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Cypenamine, or phenylcyclopentamine, is a psychoactive drug and research chemical which acts as a stimulant, likely via functioning as a norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (NDRA). It is currently known only in scientific research and has never been developed for market use. The trans- isomer is reported to be more active than the racemate. Cypenamine is currently legal throughout the entire world, and though its chemical structure has a vague similarity to certain controlled stimulants like fencamfamine (Glucoenergan, Reactivan), it is likely that it is too distant for it to be considered an illicit analogue under say the United Statesmarker (U.S.) Federal Analogue Act (FAA) of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

Stereochemistry

2-Phenylcyclopentan-1-amine is a compound with two stereocenters. Thus, the following four following stereoisomers may exist:
  • (1R,2S)-trans-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine
  • (1S,2R)-trans-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine
  • (1R,2R)-cis-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine
  • (1S,2S)-cis-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine
The racemate (±)-trans-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine [1:1 mixture of (1R,2S)-trans-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine (box, left) and (1S,2R)-trans-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine (box, right)] is the active ingredient of cypenamine. Furthermore, the kinetic resolution of (±)-trans-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine by lipase B from Candida antarctica may effectivily performed by an aminolysis reaction.

Racemic cis-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine [1:1 mixture of (1R,2R)-cis-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine and (1S,2S)-cis-2-phenylcyclopentan-1-amine] has found no pharmacological application.

Homology

Cypenamine is an obvious homologue, containing an expanded alicyclic ring that is two -CH2- units larger than the highly strained/reactive cyclopropane of tranylcypromine. Based on this logic, one would have to contend that the cyclobutane homologue is yet another possibility. The cyclohexane homologue is known to have been reported, although the LD50's were all less than for plain amphetamine, it was still a functional stimulant.

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