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Cork ( , — from corcach meaning "swamp") is the second largest city in the Republic of Irelandmarker and the island of Irelandmarker's third most populous city. It is the principal city and administrative centre of County Corkmarker and the largest city in the province of Munster. Cork has a population of 119,143, while the addition of the suburban areas contained the county brings the total to 190,384. Metropolitan Cork has a population of approximately 274,000, while the Greater Cork area is about 380,000.

Cork has a reputation for rebelliousness dating back to the town's support of the English Pretender Perkin Warbeck in 1491 following the Wars of the Roses. As a result, County Cork has earned the nickname of "the Rebel County", while Corkonians often refer to the city as the "real capital of Ireland", and themselves as the "Rebels".

The city is built on the River Lee which divides into two channels at the western end of the city. The city centre is located on the island created by the channels. At the eastern end of the city centre they converge; and the Lee flows around Lough Mahon to Cork Harbourmarker, the world's second largest natural harbour after Sydney Harbourmarker in Australia. The city is a major Irish seaport; there are quays and docks along the banks of the Lee on the city's east side.


Cork was originally a monastic settlement founded by Saint Finbarr in the sixth century. Cork achieved an urban character at some point between 915 and 922 when Norseman (Viking) settlers founded a trading port. It has been proposed that, like Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global Scandinavian trade network.

The city was once fully walled, and some wall sections and gates remain today. For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of Old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublinmarker. Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens in order to keep them from attacking the city. The main overlords of south western Ireland were the Fitzgerald Earl of Desmond dynasty, with the lordships of the MacCarthy and Barry families abutting directly onto Cork city. The Cork municipal government was dominated by about 12-15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe - in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt, iron and wine. Of these families, only the Ronayne family were of Gaelic Irish origin.The medieval population of Cork was about 2000 people. It suffered a severe blow in 1349 when almost half the townspeople died of bubonic plague when the Black Death arrived in the town. In 1491 Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England. The mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. Cork's nickname of the 'rebel city' originates in these events.

A description of Cork written in 1577 speaks of the city as, "the fourth city of Ireland" that is, "so encumbered with evil neighbours, the Irish outlaws, that they are fayne to watch their gates hourly...they trust not the country adjoining [and only marry within the town] so that the whole city is linked to each other in affinity"

Patrick Street c.

The city's charter was granted by King John in 1185. The title of Mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, and the title was changed to Lord Mayor in 1900 following the Knighthood of the incumbent Mayor by Queen Victoria on her visit to the City.

In the War of Independence, the centre of Cork was gutted by fires started by the British Black and Tans, and the city saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces. During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea.


The climate of Cork, like the rest of Ireland, is mild and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. Cork lies in Plant Hardiness zone10. Met Éireann maintain a climatological weather station at Cork Airportmarker, a few kilometres south of the city - it should be noted that as the airport is at an altitude of 151 m (500 ft); temperatures can often differ by a few degrees between the airport and the city itself. There are also smaller synoptic weather stations at University College Corkmarker, Clover Hill and Fota Islandmarker.

Temperatures below 0 °C or above 30 °C are rare, though not unheard of. Cork Airport records an average of 1194.4mm of precipitation annually, most of which is rain - hail, sleet and snow are rare. The airport records an average of 8 days of hail and 16 days of snow or sleet a year; though it only records lying snow for 6 days of the year. The low altitude of the city, and moderating influences of the harbour, mean that lying snow very rarely occurs in the city itself. There are 151 'rainy' days a year (over 1 mm of rainfall), of which there are 75 days with 'heavy rain' (over 5 mm).

Cork is also a generally foggy city, with an average of 100 days of fog a year - most common during mornings at times of high pressure or else during winter. Despite this, however, Cork is also one of Ireland's sunniest cities, with an average of 3.8 hours of sunshine every day and only having 69 days where there is no 'recordable sunshine', mostly during and around winter.


Music, theatre, dance, film and poetry all play a prominent role in Cork city life. The Cork School of Music and the Crawford College of Art and Design provide a constant throughput of new blood, as do the active theatre components of many courses at University College Cork (UCC). Highlights include: Corcadorca Theatre Company, of which Cillian Murphy was a troupe member prior to Hollywood fame; Cork Film Festival, a major supporter of the art of the short film; The Institute for Choreography and Dance, a national contemporary dance resource; the Triskel Arts Centre; Cork Jazz Festival; the Cork Academy of Dramatic Art (CADA).

The Glucksman Gallery at UCC
The Everyman Palace Theatremarker and the Granary Theatre both play host to large amounts of dramatic plays throughout the year. Cork is home to the RTÉ Vanbrugh String Quartet, and to many musical acts, including John Spillane, The Frank And Walters, Sultans Of Ping, Simple Kid and the late Rory Gallagher. Singer songwriter Cathal Coughlan and Sean O'Hagan of The High Llamas also both hail from Cork. The opera singers Cara O'Sullivan, Mary Hegarty, Brendan Collins, and Sam McElroy are also Cork born. The short story writers Frank O'Connor and Sean O'Faoláin hailed from Cork. Contemporary writers of national and international status include Thomas McCarthy, Gerry Murphy , and novelist and poet William Wall. There is a thriving literary community centring on The Munster Literature Centre and the Triskel Arts Centre.

Cork has been gaining cultural diversity for many years as a result of immigration, from Western Europe (particularly France and Spain) in the mid to late nineties, and more recently from Eastern European countries such as Polandmarker, Lithuaniamarker, Latviamarker, Slovakiamarker, Hungarymarker etc. and in small amount from various African and Asian nations. This is reflected in the recent growth of multi-cultural restaurants and shops, including specialist shops for East-European or Middle-Eastern food, Chinese and Thai restaurants, French patisseries, Indian buffets, and Middle Eastern kebab houses. Cork saw significant Jewish immigration from Lithuania and Russia in the late 19th century. Jewish citizens such as Gerald Goldberg (several times Lord Mayor), David Marcus (novelist) and Louis Marcus (documentary maker) played important roles in 20th century Cork. Today, the Jewish community is relatively small in population, although the city still has a Jewish quarter and local synagogue. Cork also features various Christian churches, as well as a mosque. Some Catholic masses around the city are said in Polish, Filipino, Lithuanian, Romanian and other languages, in addition to the traditional Latin and local Irish and English languages.

Recent additions to the arts infrastructure include modern additions to Cork Opera House and the Crawford Municipal Art Gallery. The new Lewis Glucksman Gallery opened in the Autumn of 2004 at UCC, was nominated for the prestigious Stirling Prize in the United Kingdom, and the building of a new 60 million School of Music was completed in September 2007. Construction of the 50 million Brookfield UCC Medical School complex was completed in 2005.

Cork was the European Capital of Culture for 2005.

There is a rivalry between Cork and Dublin, similar to the rivalry between London and Manchester, or Madrid and Barcelona. Corkonians generally view themselves as different to the rest of Ireland, and refer to themselves as "The Rebels"; the county is known as the Rebel County. This distinctly Corkonian view has in recent years manifested itself in humorous references to the region as The People's Republic of Cork. Citizens of the Real Capital can be seen adorning themselves with t-shirts and other items which celebrate The People's Republic of Cork, printed in various languages, including English, Irish, Polish, Spanish and Italian. The Cork bicolour is flown at public and civic buildings, including the main courthouse, bus station, railway station and major department stores; it is flown along with the Irish tricolour, or alone.


The city has many local traditions in food. Traditional Cork foods include crubeens, tripe and drisheen.

Accent and dialect

The Cork accent has a tone which sets it apart from neighbouring counties. The consonant sound θ (represented by the digraph th) is rarely pronounced, while redundant use of the words "like" or "so" are used to terminate a sentence: e.g. "I don't know him at all, like". Use of the words "boy" (often pronounced "by") and "girl" are common, used to address each other, even into adulthood, e.g. "Come here to me, boy". Patterns of tone and intonation often rise and fall, with the overall tone tending to be more high-pitched than the standard Irish accent

English spoken in Cork has a large number of dialect words that are peculiar to the city and environs. Unlike standard Hiberno-English, some of these words originate from the Irish language, but others through other languages Cork's inhabitants encountered at home and abroad. These include for example, "langer" (vulgar) used to describe a penis or an undesirable person. This particular word derives itself from India, when a large proportion of the Munster Riflers consisted of poor Corkconians who's camps were pestered by a monkey locally called a 'Languar'. The latter has been gained notoriety throughout Ireland thanks to various comedy skits, notably Gift Grub, and has become strongly associated with the Cork accent.

Cork Irish, a variety of Munster Irish, is spoken in the city and its surrounding region. Peadar Ua Laoghaire, regarded as one of the founders of modern literature in Irish, promoted Cork Irish as what he saw as the best Irish for propagation among the Irish people.



The city's FM radio band features RTÉ Radio 1, RTÉ 2fm, RTÉ lyric fm, RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, Today FM, 4FM and Newstalk. There are also local stations such as Cork's Red FM, Cork's 96FM, 103FM County Sound, CUH FM, Cork Campus Radio and Christian radio station Life FM. Cork has also been home to pirate radio stations, most notably South Coast Radio and ERI in the 1980s. Today some small inconsistent pirates prevail but because of a recent clampdown by Ireland's communications regulator, Comreg, a number of higher profile pirate stations were closed during 2005-2006. A number of neighbouring counties radio stations can be heard in parts of Cork City including Radio Kerry and WLR FM.

RTÉ Corkmarker has television and radio studios, and production facilities at its centre in Father Matthew Street in the city centre.


Cork is home to one of Ireland's main national newspapers, the Irish Examiner (formerly the Cork Examiner). The Examiner's headquarters are situated on Lapp's Quay in the city centre, and were originally located on Academy Street. It also prints the Evening Echo, which for decades has been connected to the Echo Boys, who were poor and often homeless children who sold the newspaper. Today, the shouts of the vendors selling the Echo can still be heard in various parts of the city centre. The biggest free newspaper and one of the biggest in the country is the Cork Independent which was formerly known as Inside Cork.

Places of interest

The Angel of the Resurrection, St. Finbarr's Cathedral
Cork features architecturally notable buildings originating from the Medieval to Modern periods. The only notable remnant of the Medieval era is the Red Abbeymarker.

There are two cathedrals in the city; St Mary's Cathedral and St Finbarr's Cathedral. St Mary's Cathedral, quite often referred to as the North Cathedral is the Roman Catholic cathedral of the city and was built in 1808. St Finbarr's Cathedral serves the Protestant faith and is the more famous of the two. It is built on the foundations of an earlier cathedral. Work began in 1862 and ended in 1879 under the direction of architect William Burges.

St. Patrick's Streetmarker, the main street of the city which was remodelled in the mid 2000s, is known for the architecture of the buildings along its pedestrian-friendly route and is the main shopping thoroughfare. The reason for its curved shape is that it originally was a channel of the River Lee that was built over on arches. The adjacent Grand Parade is a tree-lined avenue, home to offices, shops and financial institutions. The old financial centre is the South Mall, with several banks whose interior derive from the 19th century, such as the Allied Irish Bank's which was once an exchange.

Cork City Hall reflecting off the River Lee.
The Elysian Tower, Ireland's tallest building, can be seen in the background.

Many of the city's buildings are in the Georgian style, although there are a number of examples of modern landmark structures, such as County Hallmarker tower, which was, at one time the tallest building in the Republic of Ireland until being superseded by another Cork City building: The Elysianmarker. Across the river from County Hall is Ireland's longest building; built in Victorian times, Our Lady's Psychiatric Hospital has now been renovated and converted into a residential housing complex called Atkins Hall, after its architect William Atkins.

Cork's most famous building is the church tower of Shandon, which dominates the North side of the city. It is widely regarded as the symbol of the city. The North and East sides are faced in red sandstone, and the West and South sides are clad in the predominant stone of the region, white limestone. At the top sits a weather vane in the shape of an eleven-foot salmon.

City Hall, another notable building of limestone, replaced the previous one which was destroyed by the Black and Tans during the War of Independence in an event known as the "Burning of Cork". The cost of this new building was provided by the UK Government in the 1930s as a gesture of reconciliation.

Other notable places include Elizabeth Fortmarker, the Cork Opera Housemarker, and Fitzgerald's Park to the west of the city. Other popular tourist attractions include the grounds of University College Corkmarker, through which the River Lee flows, and the English Marketmarker. This covered market traces its origins back to 1610, and the present building dates from 1786.

Up until April 2009, there were also two breweries in the city. The Beamish and Crawford on South Main Street closed in April 2009 and transferred production to the Murphy's brewery in Lady's Well. This brewery also produces Heineken for the Irish market.



The retail trade in Cork city is developing quickly with a mix of both modern, state of the art shopping centres and family owned local shops. Department Stores cater for all budgets, with expensive boutiques for one end of the market and high street stores also available. Shopping centres can be found in many of Cork's suburbs, including Blackpool, Ballincolligmarker, Douglasmarker, Ballyvolane, Wilton and Mahon. Others are available in the city centre, with plans and excavation work on-going for the development of three more large malls (The Cornmarket Centre on Cornmarket Street); The Opera Lane proposal off St. Patrick's Street/Academy Street and the Grand Parade scheme planned for the site of the former Capitol Cineplex, the first multiplex outside of Dublin in Ireland), expanding the capacity of the city centre, to rival that of the suburbs. Cork's main shopping street is St. Patrick's Streetmarker and is the most expensive street in the country per sq. metre after Dublin's Grafton Street. Other shopping areas in the city centre include Oliver Plunkett St. and Grand Parade. Cork is also home to some of the country's leading department stores with the foundations of shops such as Dunnes Stores and the former Roches Stores being laid in the city.

Industry & Commerce

Murphys Stout, 1919 advert for the famous Cork brewery
Cork City is at the heart of industry in the south of Ireland. Its main area of industry is pharmaceuticals, with Pfizer Inc. and Swiss company Novartis being big employers in the region. The most famous product of the Cork pharmaceutical industry is Viagra. Cork is also the European headquarters of Apple Inc.marker where their high end computers are manufactured and their European call centre, R&D and AppleCare is hosted. In total, they currently employ over 1,800 staff. EMC Corporation is another large IT employer with over 1,600 staff in their 52,000 sq metre (560,000 sq. ft.) engineering, manufacturing, and technical services facility.

It is also home to the Heineken Brewery which also brews Murphy's Irish Stout and the nearby Beamish and Crawford brewery (recently taken over by Heineken) which have been in the city for generations. And for many years, Cork was the home to Ford Motor Company, which manufactured cars in the docklands area before the plant was closed. Henry Ford's grandfather was from West Cork, which was one of the main reason for opening up the manufacturing facility in Cork. But technology has replaced the old manufacturing businesses of the 1970s and 1980s, with people now working in the many I.T. centres of the city.

Cork's deep harbour allows ships of any size to enter, bringing trade and easy import/export of products. Cork Airportmarker also allows easy access to continental Europe and Kent Station in the city centre provides good rail links for domestic trade. More recently, the online retailer, has set up in Cork Airport Business Park.

In 2008, developers announced a 1bn euro plan to create an Atlantic Quarter in Cork's docklands area to rival that of the International Financial Services Centre in Dublin making it one of the biggest and most ambitious plans undertaken in the history of the state.
The Elysian under construction in December 2007
Cork County Hall


The headquarters of Bord Gáis Éireann, the Irish Gas Board, are on Gasworks Road,Cork.

Twinned cities

Cork City Corporation began its first twin city programme with Coventrymarker in 1969. Since then, Cork has developed links with several other cities in the areas of culture, education, tourism, science and economics:

Twinning with Shanghai has led to controversy, as the Green Party called on Cork's local, national and European elected representatives to withdraw the city's twinning with Shanghai due to reports of human rights violations in China. Since then, parties from both Cork and Shanghai have visited their counterparts on trade related missions. Cork later got a twinning with Kaliningradmarker, in Russiamarker.



Cork Airport is one of Ireland's main airports and it is a gateway to the south of Ireland. It is situated on the south side of Cork City in an area known as Ballygarvanmarker 7 scheduled airlines fly to over 40 destinations with over 60 flights a day.


Public bus services within the city are provided by the national bus operator Bus Éireann. City routes are numbered from 1 through to 19 and connect the city centre to the principal suburbs, colleges, shopping centres and places of interest. Two of these bus routes provide orbital services across the Northern and Southern districts of the city respectively.

Buses to the outer suburbs, such as Ballincolligmarker, Glanmiremarker and Carrigalinemarker are provided from the city's bus terminal at Parnell Place in the city centre. Suburban services also include shuttles to Cork Airportmarker, and a park and ride facility in the south suburbs.

Long distance buses depart from the bus terminal in Parnell Place to destinations throughout Ireland. Hourly services run to Killarneymarker/Traleemarker, Waterfordmarker, Athlonemarker and Shannon Airport/Limerickmarker/Galwaymarker and there are six services daily to Dublin. There is also a daily Eurolines bus service that connects Cork to Victoria Coach Station in London via South Walesmarker and Bristolmarker.


The Cross River Ferry, from Rushbrookemarker to Passage Westmarker, links the R624 to R610. This service is useful when trying to avoid traffic congestion in Jack Lynch tunnel and Dunkettle area. Cork Ferry port is situated at Ringaskiddymarker, 16 km SE via the N28. A direct sea link is available to Roscoff (France) with Brittany Ferries. A long-established link with Swanseamarker in Wales is currently out of service but is programmed to resume in late March 2010. A connecting bus service is available from the ferryport to the city centre. Plans for a water taxi service are being finalised to provide traffic free connections for both commuters and tourists alike.


The Cork area has seen improvements in road infrastructure in recent years, especially with regards to National Primary roads. The Cork South Link road (a dual carriageway), built in the early 1980s, linking the Kinsale road roundabout with the city centre was the first of many improvements.
St. Patrick's Bridge

Shortly afterwards, the first sections of the South Ring Road (dual carriageway) were opened. Work continued through the 1990s on extending the N25 South Ring Road with the opening of the Jack Lynch Tunnel under the River Lee being the most significant addition. The Kinsale Road flyover opened in August 2006 to remove a major bottleneck for traffic heading to the Airport or Killarney. Also in the 1990s work progressed on the Cork to Midleton dual carriageway and the M8 Glanmiremarker bypass motorway. Other projects completed at this time include the N20 Blackpool bypass and the N20 Cork to Mallow road projects. The M8 Glanmire to Watergrasshill dual carriageway bypass was opened in 2002. The N22 Ballincollig dual carriageway bypass, which links to the Western end of the Cork Southern Ring road was opened in 2003. City Centre road improvements include the Patrick St. project which reconstructed the street with a pedestrian focus.

The M8 Rathcormac to Fermoy tolled motorway bypass (17.5 kilometres) opened in October 2006.


Railway and tramway heritage

Planned Cork Suburban Railway
Cork was one of the most rail oriented cities in Ireland, featuring 8 stations at various times. The main route, still much the same today, is from Dublin. Originally terminating on the city's outskirts at Blackpool, the Glanmire tunnel connects it to the city centre terminus of Kent Stationmarker. Now a through station, the line through Kent connects the town of Cóbhmarker east of the city. This also connected to the seaside town of Youghalmarker, until the 1980s.

Other rail routes terminating or traversing Cork city were the Cork, Blackrock and Passage Railway, a line to Macroommarker, the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway to Blarneymarker, Coachfordmarker and Donoughmoremarker, as well as the Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway connecting Bantrymarker, Skibbereenmarker, Clonakiltymarker and many other West Cork towns. West Cork trains terminated at Albert Quay, across the river from Kent Station (though an on-street rail 'system' connected the two for rolling stock and cargo movement). All that remains of the once-extensive public transport system is the line to Dublin and that to Cobhmarker.

Within the city there have been two tram networks in operation. A proposal to develop a horse-drawn tram (linking the city's railway termini) was made by American George Francis Train in the 1860s, and implemented in 1872 by the Cork Tramway Company. However, the company ceased trading in 1875 after Cork Corporation refused permission to extend the line.

In December 1898, an electric tram system began operating on the Blackpool-Douglas, Summerhill-Sunday's Well and Tivoli-Blackrock routes. The gauge of the tramway was (2' 11½"), and designed to be the same as the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway. Increased usage of cars and buses in the 1920s led to a reduction in the use of trams, which discontinued operations permanently on 30 September 1931. Place names today still tell of the routes, such as Tramway Terrace in Douglasmarker.

Current routes

Cork's Kent Stationmarker is the main train station in the city. From here, services run to all over Ireland - often via Dublin or Limerick Junction. The main line from Cork to Dublin, which is Ireland's busiest rail line, has hourly departures and a number of connecting services. InterCity services are also available to Kerry, with direct services to Killarneymarker and Traleemarker, or indirectly via Mallowmarker.

There are plans to start a service between Cork and Galway in 2010, along the western corridor.

The Cork Suburban Rail system also departs from Kent Station and provides connections to parts of Metropolitan Cork, including Little Islandmarker, Mallowmarker, Midletonmarker, Fotamarker and Cobhmarker. In November 2005, as part of the Transport 21 initiative, the government announced the planned reopening of the Glounthaunemarker to Midleton line, with new stations announced for Carrigtohillmarker, Kilbarry, Monard and Blarneymarker; it reopened on 30 July 2009. It is planned that the proposed station at Carrigtwohill West will be open by early 2010.

West Cork Rail is a planned railway line which would connect Cork City to West Cork.


Quadrangle at UCC

Cork is an important educational centre in Ireland. University College Corkmarker (UCC), a constituent university of the National University of Ireland, offers a wide variety of courses in Arts, Commerce, Engineering, Law, Medicine and Science. The university was named "Irish University of the Year" in 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 by The Sunday Times. Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) was named Irish "Institute of Technology of the Year" in 2006–2007 and offers a variety of third level courses in Mathematics, Computing and IT, Business, Humanities and Engineering (Mechanical, Electronic, Electrical, and Chemical). The National Maritime College of Ireland also located in Cork and is the only college in Ireland in which Nautical Studies and Marine Engineering can be undertaken. CIT also incorporates the Cork School of Music and Crawford College of Art and Design as constituent schools. The Cork College of Commerce is the largest post-Leaving Certificate College in Ireland and is also the biggest provider of Vocational Preparation and Training courses in the country. Other 3rd level institutions include Griffith College Corkmarker which has been offering courses since 1884 and various other colleges. There is also a very large community of students from abroad, especially countries where Cork has twinned cities. The largest group of foreign students comes from Chinamarker, Shanghai in particular.


See also: List of Cork people - Sports
Rugby, gaelic football, hurling and association football are popular sporting pastimes for Corkonians.

Gaelic games

Hurling is the most popular spectator sport in the city, and has a strong identity with city and county - with Cork winning 30 All-Ireland Championships and leading the table of Camogie Championship wins. Football is also popular, and Cork has won 6 Gaelic football titles. There are many Gaelic Athletic Association clubs in Cork City, including St. Finbarr'smarker, Glen Roversmarker, Na Piarsaighmarker, Erins Own and Nemo Rangersmarker. The main public venues are Páirc Uí Chaoimhmarker and Páirc Uí Rinnmarker (named after Christy Ring).

Association football

Cork City F.C. are the largest association football team in Cork, and have seen much success in recent years. In 2005, they won the Eircom League and the FAI Cup in 2007, with their latest success in the Setanta Sports Cup in 2008.. Association football is also played by amateur and school clubs across the city, as well as in "five-a-side" style leagues.


Rugby is played at various levels, from school to senior league level. There are two first division clubs in Cork city. Cork Constitution (3 time All Ireland League Champions) play their home games in Ballintemplemarker and Dolphin R.F.C. play at home in Musgrave Parkmarker. Other notable rugby clubs in the city include, Highfield, Sunday's Well and UCC. At schools level, Christian Brothers Collegemarker and Presentation Brothers College are two of the country's better known rugby nurseries.

Munster Rugby plays half of its home matches in the Celtic League at Musgrave Parkmarker in Ballyphehane. In the past Heineken Cup matches have also been played at Musgrave Park but now, due to capacity issues these are now played at Thomond Parkmarker in Limerickmarker. In May 2006 and again in May 2008 Munster became the Heineken Cup Champions, with many players hailing from Cork city and county.

Water sports

There are a variety of watersports in Cork, including rowing and sailing. There are five rowing clubs training on the river Lee. Naomhóga Chorcaí is a rowing club whose members row traditional naomhóga on the Lee in occasional competitions. The Ocean to City race, held in 2005 and again in 2007, saw teams and boats from many local and visiting clubs race for 24 km (15 mi) from Crosshaven to Cork city centre. The decision to move the National Rowing Center to Inniscarra has boosted numbers involved in the sport. Cork's maritime sailing heritage is maintained through its sailing clubs. The Royal Cork Yacht Club located in Crosshavenmarker (outside the city) is the world's oldest yacht club, and Cork Week is a notable sailing event.

Cork Racing - Formula Ford

Other sports

There are Cork clubs active nationally in basketball (Neptune and UCC Demons) and golf, pitch and putt, hockey, tennis and athletics clubs in the Cork area. Cricket has long been played in the city. The main teams are Cork County CC, situated next to the Mardyke, and Harlequins CC, located next to Cork airport.The city is also the home of road bowling, which is played in the north-side and south-west suburbs. Boxing and Martial arts, such as Karate, Muay Thai and Taekwondo, also command a high level of practise within the city. Cork Racing races in the Irish Formula Ford Championship.

See also

Further reading

  • Merchants, Mystics and Philanthropists - 350 Years of Cork Quakers Richard S. Harrison Published by Cork Monthly Meeting, Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) 2006


  1. County Hall (Cork County Council)
  2. , Government of Ireland
  3. Cork County Council population report
  4. Cork City Council website - History - Walls of Cork
  5. Cork City Council - List of charters issued to Cork city
  6. Cork City Library - History of Cork - The Burning of Cork
  7. Met Éireann - Annual Report 2003
  8. Met Éireann - The Irish Weather Service - 30 Year Averages - Cork Airport
  9. - Cillian Murphy - Other works
  10. Cork Film Festival Website
  11. - Information about the Jewish community in Cork
  12. - Mass Times for Polish Community in Diocese of Cork and Ross
  14. Cork Campus Radio
  15. ENFO Publication (Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government) Medieval Cork
  16. Cork City Library - History of Cork - St Patrick's Street - Historic Outline
  17. Cork County Council - About the "County Hall"
  18. Church of St. Anne Shandon
  20. Discover Ireland - Cork - The English Market
  21. Cork City Council - International Relations
  22. Green Councillor calls for Cork's twinning with Shanghai to be scrapped -
  23. Ирландия и Россия обсудили возможности сотрудничества в ОЭЗ
  24. - Projects - Western Rail Corridor
  25. RTÉ News: Service begins on Cork-Midleton line
  26. University College Cork is “University of the Year”, UCC Press Release, September 14, 2003

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