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Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( or República de Costa Rica, ) is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaraguamarker to the north, Panamamarker to the east and south, the Pacific Oceanmarker to the west and south and the Caribbean Seamarker to the east.

Costa Rica, which translates literally as "Rich Coast", constitutionally abolished its army permanently in 1949,. Expenditure on the police corps is about US$17.99 per person. Costa Rica has consistently been among the top Latin American countries in terms of the Human Development Index, and ranked 54th in the world in 2007. The country is ranked 5th in the world, and 1st among the Americas, in terms of the 2008 Environmental Performance Index. In 2007 the Costa Rican government announced plans for Costa Rica to become the first carbon neutral country by 2021. According to the New Economics Foundation, Costa Rica ranks first in the Happy Planet Index and is the greenest country in the world.

History

In pre-Columbian times the indigenous people were part of the international Intermediate Area located between the Mesoamerican and Andean cultural regions. This has recently been updated to include the influence of the Isthmo-Colombian area. It was the point where the Mesoamerican and South American native cultures met.
The northwest of the country, the Nicoya Peninsula, was the southernmost point of Nahuatl cultural influence when the Spanishmarker conquerors (conquistadores) came in the sixteenth century. The central and southern portions of the country had Chibcha influences. However, the indigenous people have influenced modern Costa Rican culture to a relatively small degree, as most of these died from diseases such as smallpox and mistreatment by the Spaniards.

The first European to reach what is now Costa Rica was Christopher Columbus in 1502. During Spanish Colonial times, the largest city in Central America was Guatemala Citymarker. Costa Rica's distance from this hub led to difficulty in establishing trade routes and was one of the reasons that Costa Ricans developed in relative isolation and with little oversight from the Spanish Monarchy ("The Crown"). While this isolation allowed the colony to develop free of intervention by The Crown, it also contributed to its failure to share in the prosperity of the Colonies. Costa Rica was described as "the poorest and most miserable Spanish colony in all Americas" by a Spanish governor in 1719.

Another contributing factor to this poverty was the lack of indigenous people used as forced labor. While many Spaniards in the other colonies had tribal members working on their land, most of the Costa Rican settlers had to work on their own land themselves. For all these reasons Costa Rica was by and large unappreciated and overlooked by the Crown and left to develop on its own. It is believed that the circumstances during this period led to the formation of many of the idiosyncrasies that Costa Rica has become known for, while at the same time setting the stage for Costa Rica's development as a more egalitarian society than the rest of its neighbors. Costa Rica became a "rural democracy" with no oppressed mestizo or indigenous class. It was not long before Spanish settlers turned to the hills, where they found rich volcanic soil and a climate that was milder than that of the lowlands.

Costa Rica joined other Central American provinces in 1821 in a joint declaration of independence from Spain. After a brief time in the Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide Costa Rica became a state in the Federal Republic of Central America from 1823 to 1839. In 1824 the capital was moved to San Josémarker, but violence briefly ensued through an intense rivalry with Cartagomarker. Although the newly independent provinces formed a Federation, border disputes broke out among them, adding to the region's turbulent history and conditions.

Costa Rica's membership in the newly formed Federal Republic of Central America, free of Spanish rule, was short lived; in 1838, long after the Central American Federation ceased to function in practice, Costa Rica formally withdrew and proclaimed itself sovereign. The distance from Guatemala City to the Central Valley of Costa Rica, where most of the population lived and still lives, was great. The local population had little allegiance to the government in Guatemala City, in part because of the history of isolation during Colonial times. Costa Rica's disinterest in participating as a province in a greater Central American government was one of the deciding factors in the break-up of the fledgling federation into independent states, which still exist today. However, all of the Central American nations still celebrate September 15 as their independence day, which pertains to the independence of Central America from Spain.

Most Afro-Costa Ricans, who constitute about 3% of the country's population, descend from Jamaicanmarker immigrants who arrived during the 1880s to work in the construction of railways connecting the urban populations of the Central Plateau to the port of Limónmarker on the Caribbean coast. United Statesmarker convicts and Chinese immigrants also participated in the construction project, conducted by U.S. businessman Minor C. Keith. In exchange for completing the railroad, the Costa Rican government granted Keith large tracts of land and a lease on the train route, which he used to produce bananas and export them to the United States. As a result, bananas came to rival coffee as the principal Costa Rican export, while foreign-owned corporations (including the United Fruit Company) began to hold a major role in the national economy.

Historically, Costa Rica has generally enjoyed greater peace and more consistent political stability compared with many of its fellow Latin American nations. Since the late nineteenth century, however, Costa Rica has experienced two significant periods of violence. In 1917-19, Federico Tinoco Granados ruled as a dictator until he was overthrown and forced into exile. Again in 1948, José Figueres Ferrer led an armed uprising in the wake of a disputed presidential election. With more than 2,000 dead, the resulting 44-day Costa Rican Civil War was the bloodiest event in Costa Rica during the twentieth-century. Afterwards, the new, victorious government junta, led by the opposition, abolished the military and oversaw the drafting of a new constitution by a democratically elected assembly. Having enacted these reforms, the regime finally relinquished its power on November 8, 1949, to the new democratic government. After the coup d'état, Figueres became a national hero, winning the country's first democratic election under the new constitution in 1953. Since then, Costa Rica has held 12 presidential elections, the latest being in 2006. All of them have been widely regarded by the international community as peaceful, transparent, and relatively smooth transitions.

Geography

Costa Rica is located on the Central American isthmus, 10° North of the equator and 84° West of the Prime Meridian. It borders both the Caribbean Sea (to the east) and the North Pacific Oceanmarker (to the west), with a total of of coastline, on the Caribbean coast and on the Pacific

Costa Rica also borders Nicaragua to the north ( of border) and Panama to the south-southeast ( of border). In total, Costa Rica comprises plus of territorial waters.

The highest point in the country is Cerro Chirripómarker, at , and is the fifth highest peak in Central America. The highest volcano in the country is the Irazú Volcanomarker ( ). The largest lake in Costa Rica is Lake Arenalmarker.

Costa Rica also comprises several islands. Cocos Island ( ) stands out because of its distance from continental landmass, from Puntarenasmarker, but Calero Island is the largest island of the country ( ).

Costa Rica protects 23% of its national territory within the Protected Areas system. It also possesses the greatest density of species in the world.

Government

Costa Rica is a democratic republic with a strong constitution. Although there are claims that the country has had more than 115 years of uninterrupted democracy, their presidential election history shows otherwise. Nonetheless, the country has had at least 59 years of uninterrupted democracy, making it one of the most stable countries in the region. Costa Rica has been able to avoid the widespread violence that has plagued most of Latin America.

Costa Rica is a republic with three powers: executive responsibilities are vested in a president, legislative power is vested on the Legislative Assembly, and Judicial power is vested on the Supreme Court. There are two vice president as well as a cabinet designated by the president. The president, vice presidents, and 57 Legislative Assembly delegates are elected for four-year terms. A constitutional amendment approved in 1969 limited presidents and delegates to one term, although delegates were allowed to run again for an Assembly seat after sitting out a term.

The Supreme Electoral Body, the Office of the Comptroller General, the Office of the Procurator General of the Republic and the Office of the Ombudsman also enjoy a lot of independence.

The Supreme Court is divided into four chambers, one dealing with Constitutional Law, one dealing with Criminal Law and two dealing with Civil Law, Merchant Law and the like.

In April 2003, the constitutional amendment ban on presidential re-election was reversed, allowing Óscar Arias (Nobel Peace Prize laureate, 1987) to run for president for a second term. In 2006, Óscar Arias was elected in a tight and highly contested election, running on a platform of promoting free trade. He took office on May 8, 2006.

In 2009, the state monopoly on insurance and telecommunications (in which one often needed to wait months to get a cellular phone line) were opened to private-sector competition. Certain other state agencies enjoy considerable operational independence and autonomy; they include the electrical power, the nationalized commercial banks (which are open to competition from private banks), and the social security agency, all of which have played an important role in the development of the Costa Rican high-indexed quality of life.

Costa Rica has no military by constitution

Provinces, cantons, and districts

Provinces of Costa Rica.


Costa Rica is composed of seven provinces, which in turn are divided into 81 cantons ("cantón" in Spanish, plural "cantones"), each of which is directed by a mayor. Mayors are chosen democratically every four years by each canton's people. There are no provincial legislatures. The cantons are further divided into districts (distritos). The provinces are:

  1. Alajuelamarker
  2. Cartagomarker
  3. Guanacastemarker
  4. Herediamarker
  5. Limón
  6. Puntarenasmarker
  7. San José


Economy

A coffee plantation in the Orosi Valley.


According to the World Bank, Costa Rica's GDP per capita is US$11,240 PPP (as of 2008); however, this developing country still faces the fourth highest inflation rate in Latin America, lack of maintenance and new investment in infrastructure, a poverty rate estimated to be 16% to 24%, a 5.6% unemployment rate (2008 est.),, and a trade deficit of 5.2%. For the fiscal year 2007, the country showed a government surplus. Economic growth in 2008 diminished to a 3% increase in the face of a global recession (down from 7% and 9% growth in the prior 2 years).

Costa Rica's inflation rate was an estimated 9.3% in 2007 and increased to 13.9% in 2008, Latin America's 4th highest inflation rate for both years. On October 16, 2006, a new currency exchange system was introduced, allowing the value of the CRC colón to float between two bands as done previously by Chilemarker. The idea is that by doing so the Central Bank will be able to better tackle inflation and discourage the use of U.S. dollars. But, as of August 2009, the value of the colón against the dollar has decreased to 86% of its late-2006 value (see commonly available forex trading charts). The unit of currency is the colón, which trades around 575 to the U.S. dollar; currently about 710 to the euro.

The central government offers tax exemptions for those who are willing to invest in the country. Several global high tech corporations have already started developing in the area exporting goods including chip manufacturer Intelmarker, pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline, and consumer products company Procter & Gamble. In 2006 Intel's microprocessor facility alone was responsible for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 4.9% of the country's GDP. Trade with South East Asia and Russiamarker boomed during 2004 and 2005, and the country obtained full Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC) membership in 2007 after becoming an observer in 2004.

In recent times pharmaceuticals, financial outsourcing, software development, and ecotourism have become the prime industries in Costa Rica's economy. High levels of education among its residents make the country an attractive investing location. Since 1999, tourism earns more foreign exchange than the combined exports of the country's three main cash crops: bananas, pineapples and coffee. Coffee production has played a key role in Costa Rica's history and economy and by 2006 was the third cash crop export. The largest coffee growing areas are in the provinces of San José, Alajuela, Heredia, Puntarenas, and Cartago. Costa Rica is famous for its gourmet coffee beans, with Costa Rican Tarrazú among the finest Arabica coffee beans in the world used for making espresso coffee, together with Jamaican Blue Mountain, Guatemalanmarker Antiguamarker and Ethiopian Sidamo.

There are also numerous gambling casinos in Costa Rica, and a national lottery. Some internet online gambling companies are also based there, causing a dispute with the USA at the World Trade Organization. In a settlement, as compensation for refusing online gambling companies based in Costa Rica to have access to U.S. customers, the United States offered Costa Rica greater access to other service markets, including research and development, storage, technical testing and analysis.

Costa Rica's location provides access to American markets as it has the same time zone as the central part of the United States and direct ocean access to Europe and Asia. A countrywide referendum has approved a free trade agreement with the United States. In the referendum on October 7, 2007, the voters of Costa Rica narrowly backed the free trade agreement, with 51.6% of "Yes" votes.

With a $2.2 billion per year tourism industry, Costa Rica stands as the most visited nation in the Central American region, with 2.0 million foreign visitors in 2008, which translates into a relatively high expenditure per tourist of $1,100 per trip, and a rate of foreign tourists per capita of 0.46, one of the highest in the Caribbean Basin. Most of the tourists come from the U.S. and Canadamarker (46%), and Europe (16%). In 2005, tourism contributed 8.1% of the country's GNP and represented 13.3% of direct and indirect employment. Tourism now earns more foreign exchange than bananas and coffee combined.

Ecotourism is extremely popular with the many tourists visiting the extensive national parks and protected areas around the country. Costa Rica was a pioneer in this type of tourism, and the country is recognized as one of the few with real ecotourism. In the 2009 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index, Costa Rica ranked 42nd in the world and first among Latin American countries. Just considering the sub-index natural resources, Costa Rica ranks 6th worldwide in terms of the natural resources pillar, but 89th in terms of its cultural resources.

Foreign affairs

Costa Rica is an active member of the United Nations and the Organization of American Statesmarker. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the United Nations University of Peace are based in Costa Rica. The Costa Rican State is also a member of many other international organizations related to human rights and democracy.

A main foreign policy objective of Costa Rica is to foster human rights and sustainable development as a way to secure stability and growth.

Costa Rica is a member of the International Criminal Court, without a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the United States military (as covered under Article 98).

Costa Rica also has a long-term disagreement with Nicaragua over the San Juan Rivermarker which denotes the border between the two countries; the disagreement originates from the fact that the river, being Nicaraguan soil, is the only way of access to several communities in Costa Rica which need to be served by armed Costa Rican police forces.

On June 1, 2007, Costa Rica broke ties with the Republic of China in Taiwanmarker, switching allegiance to the People's Republic of Chinamarker.

Costa Rica is currently a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, having been elected for a non-renewable two-year term in the 2007 election. Its term expires on 31 December 2009; this is Costa Rica's third time on the Security Council.

Flora and fauna



Costa Rica is home to a rich variety of plants and animals. While the country has only about 0.1% of the world's landmass, it contains 5% of the world's biodiversity. Around 25% of the country's land area is in protected national parks and protected areas, the largest percentage of protected areas in the world.

One national park that is internationally renowned among ecologists for its biodiversity (including big cats and tapirs) and where visitors can expect to see an abundance of wildlife is the Corcovado National Parkmarker. Corocovado is the one park in Costa Rica where all four Costa Rican monkey species can be found. These include the White-headed Capuchin, the Mantled Howler and the endangered Geoffroy's Spider Monkey. They also include the Central American Squirrel Monkey, which is found only on the Pacificmarker coast of Costa Rica and a small part of Panamamarker, and was considered endangered until 2008 when its status was upgraded to vulnerable.


Tortuguero National Parkmarker—the name Tortuguero can be translated as "Full of Turtles"—is home to spider, howler, and white-throated Capuchin monkeys; the three-toed sloth; 320 species of birds; and a variety of reptiles. The park is recognized for the annual nesting of the endangered green turtle and is the most important nesting site for the species. Giant leatherback, hawksbill, and loggerhead turtles also nest there.

The Monteverde Cloud Forest Reservemarker is home to about 2,000 plant species, including numerous orchids. Over 400 types of birds and over 100 species of mammals can be found there.

As a whole, around 800 species of birds have been identified in Costa Rica. The Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad is allowed to collect royalties on any biological discoveries of medical importance.

Costa Rica and parts of Panama are home to the vulnerable Central American Squirrel Monkey. Deforestation, illegal pet-trading, and hunting are the main reasons for its threatened status.

Costa Rica is a center of biological diversity for reptiles and amphibians, including the world's fastest living lizard, the spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura similis).

Demographics

Costa Rica has a population of 4,509,290.Whites make up 94% of the population , while 3% are Black/Afro-Caribbean, 1% Amerindian, 1% Chinese, and 1% other. The white population is primarily of Spaniard ancestry with significant numbers of Costa Ricans of Italian, German, English, Dutch, French, Irish, Portuguese, Lebanese and Polish families, as well a sizable Jewish community.

Just under 6% of the population is of black African descent. The majority of the Afro-Costa Ricans are Creole English-speaking descendants of nineteenth century black Jamaicanmarker immigrant workers, as well as slaves who were brought during the Atlantic slave trade.

The indigenous or Amerindian population numbers around 1%, or over 41,000 individuals. Most of the population descends from a biracial mix of local Amerindians and Spaniards; most natives live in secluded Indian reservations in the Cordillera de Talamancamarker or Guanacastemarker.

There is also an expatriate community of people from the United States, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, Britainmarker, and other countries.

Costa Rica hosts many refugees, mainly from Colombiamarker and Nicaragua. As a result of that and illegal immigration, an estimated 10% (400,000-600,000) of the Costa Rican population is made up of Nicaraguans. There are also, some Nicaraguans that migrate for seasonal work opportunities and then return to their country. Costa Rica took in many refugees from a range of other Latin American countries fleeing civil wars and dictatorships during the 1970s and 80s—notably from Chilemarker and Argentinamarker, as well as El Salvadormarker who fled from guerrillas and government death squads. According to the World Bank, about 441,000 immigrants live legally in the country and 127,060 Costa Ricans are living abroad legally.

Religion

Church of Our Lady of the Angels, during 2007 pilgrimage.


Christianity is the predominant religion, and Roman Catholicism is the official state religion according to its 1949 Constitution, which at the same time guarantees freedom of religion.

According to the most recent nationwide survey of religion, conducted in 2007 by the University of Costa Rica, 70.5% of Costa Ricans are Roman Catholics, 44.9% of the population are practicing Catholics, 13.8% are Evangelical Protestants, 11.3% report that they do not have a religion, and 4.3% belonged to another.

Because of the recent small but continuous immigration from Asia and the Middle East, other religions have grown, the most popular being Buddhism (because of a growing Chinese community of 40,000), and smaller numbers of Jewish, Muslim, Bahá’í, and Hindu adherents.

There is a Jewish synagogue, the Sinagoga Shaarei Zion, in San Josémarker, near La Sabana Metropolitan Park. Several homes in the neighborhood east of the park are festooned with the Star of David and other recognizable Jewish symbols.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has seen modest growth in Costa Rica in the last 40 years and has built one of only two temples in Central America in the San Antonio de Belen region of Herediamarker.

Languages

The only official language is Spanish. Spanish is spoken as mother tongue by a 97% of the population the other 3% is composed by Amerindian languages and English-creole. There are two main accents native to Costa Rica, the standard Costa Rican and the Nicoyan. The Nicoyan accent is very similar to the standard Nicaraguan accent.A peculiarity of the Spanish in Costa Rica is the relative lack of the use of the pronoun , which is considered rather informal by native Costa Ricans. Instead, Costa Ricans use vos or usted. The conjugation of vos in Costa Rica is practically the same as in Argentina, with the exception of the subjunctive forms.

Jamaican immigrants in the 19th century brought with them a dialect of English that has evolved into the Mekatelyu creole dialect.

English is a language commonly taught in educational institutions, as are French and Portuguese.

Culture

Costa Rica boasts a varied history. Costa Rica was the point where the Mesoamerican and South American native cultures met. The northwest of the country, the Nicoya peninsula, was the southernmost point of Nahuatl cultural influence when the Spanish conquerors (conquistadores) came in the sixteenth century. The central and southern portions of the country had Chibcha influences. The Atlantic coast, meanwhile, was populated with African workers during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Today Costa Rican culture is a peculiar variety of Latin American culture in that pre-Columbian influences are almost non-existent today, since most of the indigenous population was virtually erased by epidemics in the first century of Spanishmarker colonization. As a result the immigration of Spaniards and their 16th-Spanishmarker culture and its evolution marked everyday life and culture until today, with Spanish language and the Catholic religion as main cultural pillars.

The Department of Culture, Youth, and Sports is in charge of the promotion and coordination of the cultural life. The work of the department is divided into Direction of Culture, Visual Arts, Scenic Arts, Music, Patrimony and the System of Libraries. Although the department creates many initiatives, they are constrained by the lack of resources. Permanent programs, nevertheless, are constantly high quality, such as the National Symphony Orchestra of Costa Rica and the Youth Symphony Orchestra, brilliant conjunctions of two areas of work: Culture and Youth. Reggaeton, Reggae, Hip-Hop and American Pop are the most popular genres among the youth. Dance-oriented genres like soca, salsa, bachata, merengue, cumbia and Costa Rican swing have been increasingly shifting toward an older demographic. The guitar is a popular instrument especially as an accompaniment to folk dances, however, the marimba was given the status of the national instrument.

Education

The literacy rate in Costa Rica is of 97%, one of the highest in Latin America. Elementary and high schools are found throughout the country in practically every community. Universal public education is guaranteed in the constitution. Primary education is obligatory, and both preschool and high school are free. There are only a few schools in Costa Rica that go beyond the 12th grade. Students who finish 11th grade receive a Costa Rican Bachillerato Diploma accredited by the Costa Rican Ministry of Education.

There are both state and private universities, with public universities being traditionally regarded as the best quality available in the country, as well as being historically one of the greatest social mobility tools available, given the large budget percentage committed to subsidize economically challenged students. In recent years private universities and colleges have largely consolidated and now very well rival, quality-wise, that of the public sector.

International rankings

Index (Year) Author / Editor / Source Year of

publication
Countries

sampled
World

Ranking
(1)
Ranking

Latin
America(2)
Happy Planet Index (2009) New Economics Foundation
2009
143
1
1
Environmental Performance Yale Universitymarker
2008
149
5
1
Human Poverty, HPI-1 (3) United Nations
2007-08
108
5
4
Poverty below $2 a day (4) United Nations
2007-08
71
8
3
Press Freedom Reporters Without Borders
2007
169
21
1
Democracy The Economist
2007
167
25
1
Global Peace The Economist
2008
140
34
3
Quality-of-life The Economist
2007
111
35
3
Prosperity Index Legatum Institute
2008
104
38
4
Travel and Tourism Competitiveness World Economic Forum
2009
133
42
1
Corruption Perception Transparency International
2008
180
47
3
Economic Freedom The Wall Street Journal
2008
162
49
5
Human Development United Nations
2009
182
54
6
Global Competitiveness World Economic Forum
2009-10
133
55
2
Income inequality (5) United Nations
2007-2008
126
100
5
Life Satisfaction Index (6) Inter-American Development Bank
2008
24
n.a(6)
1
(1) Worldwide ranking among countries evaluated. See notes (3) and (4) also
(2) Ranking among the 20 Latin American countries (Puerto Rico is not included).
(3) Ranking among 108 developing countries with available data only.
(4) Ranking among 71 developing countries with available data only. Countries in the sample surveyed between 1990-2005. Refers to population below income poverty line as define by the World Bank's $2 per day indicator
(5) Because the Gini coefficient used for the ranking corresponds to different years depending of the country, and the underlying household surveys differ in method and in the type of data collected, the distribution data are not strictly comparable across countries. The ranking therefore is only a proxy for reference purposes.
(6) The Life Satisfaction Index study was performed by the Inter-American Development Bank among 24 countries in the Latin American and the Caribbean region, based on IDB calculations based on Gallup World Poll 2006 - 2007 and World Development Indicators. Therefore, it is a regional index.


See also



References

  1. The Story Of... Smallpox
  2. Geographia Accessed on November 22, 2007.
  3. Costa Rica - Cartago
  4. estudiofi
  5. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDI_2008_EN_Tables.pdf
  6. Banco Central de Costa Rica
  7. Table 44 and 45
  8. Edition 2071. Print edition pp. 140
  9. Latinamerica Press
  10. 2006 Annual Survey from the Costa Rican Board of Tourism (ICT)
  11. Boston.com
  12. Chapter 5. Costa Rica: On the Beaten Path
  13. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. "Issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries and recommendations on any further process" Table 1
  14. Published on website "Planeta Sustentável"
  15. Corcovado National Park
  16. Diversity of Corcovado National Park
  17. Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve
  18. Costa Rica: Ethnic groups
  19. White Settlement in Costa Rica
  20. www.state.gov Background Note: Costa Rica - People
  21. http://articles.latimes.com/2006/mar/23/world/fg-costa23
  22. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/Resources/334934-1199807908806/CostaRica.pdf
  23. Link to the Costa Rican Jewish Community
  24. Jewish Community in Costa Rica
  25. San José Costa Rica LDS (Mormon) Temple
  26. The Phonemes of Costa Rican Spanish O. L. Chavarria-Aguilar Language, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Jan.-Sep., 1951), pp. 248-253
  27. CIA World Factbook, January 2009
  28. page 240
  29. page 238-240


Further reading

  • CIA World Factbook. Costa Rica.
  • Edelman, Marc. Peasants Against Globalization: Rural Social Movements in Costa Rica Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.
  • Sebastian Huhn: Contested Cornerstones of Nonviolent National Self-Perception in Costa Rica: A Historical Approach, 2009.
  • Lara, Sylvia Lara, Tom Barry, and Peter Simonson. Inside Costa Rica: The Essential Guide to Its Politics, Economy, Society and Environment London: Latin America Bureau, 1995.
  • Lehoucq, Fabrice E. and Ivan Molina. Stuffing the Ballot Box: Fraud, Electoral Reform, and Democratization in Costa Rica Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  • Lehoucq, Fabrice E. Policymaking, Parties, and Institutions in Democratic Costa Rica, 2006.
  • Palmer, Steven and Iván Molina. The Costa Rica Reader: History, Culture, Politics Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2004.
  • Sandoval, Carlos. Threatening Others: Nicaraguans and the Formation of National Identities in Costa Rica Athens: Ohio University Press, 2004.
  • Wilson, Bruce M. Costa Rica: Politics, Economics, and Democracy: Politics, Economics and Democracy. Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998.


External links

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