The city has many local traditions in food. Traditional Cork foods
, tripe and drisheen
Accent and dialect
The Cork accent has a tone which sets it apart from neighbouring
counties. The consonant sound θ (represented by the digraph th) is
rarely pronounced, while redundant use of the words "like" or "so"
are used to terminate a sentence: e.g. "I don't know him at all,
like". Use of the words "boy" (often pronounced "by") and "girl"
are common, used to address each other, even into adulthood, e.g.
"Come here to me, boy". Patterns of tone and intonation often rise
and fall, with the overall tone tending to be more high-pitched
than the standard Irish accent
English spoken in Cork has a large number of dialect words that are
peculiar to the city and environs. Unlike standard Hiberno-English
, some of these words
originate from the Irish language, but others through other
languages Cork's inhabitants encountered at home and abroad. These
include for example, "langer" (vulgar) used to describe a penis or
an undesirable person. This particular word derives itself from
India, when a large proportion of the Munster Riflers consisted of
poor Corkconians who's camps were pestered by a monkey locally
called a 'Languar'. The latter has been gained notoriety throughout
Ireland thanks to various comedy skits, notably Gift Grub
, and has become strongly associated with
the Cork accent.
Cork Irish, a variety of Munster
, is spoken in the city and its surrounding region.
Peadar Ua Laoghaire
, regarded as
one of the founders of modern literature in Irish, promoted Cork
Irish as what he saw as the best Irish for propagation among the
The city's FM radio
RTÉ Radio 1
, RTÉ 2fm
, RTÉ lyric
, RTÉ Raidió na
, Today FM
, 4FM and Newstalk
. There are also local stations such as
Cork's Red FM
, Cork's 96FM
, CUH FM, Cork Campus Radio and Christian
radio station Life FM. Cork has also
been home to pirate radio
most notably South Coast Radio and ERI in the 1980s. Today some
small inconsistent pirates prevail but because of a recent
clampdown by Ireland's communications regulator, Comreg
, a number of
higher profile pirate stations were closed during 2005-2006. A
number of neighbouring counties radio stations can be heard in
parts of Cork City including Radio Kerry
and WLR FM
Cork has television and radio studios, and production
facilities at its centre in Father Matthew Street in the city
Cork is home to one of Ireland's main national newspapers, the
). The Examiner'
s headquarters are
situated on Lapp's Quay in the city centre, and were originally
located on Academy Street. It also prints the Evening Echo
, which for decades has been
connected to the Echo Boys, who were poor and often homeless
children who sold the newspaper. Today, the shouts of the vendors
selling the Echo can still be heard in various parts of the city
centre. The biggest free newspaper and one of the biggest in the
country is the Cork
which was formerly known as Inside Cork.
Places of interest
The Angel of the Resurrection, St.
Cork features architecturally notable buildings originating from
the Medieval to Modern periods. The only notable remnant of the Medieval era
is the Red
There are two cathedrals in the city; St Mary's Cathedral and St
Finbarr's Cathedral. St Mary's Cathedral, quite often referred to
as the North Cathedral is the Roman Catholic cathedral of the city
and was built in 1808. St Finbarr's Cathedral serves the Protestant
faith and is the more famous of the two. It is built on the
foundations of an earlier cathedral. Work began in 1862 and ended
in 1879 under the direction of architect William Burges
Patrick's Street, the main street of the city which was remodelled
in the mid 2000s, is known for the architecture of the buildings
along its pedestrian-friendly route and is the main shopping
The reason for its curved shape is that it
originally was a channel of the River Lee
that was built over on arches.
The adjacent Grand Parade is a tree-lined avenue, home to offices,
shops and financial institutions. The old financial centre is the
South Mall, with several banks whose interior derive from the 19th
century, such as the Allied Irish
which was once an exchange.
Cork City Hall reflecting off the
the city's buildings are in the Georgian style, although there are a
number of examples of modern landmark structures, such as County
Hall tower, which was, at one time the
tallest building in the Republic of Ireland until being
superseded by another Cork City building: The Elysian.
The Elysian Tower, Ireland's tallest building, can be seen in
Across the river from County Hall is
Ireland's longest building; built in Victorian
times, Our Lady's Psychiatric
Hospital has now been renovated and converted into a residential
housing complex called Atkins Hall, after its architect William Atkins
Cork's most famous building is the church tower of Shandon
dominates the North side of the city. It is widely regarded as the
symbol of the city. The North and East sides are faced in red
sandstone, and the West and South sides are clad in the predominant
stone of the region, white limestone. At the top sits a weather
vane in the shape of an eleven-foot salmon.
City Hall, another notable building of limestone, replaced the
previous one which was destroyed by the Black and Tans
during the War of Independence
in an event known as the "Burning of
". The cost of this new building was provided by the UK
Government in the 1930s as a gesture of reconciliation.
notable places include Elizabeth Fort, the Cork Opera House, and Fitzgerald's Park to the west of the
city. Other popular tourist attractions include
the grounds of University College Cork, through which the River Lee flows, and the
This covered market traces its origins back
to 1610, and the present building dates from 1786.
Up until April 2009, there were also two breweries in the city. The
Beamish and Crawford
Main Street closed in April 2009 and transferred production to the
brewery in Lady's
Well. This brewery also produces Heineken for the Irish
The retail trade in Cork city is developing quickly with a mix of
both modern, state of the art shopping centres and family owned
local shops. Department Stores cater for all budgets, with
expensive boutiques for one end of the market and high street
stores also available. Shopping centres can be found in many of
Cork's suburbs, including Blackpool,
Ballincollig, Douglas, Ballyvolane, Wilton and Mahon.
available in the city centre, with plans and excavation work
on-going for the development of three more large malls (The
Cornmarket Centre on Cornmarket Street); The Opera Lane proposal
off St. Patrick's Street/Academy Street and the Grand Parade scheme
planned for the site of the former Capitol Cineplex, the first
multiplex outside of Dublin in Ireland), expanding the capacity of
the city centre, to rival that of the suburbs. Cork's main shopping
street is St.
Patrick's Street and is the most expensive street in the country per
sq. metre after Dublin's Grafton Street.
areas in the city centre include Oliver Plunkett St. and Grand
Parade. Cork is also home to some of the country's leading
department stores with the foundations of shops such as Dunnes Stores
and the former Roches Stores
being laid in the city.
Industry & Commerce
Murphys Stout, 1919 advert for the
famous Cork brewery
Cork City is at the heart of industry in the south of Ireland. Its
main area of industry is pharmaceuticals, with Pfizer Inc.
and Swiss company Novartis
being big employers in the region. The
most famous product of the Cork pharmaceutical industry is Viagra
. Cork is also the European headquarters of
Inc. where their high end computers are manufactured and
their European call centre, R&D and AppleCare is hosted.
In total, they currently employ over 1,800 staff. EMC Corporation
is another large IT
employer with over 1,600 staff in
their 52,000 sq metre (560,000 sq. ft.) engineering, manufacturing,
and technical services facility.
It is also home to the Heineken Brewery which also brews Murphy's Irish Stout
and the nearby
Beamish and Crawford
(recently taken over by Heineken) which have been in the city for
generations. And for many years, Cork was the home to Ford Motor Company
, which manufactured
cars in the docklands area before the plant was closed. Henry Ford
's grandfather was from West Cork
, which was one of the main reason for
opening up the manufacturing facility in Cork. But technology has
replaced the old manufacturing businesses of the 1970s and 1980s,
with people now working in the many I.T. centres of the city.
Cork's deep harbour allows ships of any size to enter, bringing
trade and easy import/export of products. Cork Airport also allows easy access to continental Europe and
Kent Station in the city centre provides good rail links for
More recently Amazon.com
, the online retailer, has set up in
Cork Airport Business Park.
In 2008, developers announced a 1bn euro plan to create an Atlantic Quarter
in Cork's docklands area
to rival that of the International Financial
in Dublin making it one of the biggest and most
ambitious plans undertaken in the history of the state.
The Elysian under construction in
Cork County Hall
The headquarters of Bord Gáis
, the Irish Gas
Board, are on
Cork City Corporation began its first
twin city programme with Coventry in 1969.
Since then, Cork has developed
links with several other cities in the areas of culture, education,
tourism, science and economics:
Twinning with Shanghai has led to controversy, as the Green Party
called on Cork's local,
national and European elected representatives to withdraw the
city's twinning with Shanghai due to reports of human rights
violations in China. Since then, parties from both Cork and
Shanghai have visited their counterparts on trade related missions.
later got a twinning with Kaliningrad, in Russia.
Cork Airport is one of Ireland's main airports and it is a gateway
to the south of Ireland. It is situated on the south side of Cork
City in an area known as Ballygarvan 7 scheduled airlines fly to over 40 destinations
with over 60 flights a day.
Public bus services within the city are provided by the national
bus operator Bus Éireann
routes are numbered from 1 through to 19 and connect the city
centre to the principal suburbs, colleges, shopping centres and
places of interest. Two of these bus routes provide orbital
services across the Northern and Southern districts of the city
the outer suburbs, such as Ballincollig, Glanmire and Carrigaline are provided from the city's bus terminal at
Parnell Place in the city centre. Suburban services
also include shuttles to Cork Airport, and a park and ride
facility in the south suburbs.
Long distance buses depart from the bus terminal in Parnell Place
to destinations throughout Ireland. Hourly services run to Killarney/Tralee, Waterford, Athlone and Shannon Airport/Limerick/Galway and there
are six services daily to Dublin. There is also a daily
Eurolines bus service that connects Cork
to Victoria Coach Station in
London via South
Wales and Bristol.
River Ferry, from Rushbrooke to Passage
West, links the R624 to R610.
This service is
useful when trying to avoid traffic congestion in Jack Lynch tunnel
and Dunkettle area. Cork Ferry port is situated at Ringaskiddy, 16 km SE via the N28.
A direct sea
link is available to Roscoff
. A long-established
link with Swansea in Wales is currently out of service but is
programmed to resume in late March 2010.
A connecting bus
service is available from the ferryport to the city centre. Plans
for a water taxi
service are being
finalised to provide traffic free connections for both commuters
and tourists alike.
The Cork area has seen improvements in road infrastructure in
recent years, especially with regards to National Primary roads.
The Cork South Link road (a dual carriageway), built in the early
1980s, linking the Kinsale road roundabout with the city centre was
the first of many improvements.
St. Patrick's Bridge
Shortly afterwards, the first sections of the South Ring Road (dual
carriageway) were opened. Work continued through the 1990s on
extending the N25
South Ring Road
with the opening of the Jack Lynch
under the River Lee
being the most significant addition. The Kinsale Road flyover
opened in August 2006 to remove a major bottleneck for traffic
heading to the Airport or Killarney. Also in the 1990s
work progressed on the Cork to Midleton dual carriageway and the
M8 Glanmire bypass motorway.
Other projects completed at
this time include the N20
and the N20 Cork to Mallow road projects. The M8 Glanmire to
Watergrasshill dual carriageway bypass was opened in 2002. The
Ballincollig dual carriageway bypass,
which links to the Western end of the Cork Southern Ring road was
opened in 2003. City Centre road improvements include the Patrick
St. project which reconstructed the street with a pedestrian
Rathcormac to Fermoy
tolled motorway bypass (17.5 kilometres) opened in October
Railway and tramway heritage
Planned Cork Suburban Railway
Cork was one of the most rail oriented cities in Ireland, featuring
8 stations at various times. The main route, still much the same
today, is from Dublin. Originally terminating on the city's
outskirts at Blackpool, the Glanmire
tunnel connects it to the city centre terminus of Kent Station. Now a through station, the line through Kent
connects the town of Cóbh east of
the city. This also connected to the seaside town of
Youghal, until the 1980s.
rail routes terminating or traversing Cork city were the
and Passage Railway, a line to Macroom, the Cork and Muskerry Light
Railway to Blarney, Coachford and Donoughmore, as well as the Cork, Bandon and South
Coast Railway connecting Bantry, Skibbereen, Clonakilty and many other West Cork
West Cork trains terminated at Albert Quay, across
the river from Kent Station (though an on-street rail 'system'
connected the two for rolling stock and cargo movement).
remains of the once-extensive public transport system is the line
to Dublin and that to Cobh.
Within the city there have been two tram networks in operation. A
proposal to develop a horse-drawn tram
the city's railway termini) was made by American George Francis Train
in the 1860s, and
implemented in 1872 by the Cork Tramway Company. However, the
company ceased trading in 1875 after Cork Corporation refused
permission to extend the line.
In December 1898, an electric tram
operating on the Blackpool-Douglas, Summerhill-Sunday's Well and
Tivoli-Blackrock routes. The gauge
(2' 11½"), and
designed to be the same as the Cork and Muskerry Light
. Increased usage of cars and buses in the 1920s led to
a reduction in the use of trams, which discontinued operations
permanently on 30 September 1931. Place names today still tell of the
routes, such as Tramway Terrace in Douglas.
Station is the main train station in the city.
From here, services run to all over Ireland - often via Dublin or
Limerick Junction. The main line from Cork to Dublin, which is
Ireland's busiest rail line, has hourly departures and a number of
connecting services. InterCity services are also available to
Kerry, with direct services to Killarney and Tralee, or
indirectly via Mallow.
There are plans to start a service between Cork and Galway in 2010,
along the western
Cork Suburban Rail system also
departs from Kent Station and provides connections to parts of
Metropolitan Cork, including
Island, Mallow, Midleton, Fota and Cobh.
November 2005, as part of the Transport
21 initiative, the government announced the planned reopening
of the Glounthaune to Midleton line, with new stations announced for
Carrigtohill, Kilbarry, Monard and Blarney; it reopened on 30 July 2009.
It is planned
that the proposed station at Carrigtwohill West
be open by early 2010.
West Cork Rail
is a planned railway
line which would connect Cork City to West Cork.
Quadrangle at UCC
Cork is an important educational centre in Ireland. University College Cork (UCC), a constituent university of the National University of
Ireland, offers a wide variety of courses in Arts, Commerce,
Engineering, Law, Medicine and Science.
The university was
named "Irish University of the Year" in 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 by
The Sunday Times
. Cork Institute of Technology
(CIT) was named Irish "Institute of Technology of the Year" in
2006–2007 and offers a variety of third level courses in
Mathematics, Computing and IT, Business, Humanities and Engineering
(Mechanical, Electronic, Electrical, and Chemical). The National Maritime College
also located in Cork and is the only college in
Ireland in which Nautical Studies and Marine Engineering can be
undertaken. CIT also incorporates the Cork School of Music
and Crawford College of Art and
as constituent schools. The Cork College of Commerce
largest post-Leaving Certificate
College in Ireland and is also the biggest provider of Vocational
Preparation and Training courses in the country. Other 3rd level
institutions include Griffith College Cork which has been offering courses since 1884 and
various other colleges.
There is also a very large community
of students from abroad, especially countries where Cork has
twinned cities. The largest group of foreign students comes
from China, Shanghai
- See also: List of
Cork people - Sports
and association football
are popular sporting
pastimes for Corkonians.
Hurling is the most popular spectator sport in the city, and has a
strong identity with city and county - with Cork winning 30
and leading the table of Camogie Championship
wins. Football is also popular, and Cork has won 6 Gaelic football
titles. There are many Gaelic Athletic Association
clubs in Cork City, including St. Finbarr's, Glen
Piarsaigh, Erins Own and
Rangers. The main public venues are Páirc Uí
Chaoimh and Páirc Uí Rinn (named after Christy
Cork City F.C.
are the largest
Cork, and have seen much success in recent years. In 2005, they won
the Eircom League
and the FAI Cup
in 2007, with their latest success in the
Setanta Sports Cup
.. Association football is also played by amateur
and school clubs across the city, as well as in "five-a-side"
is played at various levels, from
school to senior league level. There are two first division clubs
in Cork city. Cork
Constitution (3 time All Ireland League Champions) play their
home games in Ballintemple and Dolphin R.F.C.
play at home in Musgrave Park.
Other notable rugby clubs in the city
include, Highfield, Sunday's Well and UCC. At schools level,
Brothers College and Presentation Brothers
College are two of the country's better known rugby
Munster Rugby plays half of its home matches
in the Celtic League at
Park in Ballyphehane. In the past Heineken Cup matches have also been played at
Musgrave Park but now, due to capacity issues these are now played
Park in Limerick.
In May 2006 and again in May 2008 Munster
became the Heineken Cup
many players hailing from Cork city and county.
There are a variety of watersports in Cork, including rowing
There are five rowing clubs training on the river Lee. Naomhóga
Chorcaí is a rowing club whose members row traditional naomhóga
on the Lee in occasional competitions. The
race, held in 2005 and again in 2007, saw teams and boats
from many local and visiting clubs race for 24 km (15 mi)
from Crosshaven to Cork city centre. The decision to move the
National Rowing Center
to Inniscarra has
boosted numbers involved in the sport. Cork's maritime sailing
heritage is maintained through its sailing clubs. The Royal Cork Yacht Club located in
Crosshaven (outside the city) is the world's oldest yacht
club, and Cork
Week is a notable sailing event.
Cork Racing - Formula Ford
There are Cork clubs active nationally in basketball
(Neptune and UCC Demons) and golf
, pitch and putt
clubs in the
Cork area. Cricket has long been played in the city. The main teams
are Cork County CC, situated next to the Mardyke, and Harlequins
CC, located next to Cork airport.The city is also the home of
, which is played in
the north-side and south-west suburbs. Boxing and Martial arts,
such as Karate, Muay Thai and Taekwondo, also command a high level
of practise within the city. Cork Racing
races in the Irish Formula Ford
- Merchants, Mystics and Philanthropists - 350 Years of Cork
Quakers Richard S. Harrison Published by Cork Monthly Meeting,
Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)
- County Hall (Cork County Council)
- , Government of Ireland
- Cork County Council population report
- Cork City Council website - History - Walls of
- Cork City Council - List of charters issued to Cork
- Cork City Library - History of Cork - The Burning
- Met Éireann - Annual Report 2003
- Met Éireann - The Irish Weather Service - 30 Year Averages
- Cork Airport
- IMDB.com - Cillian Murphy - Other works
Film Festival Website
- - Information about the Jewish community in Cork
- - Mass Times for Polish Community in Diocese of
Cork and Ross
- Cork Campus
- ENFO Publication (Department of the Environment Heritage
and Local Government) Medieval Cork
- Cork City Library - History of Cork - St Patrick's
Street - Historic Outline
- Cork County Council - About the "County
of St. Anne Shandon
- Discover Ireland - Cork - The English
- Cork City Council - International Relations
- Green Councillor calls for Cork's twinning with
Shanghai to be scrapped - greenviews.eu
- Ирландия и Россия обсудили возможности
сотрудничества в ОЭЗ
- IrishRail.ie - Projects - Western Rail
- RTÉ News: Service begins on Cork-Midleton line
- University College Cork is “University of the
Year”, UCC Press Release, September 14, 2003