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The Dalmatae were an ancient people who inhabited the core of what would then become known as Dalmatia after the Roman conquest - now the eastern Adriaticmarker coast in Croatiamarker, between the rivers Krka and Neretvamarker. The semi-nomadic Delmatae are mostly classed as an Illyrian tribe, although for most of their history they were independent of the Illyrian kingdom which bordered to the southeast of them.

Culture and Society

Archaeology and onomastic shows that the Delmatae were akin to eastern Illyrians and northern Pannonii. Delmatae were a younger nomadic tribe in ancient Illyria (West Balkans); they emerged there since 4th century BC, partly repulsing from their area the earlier peoples of Liburni westwards, Daorsi and Ardiaei (Vardaei) eastwards. They were formed as a tribal alliance of culturally similar communities in 4th-3rd century BC.The tribe was sunject to Celtic influences..One of the Dalmatian tribes was called Baridustae that later was settled in Roman Dacia.

The archeological remnants suggest their material culture was more primitive than this one of the surrounding ancient tribes, especially in comparison with the oldest Liburnians. Only their production of weapons was rather advanced. Their elite had the build stone houses only, but numerous Delmatic herdmen yet settled in natural caves, and a characteristic detail in their usual clothing was the fur cap.

Their nomadic society had a strong patriarchal structure, consisting chiefly of shepherds, warriors and their chieftains. Their main jobs had been the extensive cattle breeding, and the iterative plundering of other surrounding tribes and of coastal towns at Adriatic. The early independent Delmatae had been completely illiterate , and the first inscriptions there appeared since the Roman conquest.

Roman conquest

There were some iterative Roman conflicts with the Delmatae lasting for 160 years. The main reason was the perpetual aggressiveness of nomadic Delmatae against all their neighbours (Liburni, Daorsi, Ardiei, etc.), and also towards the Issaean federation , Greek-led Roman allies in central Adriatic islands, and so their pacification appeared inevitable. Delmatae land was mostly a rocky calcareous country with many pathless mountains, ideal for infinite guerilla wars; thus Delmatae erected there about 400 stony forteresses and 50 major citadels against Romans.

The first Dalmatian war in 156 BC155 BC finished with the destruction of Delmion capital by consul Scipio Nasica. The second Dalmatian war was fought in 119–118 BC, apparently ending in Roman victory as consul L. Caecilius Metellus celebrated triumph in 117 BC and assumed his surname Delmaticus. The third Dalmatian war 78 BC - 76 BC finished with the capture of Salona (port Solin near modern city Splitmarker) by the proconsul C. Cosconius.

During the Roman Civil war of 49 BC - 44 BC, the Delmatae (led by Versos and Testimos) sided with Pompey and continuously fought against the Caesarian generals Gabinius and Vatinius. The fourth and final conflict occurred 34 BC - 33 BC during Octavian's expedition to Illyricum because of their iterative revolts, and finished with the capture of the new Delmatian capital- Soetovio (now Klismarker). The last revolts of Delmatae under their federal leader Baton, against Romans were in 12 BC and in 6-9 AD; both also failed and finished by a terminal pacification of bellicose Delmatae.

Religion

The major collective deity of Delmatic federation was their pastoral god 'Sylvanus' they called Vidasus. His divine wife was 'Thana' , a Delmatic goddess mostly comparable with Roman Diana and Greek Artemis. Their frequent reliefs often accompanied by nymphs, are partly conserved up today in some cliffs of Dalmatia; in Imotski valley also their temple used from 4th to 1st century BC, was unearthed. The third important one of Delmatae was a wargod 'Armatus' comparable with Roman Mars and Greek Ares. Their bad deity was the celestial Dragon devouring the sun or moon in the eclipses.

A strong weapons cult was very specific for the patriarchal Delmatae, and in their masculine tombs different weapons are widely present (that is rare in neighbouring peoples e.g. Liburni, Iapydes, etc.). Their usual tombs were under the stone tumuli of kurgan type. After the classic Roman reports (Muzic 1998), nomadic Delmatae were extremely superstitious, and they had a primitive panic dread from all celestial phenomena: any view on the night stars was them forbidden in the fear of a sure death, and in the case of solar or lunar eclipses they repeated tremendous collective howling because of the immediate world ending, made hysterical suicides etc.

Linguistic affinity

The name Delmatae most certainly derives from the leading city of the alliance Delmium/Dalmion later roman Delminium (near modern Tomislavgrad in Duvno valley - Duvanjsko polje), destroyed in 155 BC, which is perhaps related to recent Albanian word dele meaning sheep; in medieval Albanian, the word "delmer" meant "shepherd", (Dalmatae were a pastoral peoples). Another parallel name is the classical tribe Delamites in northwestern Persiamarker, whose recent descendants are named Dimili or Zazaki in eastern Turkeymarker. The last genetical comparisons (Y-chromosomes) of Turkish Zazaki (I. Nasidze et al. 2005) with the inhabitants of Dalmatian mainland documented they are nearly identical and probably of a common biological ancestry; both populations also recently share a considerable rate of connecting words and grammar forms, too (A. Issa-Fatimi & Z. Yoshamya 2006, A. Lovric et al. 2007).

The original language of the early Delmatae is scarcely known save a few toponyms noted by the Romans. Since the Roman conquest, town-dwelling Dalmatae were gradually Romanized, but shepherds in the countryside were assimilated more slowly and only partially. After the collapsed of the Roman Empire, Dalmatian citizens continued to partly speak the Old Dalmatic Romance language (intermediary one between Italian and Rumanian).

The medieval descendants of pastoral Delmatae in Dalmatian inlands conserved at least partly a mixed semi-Romance tongue or Morlachian dialect (Murlaška besida), then persisting also in Austrian Empiremarker, chiefly among 2100 local shepherds around recent town Livno up to World War 1. Then in Yugoslavia during 20th century these non-Slavic pastorals under oppression were quickly slavicized. What remains of their language is but a few curious non-Slavic toponyms around the Livno valley, e.g. the rivulets Ayvatat, Suturba, and mountain peaks Bleynadorna, Brona, Ozirna, Gareta, Mitra, Zugva, Drul, Yenit, Yunch, Chamasir, etc.

Literature

  • Issa-Fatimi, Aziz & Yoshamya, Zyelimer: Kurdish-Croat-English glossary of dialects Dimili and Kurmanji, and their biogenetic comparison. Scientific society for Ethnogenesis studies, Zagreb 2006 (in press).
  • Lovric, A.Z. et al.: The Ikavic Schakavians in Dalmatia (glossary, culture, genom). Old-Croatian Archidioms, Monograph 3 (in press), Scientific society for Ethnogenesis studies, Zagreb 2007.
  • Muzic, Ivan: Autoctonia e prereligione sul suolo della provincia Romana di Dalmazia. Accademia Archeologica Italiana, Roma 1994 (5th edition: Slaveni, Goti i Hrvati na teritoriju rimske provincije Dalmacije Zagreb 1998, 599 p.)
  • Zaninovic, M.: Ilirsko pleme Delmati. Godišnjak (Annuaire) 4-5, 27 p., Centar za balkanološke studije, Sarajevo 1966–1967.


See also



References

  1. The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. 11 : The High Empire, AD 70-192 by Peter Rathbone,page 597, "... One such place was Delminium, from which the Illyrian Delmatae took their name, attacked more than once by Roman consuls ..."
  2. The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes,1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 70,"... on Pannonia (1959) and Moesia Superior (1970). Duje Rendic-Miocevic has published several studies of names from the territory of the Delmatae, ..."
  3. The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 426
  4. A dictionary of the Roman Empire Oxford paperback reference,ISBN-0195102339,1995,page 202,"contact with the peoples of the Illyrian kingdom and at the Celticized tribes of the Delmatae"
  5. Roman Dacia: the making of a provincial society by W. S. Hanson,Ian Haynes,2004,page 22,"Outside the main urban centres, the best attested group of civilian immigrants is members of the Dalmatian tribes such as the Baridustae"
  6. The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes,1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 203,"... the later Siscia (Sisak), in the same year that the Romans first attacked the Delmatae. The general scarcity of references to Pannonians may be a reflection of their subjection to the Scordisci. ..."
  7. The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes,1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 247, "... Death among Illyrians 247 identities of Silvanus and Diana, a familiar combination on many dedications in the territory of the Delmatae. Sometimes the name of a local deity is recorded only in the Latin form, for example, ..."
  8. Wilkes. "North of the Japodes, the altars to Vidasus and Thana dedicated at the hot springs of Topusko reveal the local Roman Illyrians..."
  9. The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes,1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 257,"... Cities were organized for the plains (polie) inhabited by the inland Delmatae, including Delminium (near Duvno), Pelva (near Livno), Salvium (Glamoc), Novae (near Imotski) and Magnum (in the Cikola valley). ..."


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