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County Armagh ( ) is one of the traditional counties of Ireland. It is located within the province of Ulster and is part of Northern Irelandmarker. It was named after the town of Armaghmarker.

County Armagh is known as the "Orchard County" because the land is so fertile for apple-growing. It is situated directly south of Lough Neaghmarker.

Etymology

The name "Armagh" derives from the Irish word Ard meaning "height" and Macha, together meaning "height (or high place) of Macha". Macha was a legendary figure described both as one of the Godesses of Celtic mythology and sole High Queen of Ireland among the line of kings. Macha is mentioned in the Book of the Taking of Ireland, and is also said to have been responsible for the construction of the hill site of Emain Machamarker (now Navan Fort near Armagh City) to serve as the capital of the Ulaid kings (who give their name to Ulster), also thought to be Macha's height.

Geography & features

From its highest point at Slieve Gullionmarker, in the south of the County, Armagh's land falls away from its rugged south with Carrigatuke, Lislea and Camlough mountains, to rolling drumlin country in the middle and west of the county and finally flatlands in the North where rolling flats and small hills reach sea level at lough Neaghmarker.

Medieval front of the ruined 6th Century Killeavy Old Church, Killeavy


County Armagh's boundary with Louthmarker is marked by the rugged Ring of Gullion rising in the south of the county whilst much of its boundary with Monaghanmarker and Down goes unnoticed with seamless continuance of drumlins and small lakes. The River Blackwater marks the border with County Tyrone and Lough Neagh otherwise marks out the County's northern boundary.

There are also a number of uninhabited islands in the county's section of Lough Neagh: Coney Island, Coney Island Flat, Croaghan Flat, Derrywarragh Island, Padian, Phil Roe's Flat and the Shallow Flat.

Climate

Despite lying in the east of Ireland, Armagh enjoys an Oceanic climate strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream with damp mild winters, and temperate, wet summers. Overall temperatures rarely drop below freezing during daylight hours, though frost is not infrequent in the months November - February. Snow rarely lies for longer than a few hours even in the elevated south-east of the County. Summers are mild and wet and although with sunshine often interspersed with showers, daylight lasts for almost 18 hours during high-summer.

History

Ancient Armagh was the territory of the Ulaid (also known as Voluntii, Ultonians, Ulidians, Ulstermen) before the fourth century AD. It was ruled by the Red Branch, whose capital was Emain Machamarker (or Navan Fort) near Armaghmarker. The site, and subsequently the city, were named after the goddess Macha. The Red Branch play an important role in the Ulster Cycle, as well as the Cattle Raid of Cooley. However, they were eventually driven out of the area by the Three Collas, who invaded in the 4th century and held power until the 12th. The Clan Colla ruled the area known as Airghialla or Oriel for these 800 years.

The chief Irish septs of the county were descendants of the Collas, the O'Hanlons and MacCanns, and the Ui Neill, the O'Neills of Fews. Armagh was divided into several baronies: Armagh was held by the O'Rogans, Lower Fews was held by O'Neill of the Fews, and Upper Fews were under governance of the O'Larkins, who were later displaced by the MacCanns. Oneilland East was the territory of the O'Garveys, who were also displaced by the MacCanns. Oneilland West, like Oneilland East, was once O'Neill territory, until it was then held by the MacCanns, who were Lords of Clanbrassil. Upper and Lower Orior were O'Hanlon territory. Tiranny was ruled by Ronaghan. Miscellaneous tracts of land were ruled by O'Kelaghan.

Armagh was the seat of St. Patrick, and in Roman Catholic tradition, continues to be his see.County Armagh is one of four counties of Northern Ireland to presently have a majority of the population from a Catholic community background, according to the 2001 census.

The Troubles

The South of Armagh was the most militarised region in Western Europe due to the history of the Troubles. The region has been a stronghold of support for the IRA, earning it the nickname "Bandit Country". South Armagh is predominantly nationalist, with most of the population being opposed to any form of Britishmarker presence, especially that of a military nature. See Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade for further information.

Administration

The primary remaining official use of County Armagh is as a Lieutenancy area and the county retains a lord lieutenant who acts as representative of the British Monarch in the County.

County Armagh ceased to serve as a local government unit in 1973 and currently the county is divided into three district councils for local government purposes, namely Armagh City and District Council, most of Craigavon Borough Council, and approximately the western third of Newry and Mourne District Council. With the proposed reform of Local government in Northern Ireland in 2011, County Armagh is proposed to be form part of two new council areas, Armagh City and Bann District, and Newry City and Down.

Armagh has ceased to serve as an electoral constituency in 1983 but remains the core of the Newry and Armagh and Newry & Armagh Northern Ireland Assembly electoral constituencies. County Armagh also remains as a district for legal and property purposes however its baronies no longer have any administrative use.

The -LZ suffix is currently used on vehicle registration plates for vehicles registered in County Armaghmarker.

Settlements

Large Towns Medium Towns Small Towns Intermediate Settlements Villages Small Villages or Hamlets
(population of 18,000 or more and under 75,000 at 2001 Census) (10,000 or more and under 18,000) (4,500 or more and under 10,000) (2,250 or more and under 4,500) (1,000 or more and under 2,250) (less than 1,000)
Newrymarker (though half of the city is in County Down) Armaghmarker (has city status) None Keadymarker Crossmaglenmarker Camloughmarker
Craigavonmarker, includes Lurganmarker and Portadownmarker / / Richhillmarker Dollingstownmarker Cullavillemarker
/ / / Tandrageemarker Magheralinmarker Cullyhannamarker
/ / / / Markethillmarker Derrymacashmarker
/ / / / / Drumnacanvymarker
/ / / / / Forkhillmarker
/ / / / / Newtownhamiltonmarker
/ / / / / The Birches


Transport



County Armagh is traversed by two major highways - the M1 linking Belfast to Dungannonmarker crossed the North of the County whilst the A1/N1 from Belfastmarker to Dublinmarker runs in the far south east of the County. Armagh has numerous local roads connecting settlements in the county.Armagh once had a well developed railroad network with connections to, amongst others, Armagh City, Cullovillemarker, Goraghwood, Markethillmarker, Vernersbridge, Tynanmarker (see History of rail transport in Ireland ) but today only Newry marker, Portadownmarker, Poyntzpassmarker, Scarvamarker, and Lurganmarker are served by rail.

Ulsterbus provides the most extensive public transport system within the county, including frequent bus transfers daily from most towns to Belfast. Northern Ireland Railways / Iarnród Éireann's Enterprise service provides connections to Dublin in little over and hour and Belfast in little over forty minutes several times daily.

People associated with County Armagh

See main article: People from County Armagh


Places of Interest



Gallery

Image:Slieve Gullion.jpg|View of Slieve GullionmarkerImage:BackofAughanduff.JPG|South Armagh CountrysideImage:Forkhill.JPG|Forkhillmarker MountainImage:Navan.jpg|Emain MachamarkerImage:Moyry Castle, Geograph.jpg| Moyry CastleImage:Kilnasaggart inscribed stone County Armagh 1.jpg| Killnasaggart Stone, 700 A.D.Image:St Patrick's CoI Cathedral, Armagh.jpg|St. Patrick's Cathederalmarker, est. 445Image:Cathedrale d Armagh.jpg|Armagh CityImage:Central Markethill County Armagh Northern Ireland.JPG|The small town of MarkethillmarkerImage:Newry CoDown NIreland 0001.JPG|County Armagh part of Newrymarker in the backgroundImage:Crossmaglen.jpg|Approach to CrossmaglenmarkerImage:GosfordCastle.jpg|Gosford Castle,outside of Markethillmarker


See also



References

  • Neil Lennon-former captain of Glasgow Celtic F.C. (Autobiography: Man and Bhoy)


External links





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