The Full Wiki

Curry: Map

  
  
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Curry (IPA: ) is a generic description used throughout European and American culture to describe a general variety of spiced dishes, best known in Indian cuisines, especially South Asian cuisine. Curry is a generic term, and although there is no one specific attribute that marks a dish as "curry", some distinctive spices used in many, though certainly not all, curry dishes include turmeric, cumin, coriander, fenugreek, and red pepper. The word curry is an anglicised version of the Tamil word kari. It is usually understood to mean "gravy" or "sauce", rather than "spices". In most South Indian languages, the word literally means side-dish, which can be eaten along with a main dish like rice or bread.

Curry's popularity in recent decades has spread outward from the Indian subcontinent to figure prominently in international cuisine. Consequently, each culture has adopted spices in their indigenous cooking, to suit their own unique tastes and cultural sensibilities. Curry can therefore be called a pan-Asian or global phenomenon, with immense popularity in Thai, British and Japanese cuisines.

Etymology

Curry is derived from the word "Kari", which has its origins in Dravidian languages, and means "vegetable in sauce" or "sauce". The verb 'Karughi' in Tamil means deeply fried (or burnt). In India the word "curry" is heavily used in the southern part of India in the languages Tamil and Malayalam. In Kannada 'Kari' means to fry or the fried dish.

South Indian and Sri Lankan cuisines



Andhra or Telugu cuisine


Andhra cuisine is spicy and has a unique flavor to itself. Similar to the Tamil cuisine though there are regional variations in Andhra Pradesh cuisine. Telangana, which is in the west of Andhra Pradesh, has dishes like Ambali, jonna rotte (Jowar bread), Sajja Rotte (bread from sajja grains), and Hyderabadi biryani (which is mainly influenced by Islamic culture and a favorite across the nation).

Typical Andhra cuisine dishes include kodi kura (chicken curry), ulavachaaru (soup from horse gram), chapala pulusu (fish curry), yatamamsam (goat mutton), avakaaya pickle (mango), red chilli pickle, pesarattu etc..

Karnataka cuisine


The curries of Karnataka typically have a lot more dal compared to curries of other parts of India. Some typical soup dishes include Saaru, Gojju, Thovve, Huli, Majjige Huli; which is similar to the "kadi" made in the north, Sagu or Kootu, which is eaten mixed with hot rice.

Karnataka Curry (either in the form of Sambar or Saru/rasam) is must in lunch/dinner or breakfast (especially with Idli and Wada). Idli, Sambar and Chatni along with crispy wada are good combination and light weight breakfast.

Malayali cuisine


Malayali curries of Keralamarker typically contain shredded coconut paste or coconut milk, curry leaves, and various spices. Mustard seeds are used in almost every dish, along with onions, curry leaves, sliced red chilies fried in hot oil. Most of the non-vegetarian dishes are heavily spiced. Kerala is known for its traditional Sadya, a vegetarian meal served with boiled rice and a host of side-dishes, such as Parippu (Green gram), Papadum, some ghee, Sambar, Rasam, Aviyal, Kaalan, Kichadi, pachadi, Injipuli, Koottukari, pickles (mango, lime), Thoran, one to four types of Payasam, Boli, Olan, Pulissery, moru (buttermilk), Upperi, Banana chips, etc. The sadya is customarily served on a banana leaf.

Tamil and Sri Lankan cuisines


Tamil cuisine's distinctive flavor and aroma is achieved by a blend and combination of spices, including curry leaves, tamarind, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, poppy seeds, mustard seeds, cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, cumin, fennel or anise seeds, fenugreek seeds, nutmeg, coconut, turmeric root or powder, and rosewater. Lentils, vegetables and dairy products are essential accompaniments, and are often served with rice. Traditionally, vegetarian foods dominate the menu with a range of non-vegetarian dishes, including freshwater fish and seafood, cooked with traditional Tamil spices and seasoning. This holds good for all the four South Indian states.

In Sri Lankan cuisine, rice, which is usually consumed daily, can be found at any special occasion, while spicy curries are favorite dishes for dinner and lunch. Rice and curry refers to a range of Sri Lankan dishes.

Other South Asian cuisines

Bengali, Bangladeshi and Oriya cuisines

Bengalimarker cuisine includes a plethora of curries. Seafood and fresh fish are a great favourite with Bengalis, and a large number of curries have been devised to accompany them. Mustard seeds and mustard oil are added to many recipes, as are poppy seeds.

The Oriya people also have similar eating habits and are considered masters in preparing these types of curries. This is proved by the number of Oriya deployed in West Bengalmarker as master chefs.

Gujarati cuisine

The typical Gujaratimarker cuisine is called Thali which consists of Roti (a flat bread made from wheat flour), daal or kadhi, rice, and sabzi/shaak (a dish made up of different combinations of vegetables and spices, which may be stir fried, spicy or sweet). Cuisine varies in taste and heat, depending on a given family's tastes. An Ashwingad Yiar is also popular in Southern India.

North Indian and Pakistani cuisines



North Indian cuisine includes Mughlai cuisine, the cuisine of Kashmir, Awadhi cuisine, the cuisine of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthani cuisine and Bhojpuri cuisine.

A favourite Pakistanimarker curry is Karahi, which is either mutton or chicken cooked in a dry spice rub. Lahori Karahi incorporates garlic, spices and vinegar. Peshawari karahi is a simple dish made with just meat, salt, tomatoes and corriander.

Punjabi cuisine


Punjabi curries are mainly based upon masalas (spice blends), pure desi ghee, with liberal amounts of butter and cream. There are certain dishes that are exclusive to Punjab, such as Maha Di Dal and Saron Da Saag (Sarson Ka Saag).

Sindhi cuisine


Sindhimarker cuisine refers to the cuisine of the Sindhi people. The daily food in most Sindhi households consists of wheat-based flat-bread (phulka) and rice accompanied by two dishes, one gravy and one dry.

Pashtun cuisine


The cuisine of the Pashtun people in northwestern Pakistan is mostly identical to the cuisine of neighbouring Afghanistan, which is largely based upon cereals like wheat, maize, barley and rice. Accompanying these staples are dairy products (yoghurt, whey), various nuts, native vegetables, and fresh and dried fruits.

Northeast Indian and Nepalese cuisines

The curries of North-East India are very different from other parts of India. This area's cuisine has been influenced by its neighbours, namely Burma and Tibet. Its use of well known Indian spices is less. Yak is a popular meat in this region of India.

Dahl baht, rice and lentil soup, is a staple dish of Nepalmarker. Newa cuisine is a type of cuisine developed over centuries by the Newars of Nepal.

Other Indian cuisines

In other varieties of Indianmarker cuisine, kadhi is a gravy - made by stirring yoghurt into a roux of ghee and besan. The spices added vary, but usually include turmeric and black mustard seed. It is often eaten with rice.In India hundreds and thousands of curries can be made up of vegetables and lentils only.In curry lots of spices goes but it doesn't mean that it is going to be hot, all spices goes in proportion and the main masala(spice) is corriander(dhania Powder) and cumin (jeera powder) which not only gives taste but are proven remedy for digestive problems.

Other Asian cuisines

Chinese cuisine

Chinese curries (咖哩, gā lǐ) typically consist of chicken, beef, fish, lamb, or other meats, green peppers, onions, large chunks of potatoes, and a variety of other ingredients and spices in a mildly spicy yellow curry sauce, and topped over steamed rice. White pepper, soy sauce, hot sauce, and/or hot chili oil may be applied to the sauce to enhance the flavor of the curry.

The most common Chinese variety of curry sauce is usually sold in powder form. It seems to have descended from a Singaporean and Malaysian variety, countries which also introduced the Satay sauce to the Chinese. The ethnic Cantonese being most dominant in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore, this yellow, Chinese-Malaysian variety was naturally introduced to China by the Cantonese, and features typically in the Hong Kong cuisine. (Interestingly, the Malay Satay seems to have been introduced to China with wider success by the ethnic Teochewmarker, which are not dominant in the Nusantara, but in Thailandmarker.)

There are many different varieties of Chinese curry, depending on each restaurant. Unlike other Asian curries, which usually have a thicker consistency, Chinese curry is often watery in nature. "Galimian," (from Malaysian "curry mee" or "curry noodles,") is also a popular Chinese curry dish.

Indonesian cuisine

In Indonesian, gulai and kari or kare is based on curry. They are often highly localised and reflect the meat and vegetables available. They can therefore employ a variety of meats (chicken, beef, water buffalo and goat as in the flavoursome "gulai kambing"), seafood (prawn, crab, mussel, clam, squid etc), fish or vegetable dishes in a spiced sauce. They use local ingredients such as chili peppers, Kaffir lime leaves, lemon grass, Galangal, Indonesian bay leaves or salam leaves, candlenuts, turmeric, shrimp paste (terasi), cumin, coriander seed and coconut milk. One popular curry is rendang from West Sumatran cuisine. Authentic rendang uses water buffalo slow-cooked in thick coconut milk over a number of hours to tenderise and flavour the meat. In Aceh, curries use daun salam koja or daun kari (translated as "curry leaves"). Opor Ayam is another kind of curry.

Iranian cuisine

In Iranianmarker cuisine, a ground spice mixture called advieh is used in many stews and rice dishes. It is similar to some curries. Ingredients in the mix vary, but may include cinnamon, cardamom, cumin, coriander, golpar, turmeric, black pepper, cloves, allspice, dried rose petals, and ground ginger. It is usually mellow and mild, not spicy hot.

Japanese cuisine

 is one of the most popular dishes in Japan, where people eat it 62 times a year according to a survey. It is usually eaten as karē raisu — curry, rice and often pickled vegetables, served on the same plate and eaten with a spoon, a common lunchtime canteen dish.


Curry was introduced to Japanmarker by the British in the Meiji era (1869–1913) after Japan ended its policy of national self-isolation (Sakoku), and curry in Japanmarker is categorized as a Western dish. Its spread across the country is commonly attributed to its use in the Japanese Army and Navy which adopted it extensively as convenient field and naval canteen cooking, allowing even conscripts from the remotest countryside to experience the dish. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force still traditionally have curry every Friday for lunch and many ships have their own unique recipes.

The standard Japanese curry contains onions, carrots, potatoes, and sometimes celery, and a meat that is cooked in a large pot. Sometimes grated apples or honey are added for additional sweetness and other vegetables are sometimes used instead. For the meat, pork, beef and chicken are the most popular, in order of decreasing popularity. In northern and eastern Japan including Tokyomarker, pork is the most popular meat for curry. Beef is more common in western Japan, including Osaka, and in Okinawamarker chicken is favored. Curry seasoning is commonly sold in the form of a condensed 'brick' which dissolves in the mixture of meat and vegetables.

Curry in Korea is exactly identical to the Japanese version, having moved over from Colonial times in the early 20th century.

Sometimes the curry-rice is topped with breaded pork cutlet (tonkatsu); this is called Katsu-karē ("cutlet curry"). Korokke (potato croquettes) are also a common topping.

Apart from with rice, karē udon (thick noodles in curry flavoured soup) and karē-pan ("curry bread" — deep fried battered bread with curry in the middle) are also popular.

Malaysian cuisine

Being at the crossroads of ancient trade routes has left a mark on the Malaysian cuisine. While the curry may have initially found its way to Malaysian shores via the Indian population, it has since become a staple among the Malays and Chinese too. Malaysian curries differ from state to state, even within similar ethnic groupings as they are influenced by the many factors, be it cultural, religious, agricultural or economical.

Malaysian curries typically use curry powders rich in turmeric, coconut milk, shallots, ginger, belacan (shrimp paste), chilis, and garlic. Tamarind is also often used. Rendang is another form of curry consumed in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia; although it is drier and contains mostly meat and more coconut milk than a conventional Malaysian curry. Rendang was mentioned in Malay literature Hikayat Amir Hamzah (1550-an) is popular among Indonesians, Singaporeans and Malaysians. All sorts of things are curried in Malaysia, including mutton, chicken, shrimp, cuttlefish, fish, aubergines, eggs, and vegetables.

Thai cuisine

In Thai cuisine, curries are meat, fish or vegetable dishes in a spiced sauce. They use local ingredients such as chili peppers, Kaffir lime leaves, lemon grass, Galangal and coconut milk, and tend to be more aromatic than Indian curries as a result. Curries are often described by colour; red curries use red chilis while green curries use green chilis. Yellow curries are more similar to Indian curries, with their use of turmeric and cumin. Yellow curries in Thailand usually don't contain potatoes except in southern style cooking, however, Thai restaurants abroad usually have them. Yellow curry is also called gaeng curry (by various spellings), of which a word-for-word translation would be "soup curry" or "curry curry".



Vietnamese cuisine

In Vietnammarker, curry is called cà ri. Certain Vietnamese curry is more soup-like than Indian curry. Curry is more common in the South, such as in Saigon and the surrounding areas.Besides rice, dipping French style bread is also a common practice when eating curry goat or chicken in these regions.

Other Southeast Asian cuisines

South East Asia, including countries like Cambodiamarker Laos and Vietnam, also have their own versions of curry. Note that these countries have had many influences from Indian culture and cuisine due to South Asian travellers centuries before. In the cuisine of the Philippines, kare-kare is made with a peanutty sauce.

Other cuisines

Other countries have their own varieties of curry, well known examples include:



Curry powder is used as an incidental ingredient in other cuisines, including for example a "curry sauce" (sauce au curry, sometimes even au cari) variation of the classic French béchamel.

British cuisine

In British cuisine, the word "curry" is primarily used to denote a sauce-based dish flavoured with curry powder or a paste made from the powder and oils. However, the use of fresh spices such as ginger and garlic, and preparation of an initial masala from freshly ground dried spices are sometimes used.

The first curry recipe in Britain appeared in The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse in 1747. The first edition of her book used only pepper and coriander seeds for seasoning of "currey". By the fourth edition of the book other relatively common ingredients of turmeric and ginger were used. The use of hot spices was not mentioned, which reflected the limited use of chili in India — chili plants had only been introduced into India around the late 15th century and at that time were only popular in southern India. Many curry recipes are contained in 19th century cookbooks such as those of Charles Elme Francatelli and Mrs Beeton. In Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, a recipe for curry powder is given that contains coriander, turmeric, cinnamon, cayenne, mustard, ginger, allspice and fenugreek; although she notes that it is more economical to purchase the powder at "any respectable shop". In 1810, the British Bengali entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomed opened the first Indian curry house in Englandmarker: the Hindoostanee Coffee House in Londonmarker. According to legend, one 19th century attempt at curry resulted in the invention of Worcestershire sauce.

The popularity of curry among the general public was enhanced by the invention of "Coronation chicken" to commemorate the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. Curry sauce (or curry gravy) is a British use of curry as a condiment, usually served warm with traditional British fast food dishes such as chips. Curry sauce occasionally would include sultana.

The popularity of curry in the UK encouraged the growth of Indian restaurants. Until the early 1970s more than three quarters of Indian restaurants in Britain were identified as being owned and run by people of Bengalimarker origin. Most were run by migrants from East Pakistan, which became Bangladeshmarker in 1971. Bangladeshi restaurateurs overwhelmingly come from the northeastern division of Sylhetmarker. Until 1998, as many as 85% of curry restaurants in the UK were British Bangladeshi restaurants but in 2003 this figure declined to just over 65%. Currently the dominance of Bangladeshi restaurants is generally declining in some parts of Londonmarker and the further north one travels. In Glasgowmarker there are more restaurants of Punjabi origin than any other.

Regardless of the ethnic origin of a restaurant's ownership, the menu will often be influenced by the wider Indian subcontinent (sometimes including Nepalese dishes), and sometimes cuisines from further afield (such as Persian dishes). Some British variations on Indian food are now being exported from the UK to India. British-style curry restaurants are also popular in Canadamarker, Australia and New Zealandmarker.

In a relatively short space of time curry has become an integral part of British cuisine, so much so that, since the late 1990s, Chicken Tikka Masala has been referred to as "a true British national dish". It is now available (albeit in frozen, microwavable form) on Intercity rail trains, as a flavour for crisps, and even as a pizza topping.

The British curry house
Curry is eaten in almost all parts of the Indian subcontinent and outside, namely India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, it has its varying degrees of style, taste and aroma, depending on local ingredients used.

Bengalis in the UK settled in big cities with industrial employment. In London Bengalis settled in the East End. For centuries the East End has been the first port of call for many immigrants working in the docks and shipping from east Bengal. Their regular stopover paved the way for food/curry outlets to be opened up catering for an all male workforce as family migration and settlement took place some decades later.

This cuisine is characterized by the use of a common base for all the sauces to which spices are added when individual dishes are prepared. The standard "feedstock" is usually a sautéed mixture of onion, garlic and fresh ginger, to which various spices are added, depending on the recipe, but which may include: cloves, cinnamon, cardamom, chilies, peppercorns, cumin and mustard seeds. Ground coriander seed is widely used as a thickening agent, and turmeric is added for colour and its digestive qualities. Fresh or canned tomatoes and Bell Peppers are a common addition.

Better-quality restaurants will normally make up new sauces on a daily basis, using fresh ingredients wherever possible and grinding their own spices. More modest establishments are more likely to resort to frozen or dried ingredients and pre-packaged spice mixtures.

Although the names may be similar to traditional dishes, the recipes generally are not.

  • Korma/Kurma - mild, yellow in colour, with almond and coconut powder
  • Curry - medium, brown, gravy-like sauce
  • Biryani - Spiced rice and meat cooked together and usually served with vegetable curry sauce.
  • Dupiaza/Dopiaza - medium curry the word means "double onion" referring to the boiled and fried onions used as its primary ingredient.
  • Pasanda - a mild curry sauce made with cream, coconut milk, and almonds or cashews.
  • Roghan Josh (from "Roghan" (fat) and "Josh" (energy/heat - which as in English may refer to either "spiciness" or temperature)) - medium, with tomatoes and paprika
  • Bhuna - medium, thick sauce, some vegetables
  • Dhansak - medium/hot, sweet and sour sauce with lentils (originally a Parsi dish). This dish often also contains pineapple.
  • Madras - fairly hot curry, red in colour and with heavy use of chili powder
  • Pathia - hot, generally similar to a Madras with lemon juice and tomato purée
  • Jalfrezi - onion, green chili and a thick sauce
  • Sambar - medium heat, sour curry made with lentils and lemons
  • Vindaloo - this is generally regarded as the classic "hot" restaurant curry, although a true Vindaloo does not specify any particular level of spiciness. The name has European origins, derived from the Portuguese term "vinha d'alhos", a marinade containing wine ("vinho"), or sometimes vinegar, and garlic ("alho"), used to prevent the pork from going off in the heat. Some recipes include potato, misinterpreting the word "Vindaloo" due to its similarity to the Hindi word aloo (potato).
  • Phaal - extremely hot dish using ground chilies, ginger and fennel.


The tandoor was introduced into Britain in the 1960s and tandoori and tikka chicken became popular dishes; Chicken Tikka Masala was said to have been invented in Glasgow by a Bengali chef, when a customer demanded a sauce with a "too dry" tikka (legend has it that the cook then heated up a tin of Campbell's condensed tomato soup and added some spices)

Other dishes may be featured with varying strengths, with those of north Indian origin, such as Butter Chicken, tending to be mild, and recipes from the south of India tending to be hotter.

Balti curries


A style of curry thought to have been developed in Birminghammarker, Englandmarker which has spread to other western countries is traditionally cooked and served in the same, typically cast iron pot.

West Indies

In the West Indiesmarker, curry is a very popular dish. The Indian indentured servants that were brought over from India by different European powers, brought this dish, as well as their culture, to the West Indies. In Jamaicamarker and Trinidad, curry goat is prominently featured. The sauces for other curries are usually thinner than a true Indian curry, but some exceptions can be made. Curry can be found at both non-expensive and upscale Caribbean restaurants, and ingredients can range from chicken or vegetables to shellfish such as shrimp and scallops. Examples of curries in the West Indies include:

  • Jamaica: Especially curry chicken, curry goat, curry fish, curry shrimp
  • Trinidad and Tobago: Most notably curry chicken, curry goat, curry shrimp, curry aloo
  • Guyana: Chicken Curry, Goat Curry, Duck Curry, Shrimp Curry, Beef Curry (eaten by Muslims), Aloo Curry, Fish (different varities of fish) Curry, etc.


Curry addiction

A number of studies have claimed that the reaction of pain receptors to the hotter ingredients in curries, even Korma, leads to the body's release of endorphins and combined with the complex sensory reaction to the variety of spices and flavours, a natural high is achieved that causes subsequent cravings, often followed by a desire to move on to hotter curries. Some refer to this as addiction, but other researchers contest the use of the word "addiction" in this instance.

Curry powder

Curry powder, also known as masala powder, is a spice mixture of widely varying composition developed by the British during the days of the Raj as a means of approximating the taste of Indian cuisine at home. Masala refers to spices, and this is the name given to the thick and pasty sauce based on a combination of spices with ghee (clarified butter), butter, palm oil or coconut milk. Most commercial curry powders available in Britain, the U.S. and Canada, rely heavily on ground turmeric, in turn producing a very yellow sauce. Lesser ingredients in these Western yellow curry powders are often coriander, cumin, fenugreek, mustard, chili, black pepper and salt. It should be reiterated that curry powders and pastes produced and consumed in India are extremely diverse; some red, some yellow, some brown; some with five spices and some with as many as 20 or more. Besides the previously mentioned spices, other commonly found spices in different curry powders in India are allspice, white pepper, ground mustard, ground ginger, cinnamon, roasted cumin, cloves, nutmeg, mace, green cardamom seeds or black cardamom pods, bay leaves and coriander seeds.

Health benefits

Some studies have shown that ingredients in curry may help to prevent certain diseases, including colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

See also



References

Further reading

  • Curry Club Indian Restaurant Cookbook, Piatkus, London — ISBN 0861883780 & ISBN 0861884884 (1984 to 2009)
  • K.T. Achaya. A Historical Dictionary of Indian Food (Delhimarker: Oxford University Press) 1998
  • Pat Chapman India: Food & Cooking, New Holland, London — ISBN 978-1845376192 (2007)
  • Indian Food: A Historical Companion]. (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1994
  • New Curry Bible, republished by John Blake Publishers ISBN 9781843581598 (2005)
  • David Burton. The Raj at Table (Londonmarker: Faber & Faber) 1993
  • Pat Chapman’s Curry Bible, Hodder & St — ISBN 0340680377 & ISBN 0340680377 & ISBN 0340 68562 X & ISBN 034068562X (1997)
  • E.M. Collingham. Curry: A biography (London: Chatto & Windus) 2005
  • Madhur Jaffrey. An Invitation to Indian Cooking (London: Penguin) 1975
  • Petit Plats Curry, Hachette Marabout, Paris — ISBN 2501033086 (2000)



Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message