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Danbury is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticutmarker, United States. It has an estimated population (as of July 1, 2005) of 78,736. Danbury is the fourth largest city in Fairfield County and is the seventh largest city in Connecticut.

The city was named for the place of origin of many of the early settlers, Danbury, Essexmarker in England. The city has been nicknamed Hat City, because it used to be a center of the hat industry, at one point producing 25% of America's hats.

Danbury is home to Danbury Hospital, northeast of downtown, and Danbury High School, off Route 39.


Danbury was first settled by colonists in 1685, when eight families moved to the area from the area that is now Norwalkmarker and Stamfordmarker. The area was then called Pahquioque by the Pahquioque Native Americans. One of the first settlers was Samuel Benedict who bought land from the Paquioque natives in 1685 along with his brother James, James Beebe, and Judah Gregory. The settlers originally chose the name Swampfield for their town, but in October 1687, the general court decreed the name Danbury.
Downtown Main Street scene, ca. 1907
During the American Revolution, Danbury was an important military supply depot for the Continental Army. On April 26-27, 1777, the British under Major General William Tryon burned and looted the city. The central motto on the seal of the City of Danbury is Restituimus (Latin for "We have restored"), a reference to the destruction caused by the Loyalist army troops. The American General David Wooster was mortally wounded near the city of Ridgefield, Connecticutmarker at the Battle of Ridgefield by these same British forces which had earlier attacked Danbury. He is buried in Danbury's Wooster Cemetery, and the private Wooster School in Danbury is named in his honor.

In 1780, the first hat factory in Danbury was established by Zadoc Benedict, employing three workers and producing 18 hats a week. Danbury was known as "The Hat City" or the "Hatting Capital of the World" during the early 20th Century.

In 1802, Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to the Danbury Baptist Association, a religious group, in which he used the expression "Separation of Church and State". It is the first known instance of the expression, which does not appear in the U.S. Constitution, contrary to popular belief. (This letter is on display at the Unitarian-Universalist Congregation of Danbury.)

The first Danbury Fair was held in 1821. By 1869, it became a yearly event and was held until 1981. After 1981, the fairgrounds were demolished to make room for the Danbury Fair Mallmarker, which opened in the fall of 1986.

Danbury reservoir disaster, January 31, 1869

In 1835, the Connecticut Legislature granted a rail charter to the "Fairfield County Railroad", but after 15 years, no work had been completed and investment was slow. In 1850, the organization's vast plans were scaled back and it was renamed the "Danbury and Norwalk Railroad." Work moved quickly on the 23-mile (37 km) railroad line. In 1852, the first railroad line in Danbury opened, with two trains making the 75-minute trip to Norwalkmarker.

The city of Danbury was incorporated April 19, 1889.

In 1902, the American Federation of Labor union called for a nationwide boycott of a non-union hat manufacturer, Dietrich Loewe, in Danbury. The manufacturer sued the union under the Sherman Antitrust Act for unlawfully restraining trade. The U.S.marker Supreme Courtmarker held that the union was liable for damages in 1908. This case is also known as the Danbury Hatters' case.
"Scene of the Disaster at Danbury", January 31, 1869
A 60-acre (24 hectares) tract near the Danbury Fairgrounds known as Tucker's Field was purchased by local pilots in 1928, and leased to the town. This became an airport, which is now Danbury Municipal Airportmarker (ICAO airport code: KDXR).

Connecticutmarker's largest lake, Candlewood Lakemarker, was artificially created in 1929 where Wood Creek and the Rocky River meet near the Housatonic River. The lake is operated as a hydroelectric power facility by the Connecticut Light and Power Company, which sold the lake for $9 million in June 2006.

In the August 1988 issue of Money Magazine, Danbury topped the magazine's list of the best U.S. cities to live in, mostly due to low crime, good schools, and location.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Danbury, where I-84 enters Connecticut, was a popular place for out-of-staters to purchase Powerball tickets. Those who live west of the Hudson River now usually find Pennsylvaniamarker more convenient for Powerball.

Social Activism, Desegregation, and Conscientious Objectors During World War II

During the second World War, Danbury's prison was one of many sites used for the incarceration of conscientious objectors. One out of six inmates in the United States' federal prisons were objectors to the war, and prisons like Danbury found themselves suddenly filled with large numbers of highly educated men skilled in social activism. Due to the activism of inmates within the prison, and local laborers protesting in solidarity with the conscientious objectors, Danbury became one of the nation's first prisons to desegregate its inmates.

Historic pictures

Image:PostcardMainStFromWhiteStDanburyCT1907.jpg|Main Street looking east from White Street, 1907Image:PostcardDanburyCTNatlHatFactry1912.jpg|National Hat Factory, about 1912Image:PostcardDanburyCTViewOfTheHatFactory1911.jpg|View of a hat factory, 1911


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.3 square miles (114.7 km2), of which, 42.1 square miles (109.1 km2) of it is land and 2.2 square miles (5.7 km2) of it (4.94%) is water. Danbury is located at . Danbury also surrounds the southern parts of Candlewood Lakemarker.


of Danbury

1756 1,527
1790 3,031
1820 3,873
1850 5,964
1880 11,666
1910 23,502
1940 27,921
1970 50,781
1980 60,470
1990 65,585
2000 74,848
2004 78,263
As of July 2005, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population at 78,736. This number does not include illegal aliens, which various anecdotal estimates place between 10,000 and 20,000 or some 12–25% of the total. In 2005, Danbury Mayor Mark Boughtonmarker said the city actually numbers around near 90,000, due to recent immigration from Ecuadormarker and Brazil. An unofficial estimate is that there are 5,000 Ecuadorians (mostly from the Andes province of Azuay) and 15,000 Brazilians (mostly from the southeastern state of Minas Geraismarker). Danbury has one of the largest concentrations of immigrants from Brazil for a city of its size.

As of the census of 2000, there were 74,848 people, 27,183 households, and 17,886 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,777.4 people per square mile (686.3/km²). There were 28,519 housing units at an average density of 677.2/sq mi (261.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 76.0% White, 6.8% African American, 0.29% Native American, 5.5% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 7.6% from other races, and 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.8% of the population.

There were 27,183 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.18.

The population was distributed as follows: 21.7% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 35.4% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 11.0% 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 96.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $53,664, and the median income for a family was $61,899. Males had a median income of $39,016 versus $31,319 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,500. About 5.9% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over.

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of October 28, 2008
Party Active Voters Inactive Voters Total Voters Percentage

Democratic 11,194 566 11,760 32.22%

Republican 6,783 449 7,232 19.82%

Unaffiliated 16,238 1,267 17,505 47.96%

Minor Parties 363 21 384 0.01%
Total 34,578 2,303 36,881 100%
The newest statistics for the State of Connecticut show that Danbury, Connecticut has the highest percentage of foreign-born people, as 34% of Danbury's residents are foreign born. In 2006, 13% of Connecticut residents were foreign born.

When ZIP codes were introduced in 1963, the 06810 code was given to all of Danbury; it was shared with a then-still-rural New Fairfieldmarker to its north. In 1984, the 06810 was cut back to part of Danbury, which received additional ZIP codes; New Fairfield received its own code, 06812.


  • ATMI Inc. (ATMI) – headquarters 7 Commerce Drive; makes materials and materials packaging for semiconductor and flat panel manufacturers worldwide; 700 employees company wide; $281.8 million in 2005 revenues; CEO Doug Neugold
  • Cartus (a subsidiary of Realogy Corporation) – headquarters, 40 Apple Ridge Road; Relocation; 1,800 employees (2,700 worldwide); CEO Kevin Kelleher
  • Ethan Allen Interiors Inc. (ETH) – headquarters, Ethan Allen Drive; designs, manufactures and distributes furniture, rugs, lamps, draperies and other decorative home accessories sold by a network of more than 300 Ethan Allen interior design centers in the United States and abroad; 6,400 employees company wide, 618 in Connecticut; $949 million in 2005 revenues; CEO Farooq Kathwari
  • Praxair Inc. (PX) – headquarters, 39 Old Ridgebury Road; the Fortune 500 company makes and sells industrial gases used worldwide in the electronics, metal fabrication, health care and food processing industries, also makes metallic and ceramic powders and coatings; 27,000 employees company wide, 550 in Connecticut; $8.3 billion in 2006 revenues; CEO Steve Angel
  • Scholastic Library Publishing Inc.marker (a division of Scholastic Corporationmarker) – headquarters, 90 Sherman Turnpike; Scholastic Library publishes educational, children's and reference books, including the Encyclopedia Americana (the first encyclopedia published in the US), as well as Nueva Enciclopedia Cumbre en Linea (the Spanish language encyclopedia) and Lands and Peoples. Imprints include Franklin Watts and Children's Press]. Its interactive unit produces games and interactive software, including Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia (the first encyclopedia in electronic form); Greg Worrell, division president


The chief executive officer of Danbury is the Mayor, who serves a two year term. The current mayor is Mark Boughtonmarker (R). The Mayor is the presiding officer of the Common Council, which consists of 21 members, two from each of the seven city wards, and seven at-large. The Common Council enacts ordinances and resolutions by a simple majority vote. If after five days the Mayor does not approve the ordinance (similar to a veto), the Common Council may re-vote on it. If it then passes with a two-thirds majority, it becomes effective without the Mayor's approval. The current Common Council consists of 14 Republicans and 7 Democrats.

Danbury also has four state representatives as of the 2008 elections, Rep. Jason Bartlett D-2, Rep. Joe Taborsak D-109, Deputy Speaker of the House Bob Godfrey D-110, and Rep. Jan Giegler R-138. There is one state senator, Michael McLachlan R-24.Danbury is represented in the United States Congress by U.S. Rep. Chris Murphy (D).

Danbury's 2007-2008 mill rate is 21.35.

Danbury is also home to an Army Reserve Special Operations unit, the 411th Civil Affairs Battalion.

Danbury Federal Correctional Institute

Danbury is also the site of a low-security women's prison, the Danbury Federal Correctional Institutemarker, formerly a men's prison. It is located near the border with New Fairfieldmarker.Notable ex-prisoners include cocaine dealer and trafficker of Blow fame George Jung, Unification Church leader the Rev. Sun Myung Moon, and hotel magnate Leona Helmsley. James Michael Curley, mayor of Boston from 1945-1949, spent five months of his mayoral term at Danbury Federal Prison, after he was convicted on federal charges of official misconduct. Media personality and homemaker Martha Stewart (incarcerated in West Virginiamarker) and female rap star Lil' Kim requested that their prison terms be served at Danbury Federal Correctional Institute due to its proximity to their New York City homes. However, due to the media attention their requests were denied.


Danbury is home to Western Connecticut State Universitymarker.

Public Schools

  • 2 high schools: Danbury High School (9-12) and Henry Abbott Technical High School (9-12)
  • 2 middle schools: Broadview Middle School (6-8) and Rogers Park Middle School (6-8)
  • 14 elementary schools: Western Connecticut Academy for International Studies Magnet School (K-5), Ellsworth Avenue (K-5), Great Plain (K-5), Hayestown (K-5), King Street Primary (K-2) and King Street Intermediate (3-5), Mill Ridge Primary (K-2) and Mill Ridge Intermediate (3-5), Morris Street (K-5), Park Avenue (K-5), Pembroke (K-5), Shelter Rock (K-5), South Street (K-5) and Stadley Rough (K-5)

Parochial Schools

Roman Catholic parochial schools in Danbury reside within the administration of the Diocese of Bridgeport and include:
  • 1 high school: Immaculate High Schoolmarker (9-12)
  • 3 elementary schools: St Peter-Sacred Heart School (Birth-8), St. Gregory the Great School (PK-8),and St. Joseph School (K-8)

Private Schools

In addition, Danbury is home to:
  • Anderson Montessori School
  • Colonial Hills Christian Academy
  • Hudson Country Montessori School
  • New England Country Day School
  • New Hope Christian Academy
  • Maimonides Academy
  • Wooster School
  • Immanuel Lutheran School


  • The News-Times of Danbury, a daily newspaper owned by Media News Group.
  • Tribuna Newspaper a biweekly, bilingual(Portuguese/English) publication.
  • WFAR-FM 93.3 - Radio Familia Portuguese Radio Station.
  • WLAD-AM 800; 1,000 watts (daytime); 287 watts (nighttime)
  • WDAQ-FM 98.3; 3,000 watts; owned by the Berkshire Broadcasting Corporation
  • WXCI-FMmarker 91.7; 3,000 watts; College radio station owned by Western Connecticut State University and operated by past and present students. It receives funding from the Western Connecticut State University Student Government Association.

Sites of interest

Hiking trails

  • Bear Mountain Reservation
  • The Old Quarry Nature Center has two short educational trails on 39 acres (15 hectares) off Mountainville Avenue.
  • Tarrywile Mansion and Park is one of Danbury's most popular parks. There are of trails as well as several ponds located on the 800 acre (264 hectare) park. The historic Victorian mansion and gardens are a common location for weddings.


  • Danbury Candlewood Park overlooks Candlewood Lake. Swimming, picnicking, and a boat launch are available in the 11.1 acre (45,000 m2) park.
  • Elmwood Park
  • Hatters Community Park
  • Kenosia Park
  • Richter Park
  • Rogers Park
  • Tarrywile Park

Portions of the private Morefar Back O’Beyond golf course are located in Danbury.



On the National Register of Historic Places

  • Ball and Roller Bearing Company - 20-22 Maple Ave. (added September 25, 1989)
  • Charles Ives House - 7 Mountainville Ave. (added May 26, 1976)
  • Hearthstone - 18 Brushy Hill Rd. (added 1987)
  • John Rider Housemarker - 43 Main St. (added December 23, 1977)
  • Locust Avenue School - Locust Ave. (added June 30, 1985)
  • Main Street Historic Districtmarker - Boughton, Elm, Ives, Keeler, Main, West and White Sts. (added December 29, 1983)
  • Meeker's Hardwaremarker - 86-90 White St. (added July 9, 1983)
  • Octagon House - 21 Spring St. (added June 7, 1973)
  • P. Robinson Fur Cutting Company - Oil Mill Rd. (added December 30, 1982)
  • Tarrywile - Southern Blvd. & Mountain Rd. (added February 6, 1988)
  • Union Station - White St. and Patriot Dr. (added October 25, 1986)


The Danbury Westerners, a member of the New England Collegiate Baseball League, play their home games at Rogers Parkmarker in Danbury.

The Danbury Mad Hatters are one of four founding members of the Eastern Professional Hockey League . They play their home games at the Danbury Ice Arena.

The United Hockey League (UHL) expanded to Danbury in 2004. The Danbury Trashers played their first season at the Danbury Ice Arenamarker in October 2004. Among those on the roster included Brent Gretzky (brother of hockey legend Wayne Gretzky) and Scott Stirling (son of former New York Islanders coach Steve Stirling). Scott's older brother, Todd, coached the Trashers in the 2004-2005 season.

On June 9, 2006 the owner of the Trashers, James Galante, was arrested as part of a federal investigation into illegal practices in the Connecticut garbage industry. Team executives were also charged with fraud as it was alleged the owner illegally subsidized players and violated the league salary cap. The club folded due to the ongoing investigation and lack of teams within close proximity to them.

As of 2006 a new team was created to occupy the ice arena, the New England Stars were formed to represent Danbury in the defunct North Eastern Hockey League.

On March 25, 2008, Danbury was named the first city to officially have a new team in the newly formed Eastern Professional Hockey League. The team is called the Danbury Mad Hatters.

Danbury High School carries a strong athletic tradition. They are perennial powers in: wrestling, boys and girls track and field, boys cross country, baseball, basketball, and football. The wrestling, cross country, and track teams have all numerous state titles and New England championships. All three programs are considered to be nationally ranked annually.

The [Danbury Hatters Cricket Club] formed in 2001 and has been playing cricket in Southern Connecticut along with other cities such as Norwalk, Stamford, Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury and West Haven


Danbury is the terminus of the Danbury branch line of the MTA Metro-North Railroad which begins in Norwalkmarker. The line was first built by the Danbury and Norwalk Railroad which was later bought by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company. Danbury was an important junction between the Danbury Branch and the Maybrook Line. The Maybrook line was the New Haven's main freight line which terminated in Maybrook, New Yorkmarker, where the New Haven exchanged traffic with other railroads. After the ill-fated Penn Central took over the New Haven, the Maybrook line was shut down when a fire on the New Haven bridge over the Hudson River made the line unusable. Many believe the fire was set by Penn Central to reroute that freight traffic over their Boston & Albany route to the north. Today, the historic station is part of the Danbury Railroad Museum. The Providence and Worcester Railroad, along with the Housatonic Railroad provide local rail freight service in Danbury.

Local bus service is provided by Housatonic Area Regional Transit (HART).

The city is also the location of Danbury Municipal Airportmarker (DXR).

Interstate 84 and U.S. Route 7 are the main highways of the city. I-84 runs east-west from the Hudson Valley region of New Yorkmarker towards Waterburymarker and Hartfordmarker. US 7 runs north-south from Norwalkmarker (connecting to I-95) to the Litchfield Hills region. The two highways overlap in the downtown area. The principal surface roads through the city are Lake Avenue, West Street, White Street, and Federal Road. Other secondary state highways are U.S. Route 6 in the western part of the city, Newtown Road, which connects to US 6 east of the city, Route 53 (Main Street and South Street), Route 37 (North Street, Padaranam Road, and Pembroke Road), and Route 39 (Clapboard Ridge Road and Ball Pond Road).

Notable people

Twin cities


  1. Danbury Historical Society web site
  2. Ravo, Nick, " Country Fair Becomes Land of the Lava Lamp", New York Times, September 4, 1987
  3. D'Emilio, John. Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin. Simon and Schuster, 2003
  4. Kosek, Joseph Kip. Acts of Conscience: Christian Nonviolence and Modern American Democracy. Columbia University Press, 2009
  5. Scott H. Bennett. Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915-1963. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2003
  8. Doing Business in Danbury: Construction industry faring well on public school campuses, an article by Bob Chuvala, Fairfield County Business Journal, August 21, 2006
  9. Ecuadorian immigrants in Danbury, by HatCity BLOG, Retrieved November 17, 2006
  10. Danbury's low-security women prison, by Bureau of Prisons (BOP) Facilities, Retrieved November 17, 2006
  11. 2006 Book of Business Lists, Facts and People, published by Westfair Communications Inc. of White Plains, N.Y., in conjunction with its Fairfield County Business Journal, page 57
  13. Dixon, Ken, "Music Hall of Fame proposed for state", article in Connecticut Post in Bridgeport, Connecticut, April 26, 2007 ("Charles Ives (1874-1954) of Danbury")

See also

External links

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