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Dalian ( ; ; , Dalian or Дальний, Dalny - also formerly known in English as Dairen) is the governing sub-provincial city in the eastern Liaoningmarker Province of Northeast China, facing Shandongmarker to the south and the Yellow Seamarker to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Dalian is southernmost city of Northeast China and China's northernmost (still warm water) seaport. Dalian is the second largest city of Liaoningmarker Province.

History

Ancient

In the Qin and Han periods (221 B.C.-220 A.D.), the Dalian region was under the jurisdiction of Liaodong county. During the 3rd century through 5th century, when China was split into Sixteen Kingdoms, The neighbor kingdom of Goguryeo maintained control of this region. In the early Tang Dynasty (618-907), the Dalian region was under the jurisdiction of Andong Prefecture in Jili state, and in the Liao Dynasty (916-1125), it was under the jurisdiction of Dong Jing Tong Liaoyang county. Dalian was named Sanshan in the period of Weijin (220-420), San Shanpu in the Tang Dynasty (618-907), Sanshan Seaport in the Ming Dynastymarker (1368-1644), and Qing Niwakou in the Qing Dynastymarker (1644-1911).

Qing Dynasty

In the 1880s, the Qing government constructed loading bridges and fortifications with built-in cannons, and set up mining camps on the northern coast of Dalian Gulf, and it became a small town. At that time, Jinzhou, north of downtown Dalian, now Dalian City's District of Jinzhou, was a walled town and the center of political and economic activities of this area.

British, Russian, and Japanese Occupation

The settlement was occupied by the British in 1858, returned to the Chinese in the 1880s, and then occupied by Japan in 1895 during the first Sino-Japanese War. Nearby Port Arthur was named after Prince Arthur, one of Queen Victoria's sons.

While Japan's intention to lease Port Arthur and its surrounding areas, based on the Treaty of Shimonoseki, met with the Tripartite Intervention by France, Germany and Russia, the Russian Empiremarker in 1898 succeeded in leasing the peninsula from the Qing Dynasty, and a modern city was laid out with the name of Dalny (Дальний). Linked to the Trans-Siberian Railway's branch line, Dalny became Russia's primary port-city in Asia. The Russian government contributed more than 10 million golden rubles (equivalent to 11,5 bn of today's rubles) into the city foundation and building.

Dalny was the main battlefield of the Russo-Japanese War (1905).

Dairen (Dalian) in 1912


Both Dalny (Qingniwaqiao 青泥洼桥 of Zhongshan District, Dalian) and Port Arthur (Lüshunkoumarker) were developed and heavily fortified by the Russians in the period prior to 1904. Consequently, some historians blame the fall of Port Arthur during the siege of Port Arthurmarker on January 2, 1905 for the failure by Admiral Eugene Alexeyeff to concentrate on the naval base and its fortifications, instead splitting precious resources shipped 5,000 miles across the single tracked Trans-Siberian Railway and Manchurian railways.

After the Russo-Japanese war Port Arthur was conceded to Japan (Treaty of Portsmouth), who set up the Kwantung Leased Territory or Guandongzhou, which is roughly the southern half (Jinzhou District and south) of the present-day Dalian City. Since the foundation of Manchukuo in 1932, the sovereignty of the territory moved from China to Manchukuo. Japan still leased it from Manchukuo. In 1937, the modern Dalian City was enlarged and modernized by the Japanese as two cities: the northern Dairen (Dalian) and the southern Ryojun (Lushun).

Post-World War II

With the unconditional surrender of Japan in August 1945, Dalian, passed to the Sovietsmarker, who had liberated the city in advance of the end of hostilities and governed the city until 1950. During this period the Soviets and Chinese Communists cooperated in the further development of the city, its industrial infrastructure, and especially the port, which remained as the free port rented by the Soviet government. The city had been relatively undamaged during the war.

In 1950, the USSRmarker presented Dalian to the Chinese Communist government without any compensation. Soviet troops left in 1955. After the departure of the Soviets, China made Dalian into a major shipbuilding center. In the 1990s the city benefited from the attention of Bo Xilai (son of the important first generation Party elder, Bo Yibo) who was both mayor of the city and provincial party official, who, among other things, banned motorcycles, created large, lush parks in the city's many traffic circles, and generally built things up very attractively. He also preserved much of Dalian's interesting and attractive Japanese and Russian architectural heritage. He is the former Minister of Commerce of the People's Republic.

Geography

One of the most heavily developed industrial areas of China, the Dalian administrative district today consists of Dalian proper and the smaller Lüshunkoumarker (formerly Lüshun city, known in western and Russian historic references as Port Arthur), about forty nautical miles farther along the Liaodong Peninsulamarker. Historical references note that the Russian designed city of Dalny (Alt. Dalney), on the south side of Talien Bay was 40 kilometers from Port Arthur/Lüshun (known today as Lüshunkou or literally, Lüshun Port).

Dalian - Landsat photo (circa 2000)


Dalian is located west of the Yellow Seamarker and east of Bohai Sea roughly in the middle of the Liaodong peninsula at its narrowest neck or isthmus. With a coastline of 1,906 km, it governs the entire Liaodong Peninsula and about 260 surrounding islands and reefs. It is seated at south-south-west of the Yalu River, and its harbor entrance forms a sub-Bay known as Dalian Bay.

Environmental Protection

  • In general, the condition of environment quality was good. The average content of the four pollutants in the air reached Class Ⅱ of National Ambient Air Quality Standards and there were 353 days with air pollution index (API) over Class Ⅱ (Good), including 108 excellent days with Class Ⅰ(Superior). Dalian frequently ranks Grade 2 for air pollution according to SEPA.
  • The water quality of offshore marine space maintained stable overall. The annual average content of monitoring indicators for water quality met Class-II of the national seawater quality standard, except Inorganic Nitrogen in Dalian Bay and southern coast. The water quality of drinking water sources maintained good and complied with Class-III of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water.
  • The urban traffic noise was in line with the national regulations and standards. Dalian won 6th Kitakyushu Environment Award.


Climate

The city's climate is a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa), characterised by humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Average low temperatures in January are at around -6° C, while average high temperatures in July are at around 27°C. Annual precipitation averages 610 mm but can vary greatly from year to year.

Administration

Dalian
Dalian is the second largest city of Liaoning Province, after Shenyangmarker, the provincial capital. Dalian City is governed by the Mayor and its Dalian Municipal People's Government.

Municipal Government

The Municipal Government is located in the main building on the north side of People's Square on Zhongshan Road, originally built as the Administrative Office of Kwantung Leased Territory, and other buildings in downtown Dalian. There are the Commerce, Foreign Economy & Trade, Hygiene, Information Industry, Police, Religion, Science & Technology, Transportation and other city-level bureaus, which work closely with the corresponding agencies at the district level.

There are, in addition, 4 national leading open zones (对外开放先导区):
  • The Development Zone
  • The Free Trade Zone (保税区)
  • The Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (高新技术产业园区)
  • The Golden Pebble Beach National Holiday Resort (金石滩国家旅游度假区)


Administrative divisions

(see Political divisions of China)

The city administers 6 districts (区 qu), 3 county-level cities (市 shi), and 1 county (县 xian) :
  • There are 92 sub-districts and 69 town/townships .
  • Ganjingzi, Zhongshan, Xigang, and Shahekou Districts make up the urban centre. Changhai County is made up entirely of islands east of the peninsula.


Administrative divisions of Dalian
Subdivision Land Area Population(Regd)
km² as of 2007
Total 全市 12,573.85 5,781,853
Dalian City Proper
Xigang District 西岗区 23.94 307,123
Zhongshan District 中山区 40.10 353,775
Shahekou District 沙河口区 34.71 642,954
Ganjingzi District 甘井子区 451.52 704,356
Dalian Suburban and Rural
Lüshunkou Districtmarker 旅顺口区 512.15 208,874
Jinzhou District 金州区 1,352.54 717,169
Wafangdian citymarker 瓦房店市 3,576.40 1,025,262
Pulandian citymarker 普兰店市 2,769.90 826,619
Zhuanghe city 庄河市 3,655.70 921,496
Changhai County 长海县 156.89 74,225


Demographics

Permanent population of Dalian at the end of 2008 totaled 6.13 million.The total registered population on household was 58,337 thousand, with a net increase of 51.8 thousand over the previous year, of which, non-farming population was 34,783 thousand, accounting for 59.6 percent; farming population 23,554 thousand, accounting for 40.4 percent.

Economy



The city has enjoyed a continuous double-digit increase in GDP since 1992. In 2008, the city's GDP registered a 16.5 percent increase, reaching RMB385.8 billion, while per capita GDP hit RMB62,940. According to a nationwide appraisal by the National Bureau of Statistics, Dalian ranks eighth among Chinese cities in terms of overall strength. The city’s main industries include machine manufacturing, petrochemicals and oil refining, and electronics.

Seventeen enterprises in shipbuilding, internal-combustion engines, and finished oil and bearings are the largest firms of their kind in the country. Dalian is an excellent location for businesses involved in metal and lumber processing, component parts consolidation and distribution.

The city is also striving to build up an IT and software center – it is now an increasingly important software exporter to Japan. Finance and other service industries are growing as well. At present, some 23 foreign-funded banks and financial institutions have set up branches or agencies in the city. The exhibition industry is also doing well. The Xinghai Convention and Exhibition Center has hosted over 300 events, including the Dalian Import and Export Commodities Fair and Dalian International Garment Fair.

Agriculture and Aquaculture

Dalian was originally an agriculture and aquaculture-based area, which, after the opening of the ferry between Yantai and Lüshun during the early 20th century, began to be populated by the farmers and fishermen of Shandongmarker, across the Yellow Seamarker. Corn, vegetables, fruit such as apples, cherries and pears are Dalian's typical agricultural products. Aquaculture is well developed in Dalian, exporting seaweed, scallops, sea urchins and others to Japan, Korea and other countries.

Heavy, Light and Distribution Industries

Even before and during the Sino-Japanese War, the shipbuilding and locomotives industries were a thriving industry, such as the companies which later became Dalian Shipbuilding Co. and Dalian Locomotive & Roll Stock Works (DLoco). After the War, Dalian became an important center of the heavy and light industries, including companies such as Dalian Heavy Industry Co., Dalian Chemical Group, and Wafangdian Bearing Co.; and of the distribution industry, including such as Dashang Group. Overseas retailing giants, such as Wal-Mart from U.S.A., Carrefour from France and Metro from Germany have recently opened stores in Dalian. Mycal, the Japanese retailing chain store, was bought out by its Chinese partner, Dashang Group, and is operated as Mykal.

Dalian Port is emerging as a very important port for international trade. A new harbor for oil tankers, at the terminus of an oil pipeline from the Daqing oilfields, was completed in 1976. Dalian is the largest petroleum port in China, and also the 3rd largest port overall. Accordingly, Dalian is a major center for oil refineries, diesel engineering, and chemical production. Also completed recently is a newer port on Dagushan Peninsula on the northern suburbs, specializing in import/export of mining and oil products. Together with its Dalian Railroad Station, Dalian International Airportmarker and two major express roads to Shenyang-Changchun-Harbin in the north and to Dandong to the east, Dalian has become an important distribution center. Dalian International Airport is the largest airport in Northeast China, and has direct flights to Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei and several other Asian cities.

Dalian Development Zone

Dalian has been given many benefits by the Chinese government, including the title of "open-city" (1984), which allows it to receive considerable foreign investment (see Special Economic Zone). The Development Zone was established in Jinzhou District, to which many Japanese manufacturing companies, such as Canon, Mitsubishi Electric, Nidec, Sanyo Electric and Toshiba, followed by Korean, American and European companies (such as Pfizer). In March 2007, Intel announced plans to build a semiconductor fabrication facility (commonly known as a fab) in the Development Zone, Dalian. It is Intel's first fab to be built at an entirely new site in over 15 years. The fab at Dalian will make the chip sets that support Intel's microprocessors and is expected to begin operation in the first half of 2010. (Source: The Wall Street Journal; March 26, 2007; Page B6)

Industrial zones



Financial Industry

Dalian is the financial center of Northeast China. There are the Dalian branches of China's five major banks: Bank of China, Industrial & Commercial Bank of China, China Construction Bank, Bank of Communications, and Agricultural Bank of China. Dalian Commercial Bank is now called Dalian Bank, which among other things handles processing of the Dalian Mingzhu IC Card for public transportation. Foreign banks, such as Citibank, Standard Chartered Bank, HSBC, Bank of East Asia, Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi and Mizuho Corporate Bank also have branch offices. JPMorgan Chase, ABN,Deutsche Bank are also intending to open branches in Dalian, due to the city's prosperous population and booming industry.

Dalian Commodity Exchange is the only one of its kind in China, expanding the futures market beyond soybeans. A "Financial Street" around the new Commodity Exchange building is now being planned.

IT Industry

Since the 1990s Dalian City has emphasized the development of the IT industry, especially in Dalian Hi-Tech Zone and Dalian Software Park in the western suburbs near Dalian University of Technology. There, there are not only Chinese IT companies, such as DHC, hisoft and Neusoft Group, but also American, European, Indian and Japanese IT companies, such as Accenture, Dell, Genpact, HP, IBM, Liferay, SAP AG, Oracle Corporation, Siemens, Alpine, CSK Holding, Panasonic, NEC, Sony, Cisco,Netapp, British Telecom, Aspect, and Fidelity. Currently, the "Lushun South Road Software Industry Belt" Plan is proceeding, including Dalian Software Park Phase 2.

Dalian has recently become an important center for information technology offshoring and business process outsourcing, similar to Bangaloremarker in India; the city was described in "The World Is Flat" by Thomas Friedman (2007). In another way, Dalian is the forerunner of China's "Re-Development of the Old Industry Bases in Northeast" National Project, which began in 2002.

The Intel Fab 68 project is under construction in Dalian. The plan was announced on 26th, Mar., 2007. It is Intel's first chip-manufacturing fabrication in East Asia.

Tourism

Dalian is a very popular destination among Chinese tourists and foreign visitors, especially from Japan, South Korea and Russia. Its mild climate and multiple beaches as well as its importance in the modern history of China make it an especially nice place to visit. Some of the most famous beaches are Tiger beach, Xinghai beach, Jinshitan beach and Fujiazhuang beach. It is one of the three Best Tourism Cities (2006), along with Hangzhoumarker and Chengdumarker, recognized by the National Tourism Administration.

Four Inner-City Districts

Lao Hu Tan is famed for its natural scenery. There is the Underwater World, the Bird Park and the recently completed Polar Region Zoo. The dolphin show is a major attraction for the Polar Region Zoo.
  • Xinghai Square, Xingghai Park and Heishijiao.
  • Xinghai Square was built at the centinary of the City of Dalian (1998) and is slated to be East Asia's largest square. Xinghai beach is in side Xinghai Park. It is about 800m long and is an excellent place for swimming.


Jinzhou District and Development Zone (in the northern suburbs)

Jinshitan beach, the Golden Pebble Beach is a tourist attraction with splendid coves and rock formations. There is also a golf course (Jinshitan International Golf Course), cross country motorcycling, a theme park (Dalian Discoveryland) and a game forest. It is a good place for someone who wants silence and peace and it is excellent for swimming too.


Lüshunkou District (in the western suburbs)

The fiercest battle site and the signing site of the ceasefire treaty, of the Battle of Lüshun during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05).


Three Northern Cities of Greater Dalian

  • Anbo Hotspring and Ski Course, in Pulandian City
  • Zhangxing Island International Golf Course, in Wafangdian City
  • Binyugou Scenic Area and Buyun Mountain Hotspring, in Zhuanhe City


Transportation

Local Transportation

Dalian is one of the many cities in China where there are no longer many bicycles, and where there are few motorcycles, because their sale is prohibited. The number of cars on Dalian streets has increased dramatically in recent years, but traffic continues to circulate relatively smoothly. The city has a comprehensive bus system and an efficient light rail mass transitmarker system, usually called Qinggui ( ), which connects Dalian Development Zone and Jinshitan with downtown Dalian.

Domestic and international

Dalian has a modern and recently (2006) expanded international airport, Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airportmarker, with direct flights to the most major cities in China, and to the selected cities in Japanmarker, South Koreamarker and Germanymarker.

The city's location means that train trips to most Chinese cities outside China's northeastern region require changing trains in Shanghai or Beijing. Most of the direct city to city express trains are overnight trips. In August 2007 construction started on a Harbinmarker-Dalian high speed passenger railway, which is expected to be completed in 2013, connecting Harbin, Dalian, Changchunmarker, and Shenyangmarker.

In addition to local and express bus service to Beijing and other areas in the northeast, Dalian is connected by passenger ship service to neighbouring coastal cities, such as Tianjinmarker and Yantai, as well as Incheonmarker, South Koreamarker.

Life and Culture

Dalian was rated No 1 of the most livable city in China in 2006 according to China Daily. Dalian is widely regarded as one of the most beautiful cities of China, and it is often compared with San Francisco.

Dalian Dialect

Standard Mandarin is usually spoken in Dalian because it is a city with people from various locations. Among the Dalianites, however, the Dalian dialect is used, which belongs to the Jiao Liao Mandarin subgroup spoken from Shandong Provincemarker to Liaoning Provincemarker. The majority of the original Dalianites were the poor farmers and fishermen who had come from Shandong Province in a large population move called "Chuang Guandong". Among the Dalian dialect's features are a few loanwords from Japanese and Russian, reflecting its history of foreign occupation , which is a very rare case in the Chinese language.

Sports

Sports play a big role in the local culture. The city's mayor encouraged a top league football team with foreign aid and a lot of city cash to increase the city's image in the country and bring local fame. They have been caught out several times though and the heyday of the Super Team has passed. The city's football team has dominated the sport in China and Asia by winning 7 titles out of the past 9 years of Chinese professional football league. The city is also a powerhouse producing numerous track and field champions.


The Dalian's football club is Dalian Shide (大连实德), one of fifteen teams in the Chinese Super League. Prior to 2000, they were known as Dalian Wanda (大连万达). Dalian Shide(Wanda) achieved success as:
*Premium A Champions 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002,2005
*Asian Club Championship Runners-Up 1997
*Asian Cup Winners' Cup Runners-Up 2001
*Chinese Super Cup Winners 1997, 2001, 2003
*China FA Cup Winners 2001


City-Wide Festivals

Xinghai Square(星海广场), the Xinghai Conference Center, the Dalian World Expo Center and the hotels on Renmin Rd. are the places where Dalian's major annual events are held: Fireworks Displays (Chinese New Year, May 1 and October 1), Dalian International Walking Festival (May), Dalian Locust Flower Festival (May), Dalian International Marathon (June), China International Software & Information Service Fair (June), Dalian International Beer Festival (July-August), Dalian International Auto Show (August) and Dalian International Fashion Week (September).


Every September Dalian hosts the Dalian International Fashion Festival (大连国际服装节). This festival is a chance for many major foreign companies to showcase their new products and sign up buyers. Before the festival, the city holds an opening ceremony attended by government officials as well as famous stars of the entertainment world.


Zoo and Museums

Dalian is the home of three zoological parks: Dalian Forest Zoo, Sun Asia Ocean World, and Polar World. The Forest Zoo has a free-range animal section as well as a more traditional zoo. Shengya Ocean World includes an underwater conveyor through a transparent tunnel. Polar World is the only park devoted to polar animals in China. Dalian is also home to a number of public squares, including Xinghai Square.and it also famous for beer festivals, every year it attracts a lot of tourism.


Plastination center

The German anatomist Gunther von Hagens runs a plastination center in Dalian.


Food and Restaurants

The local cuisine heavily depends on variety of fresh seafood and fruits, both of which are abundant in the area.


In popular culture

The computer game Battlefield 2 has a single-player/multiplayer map labeled as the "Dalian Plant", wherein the United States Marine Corps engages the People's Liberation Army to take control over an nuclear power plant. However, in reality, there aren't any nuclear power plants in or near Dalian.


Inter-Governmental and People-to-People Communication

Japan maintains a Consulate General office and a JETRO office in Dalian, reflecting a relatively large Japanese population.

Japan Chamber of Commerce & Industry has about 700 corporate members. Those Japanese who had lived in Dalian before the War have organized the Dalian Society. There are such voluntary groups as the Lilac Society (for women) and the Dalian Mountaineering Association.

Religion

Five religions (Taoism, Buddhism, Catholicism, Protestantism and Islam) are "officially approved" by the Chinese government. Taoist temples are not found in downtown Dalian, but in Lushunkou District (Longwang Temple), and in Jinzhou District (Jinlong Temple in Daweijia, Xiangshui Temple at the foot of Dahei Mountain, and Zhenwu Temple in Liangjiadian). Buddhist temples are in downtown Dalian (Songshan Temple on Tangshan Street), on the northern side of Anzi Mountain (Anshan Temple), at Daheishi (Thousand-Hand Buddha & 500 Luohan Statues), in Lushunkou District (Hengshan Temple at Longwangtan), and in Jinzhou District 'Guanyinge-Shengshui Temple on Dahei Mountain). Dalian Islamic Mosque is on Beijing Street.

Dalian Catholic Church (built in 1926) is in downtown Dalian, west of Dalian Railway Station. Protestant churches are near Zhongshan Square (Yuguang Street Church, the former Dalian Anglican Church, built in 1928 in the British Consulate General's premises by the Church of England and Anglican Church of Japan jointly), on Changjiang Road (Beijing Street Church, now called Cheng-en Church, originally built in 1914 by the Danish Lutheran Church), on Xi'an Road (Christian Church for the Korean Chinese), east of the airport (the newly built Harvest Church, which can seat 4000 people), in Jinzhou (the newly built Jinzhou Church) and in Lüshunkou District (Lüshun Church, a former Danish Lutheran church). There are many other underground Christian fellowships ("house churches").

Local Celebrities

, Mifune Toshirō (1 April 1920 – 24 December 1997) was a famous Japanese actor who appeared in almost 170 feature films. He was born in Qingdao, China, to Japanese parents, and grew up in the Chinese city of Dalian with his parents and two siblings.


Dong Jie, ( ; Born April 19, 1980) is a popular actress from Dalian, Liaoningmarker, Chinamarker. In 2000 she played the female role of Wu Ying in a Zhang Yimou art-house film. Her movie, Happy Times (幸福時光), was also extensively filmed in and around the city of Dalian.

Yu Nan ( ; Born September 5, 1978) is a Chinese actress born in Dalian. She played a small role in the Wachowski brothers' live-action adaptation of Speed Racer.

Education

There were 23 general institutions of higher education (and another 7 privately-run colleges), 108 secondary vocational schools, 80 ordinary middle high schools, 1,049 schools for nine-year compulsory education and 1,432 kindergartens in Dalian. The students on campus of all levels (including kindergartens) totaled 1108 thousand.

There are the following schools of higher education and research centers:

Colleges and Universities



Some universities are undergoing relocations from the metropolitan area to the suburban districts. In 2007, Dalian University of Foreign Languages (except for its Schools of Chinese Studies 汉学院 and Continuous Education 培训部) and Dalian Medical University (except its Hospital) were moved to Lüshunkoumarker District, just east of Baiyin Mountain Tunnel (白银山).

Missouri State University Branch Campus Dalian is a dual management private school with a western director.

Research Centers



High schools



International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Dalian is twinned with:

References

  1. Dairen had been an insignificant fishing village called Chingniwa when Great Britain took the Bay of Dalyan from China. The British renamed the bay Victoria Bay after their queen., Kuramoto pg 19.
  2. Czarist Russia brought in their finest architects to this insignificant fishing village to build their dream city, a "Paris in the Far East", copying the layout and architecture of Paris. Nicholas II named the city "Dal'nii" - the faraway place - and declared it a tax-free commercial port., Kuramoto pg 20.
  3. Dalian China - Environmental Protection
  4. Ministry of Environmental Protection of China.
  5. Dalian Statistics Yearbook 2008
  6. 大連方言について (in Japanese)
  7. IMDb Biography
  8. Variety Magazine 18 May 2001


Further reading

  • Hess, Christian A. (2006). "From colonial jewel to socialist metropolis: Dalian, 1895--1955." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego.
  • Kuramoto, Kazuko. Manchurian Legacy: Memoirs of a Japanese Colonist, 1st edition. Michigan State University Press. October 1, 1999. ISBN 0-87013-510-4, ISBN 978-0870-135101, ISBN 0-87013-725-5, ISBN 978-0870-137259.
  • Matz, Leigh. Blue Sky Red Tears, 1st edition. DigitalKu. November 30, 2004. ISBN 0976316811, ISBN 978-0976316817.
  • McKnight, Tom, (ed.). Geographica: The Complete Illustrated Atlas of the World, 3rd revision. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 2001. ISBN 0-7607-5974-X, ISBN 9780760727140.
  • Perrins, Robert John (1998). "'Great connections': The creation of a city, Dalian, 1905-1931. China and Japan on the Liaodong Peninsula." Ph.D. dissertation, York University (Canada).
  • Song Li. Everyday Dalian: Life In Modern Manchuria (Photography Book), Foreword by Phil Borges. 1st edition. DigitalKu. February 8, 2008. ISBN 0-9763168-5-4, ISBN 978-0-9763168-5-5.
  • Theiss, Frank. The Voyage of Forgotten Men, 1st Ed. Indianapolis & New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1937.


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