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The D'Oyly Carte Opera Company was a professional light opera company that staged performances of Gilbert and Sullivan's Savoy Operas nearly year-round in the UK, Europe, North America, South Africa, Australasia and elsewhere from the 1870s until it closed in 1982. A new D'Oyly Carte Opera Company was formed in 1988, which played seasons in London and toured until 2003.

In 1875, Richard D'Oyly Carte asked dramatist W. S. Gilbert and composer Arthur Sullivan to collaborate on a short comic opera to round out the evening's entertainment at the Royalty Theatremarker, which he was then managing. That work, Trial by Jury, became a success, and Carte put together a syndicate to produce a full-length Gilbert and Sullivan work, The Sorcerer (1877), followed by H.M.S. Pinafore (1878). When Pinafore became an international sensation, Carte jettisoned his difficult investors and formed a new partnership with Gilbert and Sullivan that became the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company.

Carte's company produced the succeeding ten Gilbert and Sullivan operas and many other operas and companion pieces at the Savoy Theatremarker in London, which he built in 1881 for that purpose. The company also mounted productions on tour, in the British provinces, in New York and elsewhere, usually running several companies simultaneously. Carte's able assistant, Helen Lenoir, became his wife in 1888 and, after his death in 1901, she ran the company until her own death in 1913. By this time, the company had become a year-round Gilbert and Sullivan touring repertory company. She also licensed performing rights in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas to foreign and amateur companies.

Upon Helen's death, Carte's son Rupert D'Oyly Carte inherited the company and, beginning in 1919, he mounted new seasons in London with new set and costume designs, while continuing to tour the British provinces during the rest of the year, and eventually adding foreign tours. With the help of director J. M. Gordon and conductor Isidore Godfrey, Carte ran the company until his death in 1948. He redesigned the Savoy Theatre in 1928, and he sponsored a series of recordings over the years that helped to keep the operas popular.

After Rupert's death, his daughter Bridget D'Oyly Carte inherited the company and hired Frederic Lloyd as General Manager. The company continued to tour continuously, record and play London seasons of Gilbert and Sullivan. In 1961 the last copyright on the Gilbert and Sullivan operas expired, and Ms. Carte contributed the company to a charitable trust that continued to present the operas until mounting costs and a lack of public funding forced the closure of the company in 1982. A new D'Oyly Carte Opera Company formed in 1988 that toured (although not continuously) and played London seasons of Gilbert and Sullivan and a few continental operettas, also producing some popular recordings. Without any financial assistance from the English Arts Council, however, the new company was forced to close in 2003.

History

Beginnings

By 1874, Richard D'Oyly Carte had begun producing operettas in London. He announced his ambitions on the front of the programme for one of his productions that year: "It is my desire to establish in London a permanent abode for light opera." The Observer reported, "Mr D'Oyly Carte is not only a skilful manager, but a trained musician, and he appears to have grasped the fact that the public are beginning to become weary of what is known as a genuine opera bouffe, and are ready to welcome a musical entertainment of a higher order, such as a musician might produce with satisfaction". He wanted to establish a body of tasteful English comic opera that would appeal to families, in contrast to the bawdy burlesques and adaptations of French operettas and opera bouffes that dominated the London musical stage at that time.

In early 1875, Carte was managing London's Royalty Theatremarker. Needing a short piece to round out an evening's entertaintment featuring the popular Jacques Offenbach operetta La Périchole, he brought W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan together to produce a one-act comic opera, Trial by Jury, which he added to the Royalty's bill in March 1875. On tour in 1871, Carte had conducted Sullivan's one-act comic opera Cox and Box, in which the composer's brother Fred played Cox, and in 1874, Cox and Box had received a London revival. Gilbert had offered a libretto about an English courtroom to Carte in 1873, but at the time Carte knew of no composer available to set it to music. Now Carte remembered Gilbert's libretto and suggested to Gilbert that Sullivan write the music for Trial. The witty and very English little piece proved even more popular than La Périchole and became the first great success of Carte's scheme to found his school of English comic opera, playing at the Royalty in 1875 and again in 1876, as well as touring and enjoying many revivals.

At the Theatre Royal, in Dublinmarker, Ireland in September 1875, while there managing the first tour of Trial by Jury, Carte met a young Scottish actress, Helen Lenoir. She became fascinated by his vision for establishing a company to promote English comic opera and gave up her next engagement to join his theatrical organisation as his secretary. Lenoir was well-educated and had a grasp of detail and diplomacy and an organisational ability and business acumen that surpassed even Carte's. She became intensely involved in all of his business affairs and soon managed many of the company's responsibilities, especially concerning touring. She later travelled to America numerous times over the years to arrange the details of the company's New York engagements and American tours. Still, Carte continued to produce continental operetta, touring in the summer of 1876 with a repertoire consisting of three English adaptations of French opera bouffe and two one-act English curtain raisers (Happy Hampstead and Trial by Jury). Carte himself was the music director of this travelling company, which disbanded after the tour.

In 1876, Carte found four financial backers and formed the Comedy-Opera Company in 1876 to produce more works by Gilbert and Sullivan, along with the works of other British lyricist/composer teams. With this theatre company, Carte finally had the financial resources, after many failed attempts, to produce a new full-length Gilbert and Sullivan opera. Carte leased the Opera Comique, a small theatre off The Strandmarker. The first comic opera produced by the Comedy-Opera Company was Gilbert and Sullivan's The Sorcerer, about a tradesmanlike London sorcerer. It opened in November 1877 together with Dora's Dream, a curtain-raiser with music by Sullivan's assistant Alfred Cellier and words by Arthur Cecil, a friend of both Gilbert's and Sullivan's.

Instead of writing a piece for production by a theatre proprietor, as was usual in Victorian theatres, Gilbert, Sullivan and Carte produced the show with their own financial support. They were therefore able to select their own cast of performers, rather than being obliged to use the actors already engaged at the theatre. They chose talented actors, most of whom were not well-known stars and did not command high fees, and to whom they could teach a more naturalistic style of performance than was commonly used at the time. Carte's talent agency provided many of the artists to perform in the new work. They then tailored their work to the particular abilities of these performers. Some of the cast members, including principal comedian George Grossmith, Richard Temple and Rutland Barrington, stayed with the company for almost 15 years as the company became tight-knit: "We are all a very happy family." Two other longstanding members of the company were Rosina Brandram, who started in D'Oyly Carte touring companies with The Sorcerer, and Jessie Bond who joined the group at the Opera Comique in 1878.

Knowing that Gilbert and Sullivan shared his vision of broadening the audience for British light opera by increasing its quality and respectability, Carte gave Gilbert wider authority as a director than was customary among Victorian producers. The skill with which Gilbert and Sullivan used their performers had an effect on the audience; as critic Herman Klein wrote: "we secretly marvelled at the naturalness and ease with which [the Gilbertian quips and absurdities] were said and done. For until then no living soul had seen upon the stage such weird, eccentric, yet intensely human beings .... [They] conjured into existence a hitherto unknown comic world of sheer delight." The Sorcerer ran for 178 performances, a healthy run at the time, making a profit, and Carte sent out a touring company in March 1878. Sheet music from the show sold well, and street musicians played the melodies. The success of The Sorcerer showed Carte, Gilbert and Sullivan that there was a future in family-friendly English comic opera.

Pinafore to Patience

The next Gilbert and Sullivan collaboration, H.M.S. Pinafore, opened in May 1878. Business for the opera was slow at first, generally ascribed to a heat wave that made the Opera Comique particularly uncomfortable. Carte's partners in the Comedy-Opera Company lost confidence in the show and posted closing notices. After promotional efforts by Carte and Sullivan, who included some of the Pinafore music in several promenade concerts at Covent Gardenmarker, Pinafore became a hit. The Opera Comique was required to close at Christmas 1878 for repairs to drainage and sewage under the Public Health Act of 1875. Carte used the enforced closure of the theatre to invoke a contract clause reverting the rights of Pinafore and Sorcerer to Gilbert and Sullivan after the initial run of H.M.S. Pinafore. Carte then took a six-month personal lease on the theatre beginning on 1 February 1879. Carte persuaded Gilbert and Sullivan that when their original agreement with the Comedy Opera Company expired in July 1879, a business partnership among the three of them would be to their advantage. The three each put up £1,000 and formed a new partnership under the name "Mr Richard D'Oyly Carte's Opera Company". Under the partnership agreement, once the expenses of mounting the productions had been deducted, each of the three men was entitled to one third of the profits.

On 31 July 1879, the last day of their agreement with Gilbert and Sullivan, the directors of the Comedy Opera Company attempted to repossess the set by force during a performance, causing a celebrated fracas. Carte's stagehands managed to ward off their backstage attackers and protect the scenery. The Comedy-Opera Company opened a rival production of H.M.S. Pinafore in London, but it was not as popular as the D'Oyly Carte production, and soon closed. Legal action over the ownership of the rights ended in victory for Carte, Gilbert and Sullivan. From 1 August 1879, the company, later called the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, became the sole authorised producer of the works of Gilbert and Sullivan.

Pinafore became so successful that the piano score sold 10,000 copies, and Carte soon sent two additional companies out to tour in the provinces. The opera ran for 571 performances in London, the second-longest run in musical theatre history up to that time. Over 150 unauthorised productions sprang up in America alone, but because American law then offered no copyright protection to foreigners. To try to counter this copyright piracy and make some money from the popularity of their opera in America, Carte travelled to New York with Gilbert, Sullivan and the company to present an "authentic" production of Pinafore there, beginning in December 1879, as well as American tours. Beginning with Pinafore, Carte licensed the J. C. Williamson company to produce the works in Australia and New Zealand.

c.1881 Savoy Theatre
In an effort to head off unauthorised American productions of their next opera, The Pirates of Penzance, Carte and his partners opened it in New York on 31 December 1879, prior to its 1880 London premiere. Pirates was the only Gilbert and Sullivan opera to have its official premiere in America. Carte and his partners hoped to forestall further "piracy" by establishing the authorised production and tours in America before others could copy it and by delaying publication of the score and libretto. They did succeed in keeping for themselves the direct profits of the venture, but they tried without success for many years to control the American performance copyrights over their operas. Pirates was an immediate hit in New York, and later London, becoming one of the most popular Gilbert and Sullivan operas. To secure the British copyright, there was a perfunctory performance the afternoon before the New York premiere, at the Royal Bijou Theatre, Paigntonmarker, Devonmarker, organised by Helen Lenoir.

The next Gilbert and Sullivan opera, Patience, opened at the Opera Comique in April 1881 and was another big success, becoming the second-longest running piece in the series and enjoying numerous foreign productions. Patience satirised the self-indulgent Aesthetic movement of the 1870s and '80s in England, part of the 19th century European movement that emphasized aesthetic values over moral or social themes in literature, fine art, the decorative arts, and interior design.

With profits from the success of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas and his concert and lecture agency (his talent roster included Adelina Patti, Clara Schumann, Jacques Offenbach, Oscar Wilde and Charles Gounod), Carte bought property along the Strand with frontage onto the Thames Embankment, where he built the Savoy Theatremarker in 1881. He chose the name in honour of the Savoy Palacemarker. The Savoy Theatre was a state-of-the-art facility, setting a new standard for technology, comfort and decor. It was the first public building in the world to be lit entirely by electric lights and seated nearly 1,300 people (compared to the Opera Comique's 862).

1881 Programme for Patience
Patience was the first production at the new theatre, transferring there on 10 October 1881. The first generator proved too small to power the whole building, and though the entire front-of-house was electrically lit, the stage was lit by gas until 28 December 1881. At that performance, Carte stepped on stage and broke a glowing lightbulb before the audience to demonstrate the safety of the new technology. The Times concluded that the theatre "is admirably adapted for its purpose, its acoustic qualities are excellent, and all reasonable demands of comfort and taste are complied with." Carte and his manager, George Edwardes (later famous as manager of the Gaiety Theatremarker), introduced several innovations at the theatre, including numbered seating, free programme booklets, the "queue" system for the pit and gallery (an American idea) and a policy of no tipping for coat check or other services. Daily expenses at the theatre were about half the possible takings from ticket sales. The last eight of Gilbert and Sullivan's comic operas were premièred at the Savoy.

During the years when the Gilbert and Sullivan operas were being written, the company also produced operas by other composer–librettist teams, either as curtain-raisers to the Gilbert and Sullivan pieces, or as touring productions, as well as other works to fill the Savoy Theatre in between Savoy operas, and he also toured the Gilbert and Sullivan operas extensively. For example, a souvenir programme commemorating the 250th performance of Patience in London and its 100th performance in New York shows that, aside from these two productions of Patience, Carte was simultaneously producing two companies touring with Patience, two companies touring with other Gilbert and Sullivan operas, a company touring with Olivette (co-produced with Charles Wyndham) a company touring Claude Duval in America, a production of Youth running at a New York theatre, a lecture tour by Archibald Forbes (a war correspondent) and productions of Patience, Pirates, Claude Duval and Billee Taylor in association with J. C. Williamson in Australia, among other things.

In the 1880s, Carte also introduced the practice of licensing amateur theatrical societies to present works for which he held the rights, increasing their popularity and the sales of scores and libretti, as well as the rental of band parts. This had an important influence on amateur theatre in general. Cellier and Bridgeman wrote in 1914 that, prior to the creation of the Savoy operas, amateur actors were treated with contempt by professionals. After the formation of amateur Gilbert and Sullivan companies licensed to perform the operas, professionals recognised that the amateur societies "support the culture of music and the drama. They are now accepted as useful training schools for the legitimate stage, and from the volunteer ranks have sprung many present-day favourites." Cellier and Bridgeman attributed the rise in quality and reputation of the amateur groups largely to "the popularity of, and infectious craze for performing, the Gilbert and Sullivan operas". The National Operatic and Dramatic Association was founded in 1899. It reported, in 1914, that nearly 200 British societies were producing Gilbert and Sullivan operas that year. The D'Oyly Carte Opera Company continues to rent out band parts: see the services page at the D'Oyly Carte website

Iolanthe to Gondoliers

After Patience, the company produced Iolanthe, which opened in 1882. During its run, in February 1883, Carte signed a five-year partnership agreement with Gilbert and Sullivan, obligating them to create new operas for the company upon six months' notice. Sullivan had not intended immediately to write a new work with Gilbert, but he suffered a serious financial loss when his broker went bankrupt in November 1882 and must have felt the long-term contract necessary for his security. But he soon felt trapped. Gilbert scholar Andrew Crowther comments, regarding the agreement: "Effectively, it made [Gilbert and Sullivan] Carte's employees – a situation which created its own resentments." The partnership's next opera, Princess Ida, opened in January 1884. Carte soon saw that Ida was running weakly at the box office and invoked the agreement to call upon his partners for a new opera to be written. Almost from the beginning of the partnership, the musical establishment put pressure on Sullivan to abandon comic opera, and he soon regretted having signed the five-year contract. In March 1884, Sullivan told Carte that "it is impossible for me to do another piece of the character of those already written by Gilbert and myself."

Lithograph from The Mikado
During this conflict and others during the 1880s, Carte and Helen Lenoir frequently had to smooth over the partners' differences with a mixture of friendship and business acumen. Sullivan asked to be released from the partnership on several occasions. Nevertheless, they coaxed eight comic operas out of Gilbert and Sullivan in the 1880s. When Princess Ida closed after a comparatively short run of nine months, for the first time in the partnership's history, the next opera was not ready. To make matters worse, Gilbert suggested a plot in which people fell in love against their wills after taking a magic lozenge – a scenario that Sullivan had previously rejected, and he now rejected the "lozenge plot" again. Gilbert eventually came up with a new idea and began work in May 1884.

The company produced the first revival of The Sorcerer, together with Trial by Jury, and matinees of The Pirates of Penzance played by a cast of children, while waiting for the new work to be completed. This became the partnership's most successful opera, The Mikado, which opened in March 1885. The piece satirised British institutions by setting them in a fictional Japan. At the same time, it took advantage of the Victorian craze for the exotic Far East using the "picturesque" scenery and costumes of Japan. The Mikado became the partnership's longest-running hit, enjoying 672 performances at the Savoy Theatre, the second longest run for any work of musical theatre up to that time, and it was extraordinarily popular in the U.S. and worldwide. It remains the most frequently performed Savoy Opera.

The partnership's next opera was Ruddigore, which opened in January 1887. It satirised and used elements of Victorian stock melodrama. The piece, though profitable, was a relative disappointment after the extraordinary success of The Mikado. When Ruddigore closed after a run of only nine months, the company mounted revivals of earlier Gilbert and Sullivan operas for almost a year. After another attempt by Gilbert to convince Sullivan to set a "lozenge plot", Gilbert met his collaborator half way by writing a serio-comic plot for The Yeomen of the Guard, which premiered in October 1888. The opera was a success, running for over a year, with strong New York and touring productions. During the run, in March 1889, Sullivan again expressed reluctance to write another comic opera, asking if Gilbert would write a "dramatic work on a larger musical scale". Gilbert declined, but offered a compromise that Sullivan ultimately accepted: The two would write a light opera for the Savoy, and at the same time, Sullivan could work on a grand opera (Ivanhoe) for a new theatre that Carte was constructing to present British grand opera. The new comic opera was The Gondoliers, which opened in December 1889 and became one of the partnership's greatest successes. After Carte's first wife died in 1885, Carte married Helen Lenoir in 1888, who was, by this time, nearly as important in managing the company as Carte himself.

During these years, the company's high production values, and the quality of the operas, created a national and international taste for them, and the company mounted touring productions throughout the provinces, in America (generally managed by Helen), Europe and elsewhere. Queen Victoria honoured the company by calling for a Royal Command Performance of The Gondoliers at Windsor Castlemarker in 1891. George Bernard Shaw, writing in The World in October 1893, commented, "Those who are old enough to compare the Savoy performances with those of the dark ages, taking into account the pictorial treatment of the fabrics and colours on the stage, the cultivation and intelligence of the choristers, the quality of the orchestra, and the degree of artistic good breeding, so to speak, expected from the principals, best know how great an advance has been made by Mr. D'Oyly Carte."

End of the partnership and the Carpet Quarrel

On 22 April 1890, during the run of The Gondoliers, Gilbert discovered that maintenance expenses for the theatre, including a new £500 carpet for the front lobby of the theatre, were being charged to the partnership instead of borne by Carte. Gilbert confronted Carte, and Carte refused to reconsider the accounts: Even though the amount of the charge was not great, Gilbert felt it was a moral issue involving Carte's integrity, and he could not look past it. Gilbert wrote in a letter to Sullivan that "I left him with the remark that it was a mistake to kick down the ladder by which he had risen". Helen Carte wrote that Gilbert had addressed Carte "in a way that I should not have thought you would have used to an offending menial." Gilbert brought a lawsuit, but Sullivan sided with Carte: Carte was building the Royal English Opera Housemarker, the inaugural production of which was to be Sullivan's forthcoming grand opera. Gilbert won the suit, but the partnership disbanded.

After The Gondoliers closed in 1891, Gilbert withdrew the performance rights to his libretti and vowed to write no more operas for the Savoy. Sullivan's opera, Ivanhoe, had a successful run, but no other operas shared Carte's new opera house with it, and so the opera house soon failed. Carte sold the opera house, and it eventually became the Palace Theatremarker.

After The Gondoliers, Gilbert and Sullivan did not collaborate again for three years. The D'Oyly Carte company turned to new writing teams for the Savoy, first producing The Nautch Girl, by George Dance, Frank Desprez and Edward Solomon, which ran for a satisfying 200 performances in 1891–92. Next was a revival of Solomon and Sydney Grundy's The Vicar of Bray, which played through the summer of 1892. Grundy and Sullivan's Haddon Hallmarker then held the stage until April 1893. While the company presented new pieces and revivals at the Savoy, Carte's touring companies continued to play throughout Britain and in America. In 1894, for example, Carte had four companies touring Britain and one playing in America.

Gilbert's aggressive, though successful, legal action had embittered Sullivan and Carte, but the partnership had been so profitable that the Cartes eventually sought to reunite Gilbert and Sullivan. The reconciliation finally came through the efforts of Tom Chappell, who published the sheet music to the Savoy operas. In 1893, the company produced the penultimate Gilbert and Sullivan collaboration, Utopia, Limited. While Utopia was being prepared, the company produced Jane Annie, by J. M. Barrie and Arthur Conan Doyle, with music by Ernest Ford. Despite the popularity of Barrie and Conan Doyle, the show was a flop, closing in July 1893 after only 51 performances. Utopia was the Savoy's most expensive production to date, but it ran for a comparatively disappointing 245 performances, until June 1894, turning a very modest profit. The company then played first Mirette, composed by André Messager, then The Chieftain, by F. C. Burnand and Sullivan. These ran for 102 and 97 performances, respectively, and were followed by The Grand Duke, in 1896, which ran for 123 performances and was Gilbert and Sullivan's only financial failure. The Gondoliers turned out to be Gilbert and Sullivan's last big hit, and after The Grand Duke, the two men never collaborated again.

In 1894, Carte had hired his son, Rupert, as an assistant. Rupert assisted Mrs. Carte and W. S. Gilbert with the first revival of The Yeomen of the Guard at the Savoy in May 1897. Throughout the later 1890s, Carte's health was declining, and Mrs. Carte assumed more and more of the responsibilities of running the opera company. She profitably managed the theatre and the provincial touring companies. The Savoy's shows during this period received comparatively short runs, including Sullivan's The Beauty Stone, in 1898, which ran for only 50 performances. In 1899, the Savoy finally had a new success, with Sullivan and Basil Hood's The Rose of Persia, which ran for 213 performances. Neither Carte nor Sullivan lived to see the production of Sullivan and Hood's The Emerald Isle, for which Edward German completed the score.

Carte left his theatre, opera company and hotels to his wife, who assumed full control of the family businesses. Her London and touring companies continued to present the Savoy Operas in Britain and overseas. She leased the Savoy Theatre to William Greet in 1901 and oversaw his management of the company's revival of Iolanthe and the production of several new comic operas, including The Emerald Isle, Merrie England and A Princess of Kensington (with music by Edward German, libretto by Basil Hood), which ran for four months in early 1903 and then toured. When A Princess of Kensington closed at the Savoy, Mrs. Carte leased the theatre to other managements until 8 December 1906. The company's fortunes declined for a time, and by 1904 there was only a single touring company wending its way through the British provinces. In late 1906, Helen re-acquired the performing rights to the Gilbert and Sullivan operas from Gilbert (she already had Sullivan's) and, with Gilbert's assistance, she staged a repertory season at the Savoy Theatre, leasing the Savoy to herself. The repertory season was very successful, leading to another season of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas in 1908-09 and reviving interest in the operas and revitalising the company, while touring productions continued in the provinces. After the two repertory seasons, however, Mrs. Carte leased the theatre to C. H. Workman, and the company did not perform in London again until 1919, only touring throughout Britain during that time.

After the authors' deaths and early 20th century

Even after Gilbert's death in 1911, the company continued to produce "traditional" productions of the repertory until 1982. In 1911, the company hired J. M. Gordon as stage manager and later director. Gordon had been a member of the company under Gilbert's direction, and he fiercely preserved the company's traditions in exacting detail for 28 years. Except for Ruddigore, which underwent some cuts and was given a new overture in 1920 (and Cox and Box, which was made into a short curtain raiser), very few changes were made to the text and music of the operas as Gilbert and Sullivan had produced them in their lifetimes, and the company stayed true to Gilbert's period settings. The performing "traditions" evolved over time, after Gordon's death, but many of Gilbert's own directorial concepts survived, both in the stage directions printed in the libretti and as preserved in company "prompt books" from the era. In addition, some of the staging added over the years became traditional and was repeated again and again in successive productions. Many of these traditional stagings are imitated today in productions by both amateur and professional companies.

Helen Carte died in 1913, and Carte's son Rupert D'Oyly Carte inherited the company. According to H. M. Walbrook, "Through the years of the Great War [the company] continued to be on tour through the country, drawing large and grateful audiences everywhere. They helped to sustain the spirits of the people during that stern period, and by so doing they helped to win the victory." In addition to the existing touring company, by 1920 Carte had established a second, smaller company to tour smaller towns. The smaller company was disbanded in 1927, although the company often ran multiple tours simultaneously.

In 1917, the company made the first complete recording of a Gilbert and Sullivan operetta, The Mikado for the Gramophone Company (later known as His Master's Voice). Rupert D'Oyly Carte supervised the company's recordings, including eight more acoustic recordings through 1924, and a series of complete electrical recordings in the late 1920s and early 1930s. There were additional recordings, in high fidelity, for Decca Records, in the early 1950s and stereo recordings in the late 1950s and early 1960s, all supervised after his death by Rupert's daughter, Bridget D'Oyly Carte.

The main company made a triumphant return to London for the 1919-20 season at the Prince's Theatremarker and played major London seasons in 1919-20, 1921-22, 1924, 1926, touring the rest of the time. Rupert determined to refresh the company's "dowdy" productions and soon instigated newsworthy London seasons for the main company, bringing in new designers such as Charles Ricketts, who redesigned The Gondoliers and The Mikado. His 1926 costumes for the latter were retained by all subsequent designers until 1982. Other redesigns were by Percy Anderson, George Sheringham, and Peter Goffin, a protégé of Carte's daughter Bridget. The company also toured in North America several times, beginning with a Canadian tour in 1927.

For London seasons, Carte engaged guest conductors, first Geoffrey Toye, then Malcolm Sargent, who examined Sullivan’s manuscript scores and purged the orchestral parts of accretions. So striking was the orchestral sound produced by Sargent that the press thought he had retouched the scores, and Carte had the pleasant duty of correcting their error. In a letter to The Times, he noted that "the details of the orchestration sounded so fresh that some of the critics thought them actually new... the opera was played last night exactly as written by Sullivan." Carte also hired Harry Norris, who started with the touring company, then was Toye's assistant before becoming musical director.

The new Savoy Theatre

1921 cartoon: D'Oyly Carte audiences
Carte also redesigned the Savoy Theatre. On 3 June 1929 the Savoy closed, and it was completely rebuilt to designs by Frank A. Tugwell with décor by Basil Ionides. The old house had three tiers; the new one had two. The seating capacity was increased from 986 to 1,158. The theatre reopened 135 days later on 21 October 1929, with The Gondoliers, designed by Ricketts and conducted by Sargent. George Sheringham designed new productions that season of H.M.S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance, and Patience (1929, with other designs contributed by Hugo Rumbold), and he later designed costumes for Trial by Jury and Iolanthe.

The Savoy also hosted London seasons for the company in 1930-31, 1933, 1941, 1951, 1954, 1961, and 1975. Other London seasons, mostly at the Sadler's Wells Theatre, included each summer from 1935-39, 1942, summer seasons from 1947-50, 1953, 1956-57, 1958-59, 1960-61, 1967-68 and then seasons every year from 1970 to 1982, mostly at Sadler's Wells, but also some at Royal Festival Hallmarker. Carte also nurtured a long association with Sadler's Wells Theatremarker until he died in 1948. The company continued to tour the British provinces and abroad when it was not in London, and these tours also often included London suburbs. The company's musical director from 1929 (and assistant musical director from 1925) was Isidore Godfrey, who retained the position until 1968 and guest conducted the company in 1975, as part of the centenary season at the Savoy Theatremarker. Other guest conductors included Sir Malcolm Sargent, Boyd Neel and Sir Charles Mackerras.

On 3 September 1939, at the outbreak of World War II, the British government ordered the immediate and indefinite closure of all theatres. Carte cancelled the autumn tour and disbanded the company. Theatres were permitted to reopen from 9 September, but it took some weeks to re-form the company. Some performers, including Martyn Green, were already committed elsewhere, and Grahame Clifford was engaged to play his roles. The company resumed touring, in Edinburghmarker, on Christmas Day 1939. The company continued to perform throughout the war, but German bombing destroyed the sets and costumes for five of its shows: Cox and Box, The Sorcerer, H.M.S. Pinafore, Princess Ida and Ruddigore. The old productions of Pinafore and Cox and Box were recreated shortly after the war, and Ruddigore received a new production, planned by Carte but not seen until after his death. The other two operas took longer to rejoin the company's repertory.

Rupert died in 1948, leaving a strong company to his daughter Bridget D'Oyly Carte. She soon hired Frederic Lloyd as General Manager. Bridget and Lloyd also took steps to keep the productions fresh, engaging designers to redesign the costumes and scenery. Peter Goffin, who had redesigned The Yeomen of the Guard for Rupert in 1939, designed a unit set to facilitate touring, and produced new settings and costumes for Trial by Jury (1959), HMS Pinafore (1961), Patience (1957), Iolanthe (1961), The Mikado (1958 – settings only, most of the celebrated Charles Ricketts costumes being retained), Ruddigore (1948), and The Gondoliers (1958). Princess Ida was redesigned by James Wade in 1954. A 1957 review of Yeomen in The Times praised the production and marvelled at "the continued vitality of the Savoy operas", noting: "The opera remains enchanting; the singing seems, on the whole, better and more musical than that which one used to hear, say, 30 years since; and though the acting lacks some of the richly crusted performances of those days, it is perhaps none the worse for that".

With the approaching end of the D'Oyly Carte monopoly on Gilbert and Sullivan performances, when the copyright on Gilbert’s words expired in 1961 (Sullivan’s music had already come out of copyright at the end of 1950), Bridget D'Oyly Carte made the company and all its assets over to an independent charitable trust to continue to present the operas. She endowed the trust with her company's scenery, costumes, band parts and other assets, together with a cash endowment, and the trust presented the operas on behalf of the trust until economic necessity forced the closure of the company in 1982.

In March and April 1975, after the regular London season at Sadler's Wells, the company moved to the Savoy Theatre for a fortnight's centennial performances, in which all thirteen surviving Gilbert and Sullivan operas were performed in chronological order. Trial by Jury was given four times, as a curtain raiser to The Sorcerer, Pinafore and Pirates and as an afterpiece following The Grand Duke. Before the first of the four performances of Trial, a specially-written curtain raiser by William Douglas-Home, called Dramatic Licence, was played by Peter Pratt as Richard D'Oyly Carte, Kenneth Sandford as Gilbert and John Ayldon as Sullivan, in which Gilbert, Sullivan and Carte plan the birth of Trial in 1875. A highlight of the season was a new staging of Utopia Limited (later given again at the Royal Festival Hallmarker), its first revival by the company. The Grand Duke was given as a concert performance, with narration by the BBC presenter Richard Baker. Royston Nash, who was at the company's musical helm from 1971 to 1979, conducted most of the performances, with Isidore Godfrey (Pinafore) and Charles Mackerras (Pirates and Mikado) as guest conductors. In the final performance of Trial by Jury, the regular D'Oyly Carte chorus was augmented by fourteen former stars of the company: Sylvia Cecil, Elsie Griffin, Ivan Menzies, John Dean, Radley Flynn, Elizabeth Nickell-Lean, Ella Halman, Leonard Osborn, Cynthia Morey, Jeffrey Skitch, Alan Barrett, Mary Sansom, Philip Potter and Gillian Humphreys.

Closing of the old company; A new company

The rising costs of mounting professional light opera without any government support eventually became too much for the company. Bridget was forced to close the company in 1982. It gave its last performance on 27 February 1982, at the Adelphi Theatremarker in London. A three-LP recording of this performance was released, which included songs from all of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas. Even after it closed, however, the company's productions continue to influence the productions of other companies.

Dame Bridget D’Oyly Carte died in 1985, leaving in her will a £1 million legacy to enable the company to be revived. The company secured sponsorship from Sir Michael Bishop, who eventually became Chairman of the Board of Trustees, and BMI British Midland Airways (of which Bishop is chairman). Richard Condon was appointed the company's first general manager, and Bramwell Tovey was its first music director. In succeeding seasons, the company's productions of The Mikado and H.M.S. Pinafore were nominated for Olivier Awards. From 1988 to 2003 the new company mounted productions of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas on tour and in London, and it produced operettas by Jacques Offenbach, Franz Lehár and Johann Strauss II, including Orpheus in the Underworld, Die Fledermaus, La vie parisienne and The Count of Luxembourg.

The new company did not employ many of the members of the original company and did not follow its performing traditions, even staging some "concept" productions of the operas. For example, one employed a male actor in a female role. Others experimented with modernised design and directorial concepts and changes in orchestration. Although the company's productions were met with mixed reviews at best, some of its recordings have received enthusiastic praise. Once again, however, costs outran receipts, public subsidy was denied by the English Arts Council, and the company suspended productions in May 2003. It continues to rent scores.

Eras

and Sullivan aficionados frequently use the names of the principal comedians of the Company as shorthand for its different eras. Thus, after the sudden death of Sullivan's brother, who had created the role of the Learned Judge in Trial by Jury, the unknown George Grossmith was recruited, and though he left the company before the last three operas were written, all the principal patter parts are traditionally called the 'Grossmith' roles. Other important names from this period included Rutland Barrington, Jessie Bond, Rosina Brandram, Leonora Braham, Durward Lely and Richard Temple.

Grossmith left, the most notable players of his roles during the rest of Gilbert's lifetime were Walter Passmore and Charles H. Workman. Both these singers made recordings of songs from the Savoy Operas, Passmore using a parlando style and Workman displaying a firm but not especially characterful baritone voice. Workman and W. S. Gilbert quarrelled over their production of Fallen Fairies in 1909, and Gilbert banned Workman from appearing in his works in Britain. It is likely that, otherwise, Workman would have continued as principal comedian of the company. Indeed, Rupert D'Oyly Carte wrote to Workman in 1919, asking him to return to the company as principal comedian, but Workman declined. No complete recordings of the operas were made before 1906. Complete recordings that included active members of the Company were not made until the 1920s.

From 1909 to the 1930s, the patter man was Sir Henry Lytton. His receiving a knighthood reflects the high profile of the D'Oyly Carte Company in the inter-war era. Lytton was very much an actor rather than a singer, and, at least towards the end of his career, his voice was not considered particularly attractive. By the time HMV embarked on a series of complete recordings of the operas, Lytton was not invited to record most of his roles, and the concert singer George Baker was brought in to substitute. Other names remembered from this period include Darrell Fancourt, whose portrayal of the Mikado was thought definitive in its day, as Bertha Lewis's portrayal of Katisha and the rest of the contralto roles is remembered as perhaps the best of all times, and Nellie Briercliffe, whose vivacity and sweet voice in the soubrette roles won over audiences.

Lytton was succeeded in 1934 by Martyn Green who played the patter parts until 1951, except for a gap from the end of 1939 to 1946, when Grahame Clifford played the roles. Green's time with the company is remembered for the early Decca recordings of the operas. Green was succeeded by Peter Pratt, a fine comic actor. Unusually, for these roles, he had a strong bass-baritone voice rather than a light "character" baritone voice. He left the company in 1959, after more than eight years in that position, still a relatively young man.

Pratt's successor was John Reed. His nimble dancing and amusing character voice caused him to be regarded by some G&S fans as the finest of all. Other stars from this era were Thomas Round, Donald Adams, Gillian Knight, Valerie Masterson and Kenneth Sandford, all of whom, except the last, left the company for the wider operatic stage of Covent Gardenmarker, Sadler's Wellsmarker, English National Opera, Aix-en-Provence and elsewhere. On Reed's retirement in 1979, his understudy James Conroy-Ward took over until the closure of the company in 1982.

From 1988, the revived company was less settled in its casting, using guest artists for each production. The most regularly seen patter men were Eric Roberts and Richard Suart, both of whom regularly perform the "Grossmith" roles for other opera companies. Others have included Sam Kelly, Jasper Carrott, Paul Barnhill, Paul Bentley and Simon Butteriss.

References in popular culture

In 1948, Flanders and Swann wrote a song called "In the D'Oyly Cart", a satire of the company and the rote "business" and gestures that it was accused of perpetuating. It was first performed in the revue Oranges and Lemons (1948) and revived in Penny Plain (1951). It was broadcast in 1974 and included as the first track on the 1975 Flanders and Swann album, And Then We Wrote.

A one-act parody, called A "G. & S." Cocktail; or, A Mixed Savoy Grill, written by Lauri Wylie, with music by Herman Finck and Sullivan, premiered on 9 March 1925 at the London Hippodromemarker as part of the revue Better Days. It was also broadcast by the BBC. It concerned a nightmare experienced by a D'Oyly Carte tenor. The company is mentioned in the 1937 musical I'd Rather Be Right, with a score by Rodgers & Hart and a book by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart.

A 1974 episode of Steptoe and Son called "Back in Fashion" used the name of the company as Cockney rhyming slang: "If you wants a "D'Oyly Carte" make sure you goes outside". The company is also mentioned on the television show Family Guy (Season 7, Episode 5: "The Man with Two Brians"). Buzz Killington says, "Let's both revisit the birth of the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company."

A children's theatre company in London is called "Oily Cart", a play on the name of the company.

See also



Notes

  1. Jacobs, Arthur. "Carte, Richard D'Oyly (1844–1901)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004, accessed 12 September 2008
  2. "Our Representative Man", Punch, 10 October 1874, p. 151
  3. The Observer, 23 August 1874, p. 3
  4. Ainger, pp. 108–09
  5. Joseph, p. 11
  6. Stedman, pp. 128–30
  7. Gilbert and Sullivan's only previous collaboration, Thespis (1871), was a Christmas entertainment for a different management and made only a modest impact.
  8. "Public Amusements", Liverpool Mercury, 2 September 1871, p. 6
  9. Stedman, p. 125.
  10. Ainger, p. 108.
  11. McElroy, George. "Whose Zoo; or, When Did the Trial Begin?", Nineteenth Century Theatre Research, 12, December 1984, pp. 39–54
  12. The Times, 29 March 1875, p. 10, quoted and discussed in Ainger, p. 109. See also Stedman, pp. 129–30 and Ainger, pp. 111 and 117.
  13. Ainger, p. 111
  14. Joseph, pp. 134–35
  15. Stedman, Jane W. "Carte, Helen (1852–1913)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004, accessed 12 September 2008
  16. Ainger, pp. 111–12
  17. Stone, David. Biography of Carte at the Who Was Who in the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company website, 27 August 2001, accessed 14 October 2009
  18. Liverpool Mercury, 4 July 1876, p. 6
  19. Ainger, p. 130
  20. Ainger, pp. 110, 119–20 and 130–31; Jacobs, p. 109
  21. Burgess, Michael. "Richard D'Oyly Carte", The Savoyard, January 1975, pp. 7–11
  22. Ainger, p. 140
  23. Jacobs, p. 111; Ainger, pp. 133–34
  24. Grossmith, Chapter VI
  25. Ainger, p. 152
  26. Vorder Bruegge, Andrew. "W. S. Gilbert: Antiquarian Authenticity and Artistic Autocracy". Professor Vorder Bruegge (Department Chair, Department of Theatre and Dance, Winthrop University) presented this paper at the Victorian Interdisciplinary Studies Association of the Western United States annual conference in October 2002, accessed March 26, 2008
  27. Jacobs, p. 113
  28. Ainger, pp. 147–48
  29. Jacobs, pp. 113–14
  30. Ainger, pp. 141–48
  31. Bond, Jessie. "The Life and Reminiscences of Jessie Bond", Chapter 4, John Lane, 1930, accessed 10 March 2009. But see Ainger, p. 160.
  32. Bradley (1996), p. 116
  33. Jacobs, p. 122
  34. Joseph, p. 17
  35. Ainger, p. 162
  36. Ainger, pp. 165–67
  37. Stedman, p. 170
  38. Joseph, p. 18
  39. Ainger, pp. 162–67
  40. Ainger, pp. 170–72
  41. Stedman, pp. 170–71
  42. "The Fracas at the Opera Comique", The Theatre, 1 September 1879, reprinted at the Stage Beauty website, accessed 6 May 2009. See also "The Fracas at the Opera Comique", The Era, 10 August 1879, p. 5 and "The Fracas at the Opera Comique", The Leeds Mercury, 13 August, 1879, p. 8.
  43. Rollins and Witts, p. 6
  44. "Supreme Court of Judicature, Aug. 1 - Court of Appeal - Gilbert v The Comedy Opera Company Limited", The Times, 2 August 1879, p. 4. The question turned on whether the Company's agreement with the authors expired along with the Company's lease of the Opera Comique on 31 July 1879. The courts decided that it did. See also Ainger, pp. 171 and 175.
  45. Jones, p. 6
  46. Stedman, p. 163
  47. Gillan, Don. "Longest Running Plays in London and New York", StageBeauty.net (2007), accessed 10 March 2009
  48. Who's Who in the Theatre, Fourteenth edition, ed. Freda Gaye, p. 1530, Pitman, London (1967) ISBN 0273433458
  49. Prestige, Colin. "D'Oyly Carte and the Pirates: The Original New York Productions of Gilbert and Sullivan", pp. 113–48 at p. 118, Gilbert and Sullivan Papers Presented at the International Conference held at the University of Kansas in May 1970, ed. James Helyar. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Libraries, 1971.
  50. Jones, p. 7
  51. Ainger, pp. 182–83
  52. Morrison, Robert. "The J. C. Williamson Gilbert and Sullivan Opera Company", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography, 12 November 2001, accessed 2 October 2009
  53. Bentley, Paul. "J. C. Williamson Limited", The Wolanski Foundation, January 2000, accessed 11 April 2009
  54. Samuels, Edward. "International Copyright Relations: 1790-1891", The Illustrated Story of Copyright (2000), Edwardsamuels.com, accessed 16 October 2009
  55. Rosen, Zvi S. "The Twilight of the Opera Pirates", Papers.ssrn.com, Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal, Vol. 24 (2007), accessed 16 October 2009.
  56. Smith, Tim. "A consistent Pirates of Penzance", The Baltimore Sun, July 16, 2009
  57. Bradley, pp. 86–87
  58. Ainger, pp. 180–81
  59. Rollins and Witts, pp 16–19
  60. Denney, Colleen. "At the Temple of Art: the Grosvenor Gallery, 1877-1890", Issue 1165, p. 38, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2000 ISBN 0838638503
  61. "100 Electrifying Years", The Savoyard, Volume XX no. 2, D'Oyly Carte Opera Trust, September 1981, pp. 4–6
  62. Joseph, p. 79
  63. Wearing, J. P. ( "The London West End Theatre in the 1890s", Educational Theatre Journal, Vol. 29, No. 3 (October 1977), pp. 320-32, The Johns Hopkins University Press (online by subscription to JSTOR)
  64. Bettany, unnumbered page (there are no page numbers in the book)
  65. "The Savoy Theatre", The Times, 11 October 1881, p. 8
  66. Dark and Grey, p. 85
  67. 250th Anniversary Patience programme, 1881
  68. Joseph, pp. 81 and 163.
  69. Cellier and Bridgeman, p. 393
  70. Cellier and Bridgeman, p. 394
  71. Cellier and Bridgeman, p. 394
  72. Baily, p. 251
  73. Ainger, pp. 217–19
  74. Jacobs, p. 188
  75. Crowther, Andrew. "The Carpet Quarrel Explained", The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive, 28 June 1997, accessed 7 October 2009
  76. Ainger, pp. 225-26
  77. For example, The Times, 27 May 1878, p. 6, favourably reviewing H.M.S. Pinafore, nevertheless added, "we cannot suppress a word of regret that the composer on whom before all others the chances of a national school of music depend should confine himself ... to a class of production which, however attractive, is hardly worthy of the efforts of an accomplished and serious artist."
  78. Jacobs, p. 188
  79. Joseph, p. 27
  80. Jacobs, Arthur. "Sullivan, Arthur Seymour", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004, accessed 11 April 2009
  81. Joseph, pp. 18–19
  82. Ainger, pp. 230–33
  83. Wilson and Lloyd, p. 13
  84. Jones, Brian. "Japan in London 1885", W. S. Gilbert Society Journal, issue 22, Winter 2007, pp. 686–96
  85. The longest-running piece of musical theatre was the operetta Les Cloches de Corneville, which held that position until the record-breaking run of Dorothy in 1886. See Gillan, Don. "Longest Running Plays in London and New York", Stagebeauty.net, 2007, accessed 8 October 2009
  86. Kenrick, John. "G&S101: G&S Story: Part III", Musicals101.com, accessed 8 October 2009
  87. Walmisley, Guy H. and Claude A. Excerpt about Ruddigore from Tit-Willow; or Notes and Jottings on Gilbert and Sullivan Operas (London: 1964), reproduced at The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive, 9 January 2005 accessed 12 October 2009
  88. Jacobs, p. 248
  89. Ainger, p. 270
  90. Jacobs, p. 287
  91. Jacobs, p. 288
  92. Baily, p. 344
  93. "Utopian Gilbert and Sullivan", The World, 11 October 1893, reprinted in Laurence, pp. 975–76
  94. Approximately £37,818.60 in 2006 prices
  95. Stedman, p. 270
  96. Shepherd, Marc. "Introduction: Historical Context", The Grand Duke, p. vii, New York: Oakapple Press, 2009. Linked at "The Grand Duke", The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive, accessed 7 July 2009.
  97. The Palace Theatre at the Arthur Lloyd theatre site, accessed 13 October 2009
  98. See "The Palace Theatre", The Times, 12 December 1892, p. 7; "The Theatres in 1892", The Times, 31 December 1892, p. 3; and "Palace Theatre as Cinema. Stage Plays also to be Given", The Times, 31 January 1921, p. 8
  99. Joseph, p. 111
  100. "The Savoyards on Tour", The Sketch, 13 June 1894, pp. 373–74
  101. ISBN 0-903443-12-0
  102. Tillett, Selwyn. "Jane Annie", in Sullivan Society Journal, 1993 centenary issue on Utopia, Limited
  103. Rollins and Witts, pp. 14–15
  104. New York Post, 7 January 1948
  105. Rollins and Witts, p. 17
  106. Rollins and Witts, p. 18
  107. The Times obituary, 4 April 1901, p. 8
  108. Joseph, p. 133
  109. Rollins and Witts, pp. 111–127
  110. Joseph, p. 138
  111. Joseph, p. 146
  112. Joseph, pp. 138 and 186
  113. Carte's older son, Lucas, was a barrister and took no part in the family businesses. He died of tuberculosis in 1907, aged 34. See Obituary of Lucas D'Oyly Carte, The Times, 22 January 1907, p. 12
  114. Walbrook, H. M. Gilbert & Sullivan Opera, A History and a Comment, Chapter XVI (1920) London: F. V. White & Co. Ltd.
  115. Links to detailed descriptions of the various series of D'Oyly Carte recordings
  116. Information about the 1919-20 D'Oyly Carte season at The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive, accessed 20 November 2009
  117. Joseph, pp. 160 et seq.
  118. Carte, Rupert D'Oyly, The Times, 22 September 1926, p. 8
  119. Programme with photos of the new theatre and productions
  120. Savoy Theatre programme note, September 2000
  121. Information about the 1929-20 season and the new designs
  122. Illustrations of the Sheringham designes for Pinafore, Pirates and Patience
  123. Rollins, Cyril and R. John Witts. The D'Oyly Carte Opera Company in Gilbert and Sullivan Operas (1961) London: Michael Joseph, Ltd.
  124. Information on D'Oyly Carte Broadway appearances after 1934 - the earlier information is incomplete
  125. Joseph, p. 246
  126. The Times, 9 September 1939, p. 9
  127. Rollins and Witts, p. 164
  128. Pinafore re-entered the repertory in July 1947, Cox and Box in the 1947/48 season, Ruddigore in November 1949, and Princess Ida in September 1954 (see Rollins and Witts, pp. 171-79 and VII-VIII). The Sorcerer was not revived until April 1971 (see The Times, 2 April 1971, p. 10)
  129. Joseph, pp. 273–74
  130. Dates and details from Raymond Mander & Joe Mitchenson, A Picture History of Gilbert and Sullivan, Vista Books, London 1962
  131. "The Lasting Charm of Gilbert and Sullivan", The Times, 14 February 1957, p. 5
  132. Forbes, Elizabeth. Kenneth Sandford obituary, The Independent, 23 September 2004
  133. The Savoyard, Volume 14, Number 2, September 1975
  134. Biographies of all of these performers at the Who Was Who in the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company website
  135. Joseph, p. 358
  136. Lisle, Nicola. "When the wheels came off the Carte", Classical Music, 17 February 2007, p. 12
  137. Murray, Roderick. "A review of Lytton – Gilbert and Sullivan's Jester by Brian Jones" in The Gaiety (Summer, 2006)
  138. Howarth, Paul. Fallen Fairies cast information at The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive, March 19, 2005, accessed 4 November 2009
  139. Shepherd, Marc. "Flanders & Swann's "In the D'Oyly Cart" (1974)", A Gilbert and Sullivan Discography (1999)
  140. Photo of libretto, David B. Lovell, bookseller
  141. Listing for A "G. & S." Cocktail at Open Library
  142. I'd Rather Be Right, Libretto, p. 22 ISBN 141799228X
  143. Family Guy: "The Man With Two Brians"
  144. "Theatre reaches out to autistic children", HealthyPages, 2003


References

  • Accessed March 9, 2008
  • ISBN 0-950-79921-1
  • ISBN 0-370-30249-4
  • (and four supplements published in 1966, 1971, 1976, and 1983)
  • Gilbert and Sullivan Journal, v. VII, p. 23 (May, 1953).


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