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Darbhangā is a city and a municipal corporation in and headquarters of Darbhanga district and Darbhanga Division in the state of Biharmarker, Indiamarker. It gets its name from Dar Bhanga or "gates broken" (for gates of Hindu Qilā broken at Qilā Ghāt in 1326 AD when Tughlaq forces captured the last Hindu state in North India, ruled by Harisinghdeva). Some people guess thatDarbhangā is a distorted form of "Dwār Banga" or the Gate to Bengal, but actually the gate of Bengal is at Rājmahal which is far away from Darbhangā. The name of the district has been derived from its head quarter and principal town, which is said to have been founded by Darbhangi Khān, who was the Fauzdār or military head of Tughlaq forces stationed at Urdu (original meaning "cantonment"), later the title Darbhangi Khān was applied to his direct descendants. Darbhangā is home to Maithil Brahmins, among others.

History

The history of Darbhanga dates back to the Ramayana and Mahabharata periods; it is among the oldest cities of Bihar. According to the Vedic sources, the Videhas first migrated to the area from the banks of Saraswati in Punjab. They were guided to the east of Sadanira (Gandak River) by Agni, the God of Fire. Settlements were established and, thus, flourished the kingdom of the Videhas, the Selfless.

In the course of time Videhas came to be ruled by a line of kings called Janaks. In this line of kings there was a very famous king named Mithi. To commemorate his greatness the territory was named as MITHILA. Another famous king was Janak Sirdhwaja, father of Sita. The legends speak of various learned men patronized by Janak Sirdhwaja, who himself was an erudite scholar. Prominent among them were Yagyavalkya, who codified the Hindu law in his Yagyavalkya Smriti and Gautam, who had various valuable philosophical treatises to his credit. King Janak was himself a great philosopher and his ideas have been eternally enshrined in the Upanishads, especially in the .

Traditions also speak of Kapila's relationship with this area that propounded the Sankhya philosophy. The association of this area with the Pandavas is also evident by the popular belief that they stayed here during their period of exile. The learned men like Vidyāpati, Kumāril Bhatt, Mandan Mishra, and Nāgārjun belonged to this region.

Darbhanga is a town with a population of nearly 3 lakhs. Darbhanga was named after Dar (Dwar) + Bhangaa which means gates+broken ; it is guessed that gates of the Qila (at Qilaghat probably) were broken (by cannons or elephants) in 1326 AD when Tughlak forces attacked the last independent North Indian Hindu king Harisinghdeva (of the Karnaata Chalukya dynasty from Karnatakamarker) who ruled over North Bihar and most of Nepal. Historians guess that the capital of Harisinghdeva was situated near foothills of Himalayas, Haraahi pond in Darbhanga is named after Harisinghdeva and the pond Gangaasagar is named after his ancestor Gangadeva who was son of Naanyadeva, the founder of this dynasty; Naanyadeva was a chieftain of Chalukya king Vikramaditya-VI of Karnatak who had successfully invaded North India in the end of 11th century. Hindus began to flock to this town since the beginning of 19th century when the Maharaja of Darbhanga shifted his residence to this town and was granted the title Maharaja by East India Company, and gradually Hindus surpassed Muslims in population, but Muslims still constitute over 36% of population of this town. It was the biggest town of North Bihar for centuries, but after Muzaffarpurmarker was connected to broad gauge railway in mid-1970s, the latter overtook Darbhanga due to shift of trade, commerce, business and transport to some extent. Once part of the Brahman kingdom of Mithila, Darbhanga passed to the Tughlaks in the 14th century. The British assumed control in 1765.

Darbhanga was an ancient city of Mithila, which is an ancient cultural region of North India lying between the lower ranges of the Himalayas and the Ganges River. The Nepal border cuts across the top fringe of this region. The Gandak and Kosi Rivers are rough western and eastern boundaries of Mithila. In the year 1326 Mithila was invaded by Afghans, who deposed the Kshatriya ruler and placed a Maithil Brahman in control of land revenues over much of this region. This family soon began calling themselves kings, distributing land to other members of their caste, so that gradually land passed into the control of Maithil Brahmans.

It is a noteworthy seat of the Maharaja of Darbhanga. During Akbar's reign in the sixteenth century, a second Maithil Brahman family came to rule as the Khandavala Dynasty. By British times, their estate, Darbhanga Raj, was the largest and richest of the great zamindari estates. Their capital was in Bhaur village in Madhubani, later shifted to the town of Darbhanga. They controlled most of Mithila until after Independence when the Republic of India abolished zamindari (Maharaja of Darbhanga was actually a zamindar entitled to add the title Maharaja in his name, besides the British title KCIE).

Darbhanga Town
Darbhanga District


The Maharaja of Darbhanga, Kameshwar Singh was also an integral part of the Constituent Assembly of India and was instrumental in campaigning for retention of privy purses and land rights for rulers. He single handedly negotiated rights of various rulers and nawabs.

Darbhanga city is essentially a twin city with Darbhanga tower and Laheriasarai tower at its two ends. Laheriasarai has been named after the famous Lahri walas whose traditional occupation was to weave textiles and make bangles especially of Lah, imported from Ranchi and other places.

Geography

Darbhanga town is located at . It has an average elevation of (52 to 39 metres) 48 metres (127 feet).

Geological Profile

The District of Darbhanga can be divided into four natural divisions. The eastern portion consisting of Ghanshyampur, Biraul and Kusheshwarsthan blocks contain fresh silt deposited by the Kosi River. This region was under the influence of Kosi floods till the construction of Kosi embankment in the Second Five Year Plan. It contains large tracts of sandy land covered with wild marsh.

The second division consists of the anchals lying south of the Boorhi Gandak river and is the most fertile area in the district. It is also on higher level than the other part of the district and contains very few marshes. It is well suited to the rabbi crops.

The third natural region is the doab between the Burhi Gandak and Baghmati and consists of the low-lying areas dotted over by chaur and marshes. It gets floods every year.The fourth division covers the Sadar sub-division of the district. This tract is watered by numerous streams and contains some up-lands.

The district has a vast alluvial plain devoid of any hills. There is a gentle slope from north to south with a depression on the centre. Numerous rivers originating in the Himalays water this district. Out of these rivers Kamla, Baghmati, Kosi and Kareh are of most importance.The District has somewhat dry and healthy climate. There are three well-marked seasons, the winter, the summer & the Rainy season. The cold weather begins in November and continues up to February, though March is also somewhat cool. Westerly winds begin to blow in the second half of March and temperature rises considerably. May is the hottest month when the temperature goes up to . Rain sets in towards the middle of June. With the advent of the Rainy seasons, temperature falls and humidity rises. The moist heat of the Rainy season is very oppressive up to August. The rain continues till the middle of October. Average rainfall is 1142.3 mm. around 92% of rainfall is received during monsoon months.

Languages and Religion

The languages spoken in this district is Maithili and Urdu. Religion-wise breakup of population is indicated below as per 1991 census: Hindus: 19,55,068, Muslims: 5,55,429, Christians: 141, Sikhs: 198, Buddhists: 26, Jains: 27, Other religions and persuasions: 70.

Cinemas (Town)

  • Movie Planet (in Raj Quila)
  • National (Near Naka no.5)
  • Uma (Near Cinema Chowk)
  • Craze dolby (Near Cinema Chowk)
  • Punam (Near Tower Chowk, Darbhanga)
  • Shiv Planet (Laxmipur Pator)
  • Light House (Laheriasarai)


Accommodation

  • Hotel P & P International
  • Hotel Ganga Residency inside the Rambagh Kila
  • Goutam Hotal,
  • Natraj Hotel,
  • Rajasthan Restaurant,
  • Tara Hotel,
  • Maharaja Hotel,
  • Hotel Naveen Residency Tower Chowk
  • MAHARANI NIWAS, Beta Chowk, near R.B. Memorial hospital


Demographics

As of 2001 India census, Darbhanga Town had a population of 266,834. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Darbhanga has an average literacy rate of 64%, which is higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72% and, female literacy is 56%. In Darbhanga, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Education

2 Universities, 17 General Colleges (Constituent), 5 Sanskrit College (Constituent), 26 General College (Affiliated) and 1 Sanskrit College (Affiliated) exists beside a hoarde of other colleges for professional education. Beside this, following categories of schools/colleges are imparting secondary level education:
  • High School- 70
  • Middle School- 312
  • Primary School- 1165
  • Charwaha Vidyalaya- 4 (non functional)


Universities:
Following two universities recognised by University Grants Commission (of India) and Government of India are located in Darbhanga town, adjacent to each other:(1) Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University,(2) Lalit Narayan Mithila University,(3) IGNOU Darbhanga Center,(4) National Urdu Univercity, Darbhanga Campus.

Mithila Research Institute in Darbhanga town has a great collection of nearly 50000 old manuscripts.

Colleges for Professional Courses:Darbhanga Institute of Technology,Darbhanga Medical College & Hospital (DMCH),Darbhanga Dental College,Mithila Minority Dental College,Salfia unani medical college,Saryug Dental College,MRM Aurvedic College (Darbhanga),Maharani Rameshwari Bhartiya Chikitsa Vigyan Sansthan (Mohanpur),Women's Institute of Technology,Dr Zakir Hussaun Teacher's Training College,Nurses Training School,Government Polytechnic College, Bihar Govt. Industrical Training Institute (ITI),Imarat Mujibia Technical Institute Mahdauli (IMTI),Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Industrial Training Institute (MAKAITI),

Degree Colleges:
M.R.S.M College Anandpur (Sahora),Brahmanand Kala Mahavidyalay,C. M. College,C M Science College,R.N.M.Govt Girls Intermediate College,Laheriasarai,K S College,Lohia Charan Singh College,M.K.College,M.L.S.M College,M.M.T.M. College,M.R.M. College,Mahatma Gandhi College,Maq college,Marwari college,Millat College (Laheria Sarai),R B Jalan College,R L College Nimaithi,Janta Koshi College (Biroul),Vidya Nand Mithila Sanskrit College, Darbhanga.

Secondary Level Schools:
Kendriya Vidyalaya (3 Nos.),Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya,North Brook Zila School,Government High School, Pindaruch,Woodbine Modern School,Atihar high school Atihar,Sarvoday high School, Gangasagar,Purvanchal High School,Marwari High School,L. R Girls High School,M.C.High School Kadirabad,Onkar High School SUPAUL BAZAR,Mukundi Chaudhari High School,.L.J.L. Sahu High School Khirma,H. B. Sogra High Memorial Urdu Girl School Halim Khan,Janta High School-Jiwachh Ghat (Muria),Videh High School (Ughara),Mithila High School Makhnahi,D A V Public School, Saramohanpur'Darbhanga Central School,Darbhanga Public School,Don Bosco School,Gyan Bharti School,Harrow English school,Iqra Academy,Holy Cross School,Jesus And Marry Academy,Kid Care School,Maddonna English school,Rose Public School,Salfia school,Vidhya Vihar Vidhalay,Model Public School Saho Parari,High School Pohaddi, Mahinam,M.L.Academy (Sarasvati School), Laheriasarai,Raj High school,Darbhanga Public School,Mahip Narayan Middle School,Shafi Muslim High School,Musa Sah School,Gyan Niketan public school, Anandpur

Medical Facilities

  • MEENA NURSING HOME, ALALPATTI
  • D M C Hospital, DMC Campus
  • R B Memorial Hospital, Benta
  • Sharma Diagnostics, Laheriasarai
  • Jyoti Research hospital
  • Ugratara hospital, Benta, Shahganj, Laheria Sarai
  • Shyama surgical
  • "VISION clinic ", hospital road
  • "Agrachal hospital"
  • "G S G P Memorial Dental Care Center" in front of Akashwani Darbhanga.
  • ENT Services Dr M.K.BOSE, near naka NO:6


Railways

Darbhanga (Station Code -"DBG") is one of the most important railway stations under the East Central Railway (ECR) headquartered at Hajipurmarker. Darbhanga was the first city of north Bihar to get connection with meter gauge track in 1875, when track between Bajitpur Darbhanga laid. Later the railway line extended towards eastern side up to Kosi river(kanwaGhat) and East, on west side track was linkd up to Gorakhpur, making whole route as Trunk route. But due to Flood and Kosi's curse change both lines ware broken. Now a bridge on Gandak at Valmikinagar was build to connect West side and another mega bridge on Kosi at Nirmali is under construction which will link Far Eastern region with main land.

There are three important railway lines:
  • Darbhanga to Samastipur (Broad Gauge)
  • Darbhanga to Sitamadhi (Broad Gauage)
  • Darbhanga to Jaynagar (Broad gauage)
  • Sakri to Biraul Khagaria>- New BG line up to Biraul has been constructed.
  • Sakri-Nirmali/Laukaha Bazaar MG.


Direct trains are also available from Darbhanga-

  • Jaynagar/Darbhanga to Sealdah, Chitpur (Kolkata) (Gangasagar-Mithilanchal Exp),
  • Darbhanga to New Delhi / Delhi (Bihar Sampark Kranti, Swatantrata Sainani Exp),
  • Darbhanga to Pune (Weekly 1033/1034),
  • Darbhanga to (LTT) Mumbai (Pawan Exp),
  • Darbhanga to Chennai / Bangalore(Bagmati Exp ),
  • Jaynagar/Darbhanga to Amritser (Shaheed, Saryu Yamuna Exp, Jansewa Exp),
  • Jaynagar/Darbhanga to Patna/Danapur (Intercity),
  • Darbhanga to Guwahati (Jeewach Exp),
  • Darbhanga to Ahmadabad (Sabarmati Exp).
  • GaribRath_Bi Weekly (Jaynagar_HazratNijamuddin),
  • Janki Express (Jaynagar_Saharsa) Try Weekly'
  • Licchavi Express (Sitamarhi_New Delhi),
  • Darbhanga_Puri Express Weekly,
  • Darbhanga_Guwahati Weekly Super Fast Special.
Other important towns connected with Darbhanga are: Gorakhpur; Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, New Jalpaiguri, Jhansi, Nagpur, Vijaywada, Ludhiana, Chenni.

Railway Stations and Halts:
Darbhanga Jn (Main City Station), Laheriasarai (Near Civil Court), Kakarghati, Bijuli halt, Tarsarai (Muria), Thalwara, Siso Halt, Mohammadpur, Kamtaul, Tektar, Hayaghat, Rambhadra Pur, Jogiara, Muraitha, Mandan Mishra Halt, Biroul, Mirzapur, Manigachi, Deora Bandhouli.Benipur Jn (Balha Stn.), Pohaddi Laxmipur Halt, Neuri Stn., Biraul Stn., Kusheshwarsthan Stn.

References

External links




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