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David Paul Cronenberg, OC, FRSC (born March 15, 1943) is a Canadianmarker filmmaker, screenwriter, and occasional actor. He is one of the principal originators of what is commonly known as the body horror or venereal horror genre. This style of filmmaking explores people's fears of bodily transformation and infection. In his films, the psychological is typically intertwined with the physical. In the first half of his career, he explored these themes mostly through horror and science fiction, although his work has since expanded beyond these genres.

Biography

Early life

Cronenberg was born in Torontomarker, Canadamarker, where he currently lives. He is the son of Esther (née Sumberg), a musician, and Milton Cronenberg, a writer and editor. He was raised in a middle-class secular Jewish family, and remained an atheist. Cronenberg attended Harbord Collegiate Institutemarker, later graduating from University Collegemarker, University of Torontomarker with a degree in literature, having switched from science. He has cited William S. Burroughs and Vladimir Nabokov as influences.

Career

After two short sketch films and two short art-house features (the black and white Stereo and the colour Crimes of the Future) Cronenberg went into partnership with Ivan Reitman. The Canadian government provided financing for Cronenberg's films through the 1970s. Cronenberg alternated his signature "body horror" films such as Shivers with projects reflecting his interest in car racing and bike gangs. Rabid exploited the unexpected acting talents of porn queen Marilyn Chambers (Cronenberg's first choice was a young, then-unknown Sissy Spacek). Rabid was a breakthrough with international distributors and his next two horror features gained stronger support.

Over the arc of his career, Cronenberg's films follow a definite progression, a movement from the social world to the inner life. In his early films, scientists modify human bodies, which results in the breakdown of social order (e.g. Shivers, Rabid). In his middle period, the chaos wrought by the scientist is more personal, (e.g. The Brood, Scanners, Videodrome). In the later period, the scientist himself is altered by his experiment (e.g. Cronenberg's remake of The Fly). This trajectory culminates in Dead Ringers in which a twin pair of gynecologists spiral into codependency and drug addiction. Cronenberg's later films tend more to the psychological, often contrasting subjective and objective realities (eXistenZ, M. Butterfly, Spider). Perhaps the best example of a film that straddles the line between his works of personal chaos and psychological confusion is Cronenberg's "adaptation" of his literary hero Burroughs' most controversial book, Naked Lunch. The book itself (widely accepted as Burroughs' seminal work) was considered "unfilmable" and Cronenberg acknowledged that a straight translation of the book to film would "cost 100 million dollars and be banned in every country in the world". Instead, Cronenberg—much like in his earlier film, Videodrome—consistently blurred the lines between what appeared to be reality and what appeared to be hallucinations brought on by the main character's drug addiction. Some of the book's "moments" (as well as incidents loosely based upon Burroughs' life) are presented in this manner within the film. Cronenberg stated that while writing the screenplay for Naked Lunch, he felt a moment of synergy with the writing style of William S. Burroughs. He felt the connection between his screenwriting style and Burroughs' prose style was so strong, that he jokingly remarked that should Burroughs pass on, "I'll just write his next book".

Cronenberg has said that his films should be seen "from the point of view of the disease", and that, for example, he identifies with the characters in Shivers after they become infected with the anarchic parasites. Disease and disaster, in Cronenberg's work, are less problems to be overcome than agents of personal transformation. Similarly, in Crash (1996), people who have been injured in car crashes attempt to view their ordeal as "a fertilizing rather than a destructive event". In 2006, Cronenberg would say that he was upset that Paul Haggis had chosen the same name for his Academy Award winning film Crash, feeling it was not only ethically wrong, but annoying as hell.

Aside from The Dead Zone (1983) and The Fly, Cronenberg has not generally worked within the world of big-budget, mainstream Hollywoodmarker filmmaking, although he has had occasional near misses. At one stage he was considered by George Lucas as a possible director for Return of the Jedi but was passed. Cronenberg also worked for nearly a year on a version of Total Recall but experienced "creative differences" with producers Dino De Laurentiis and Ronald Shusett. A different version of the film was eventually made by Paul Verhoeven. A fan of Philip K. Dick, the author of the short story (We Can Remember it For You Wholesale) upon which Total Recall was based, Cronenberg related (in the biography/overview of his work, Cronenberg on Cronenberg) that his dissatisfaction with what he envisioned the film to be and what it ended up being pained him so greatly that for a time, he suffered a migraine just thinking about it, akin to a needle piercing his eye.

In the late 1990s, Cronenberg was announced as director of a sequel to another Verhoeven film, Basic Instinct, but this also fell through. His recent work, the thriller A History of Violence (2005), is one of his highest budgeted and most mass audience-accessible to date. He has said that the decision to direct it was influenced by his having had to defer some of his salary on the low-budgeted Spider, but it is one of his most critically acclaimed films to date, along with Eastern Promises (2007) which is about the struggle one man went through to gain power in the Russian Mafia.

Cronenberg has collaborated with composer Howard Shore on all of his films since The Brood (1979), (see List of noted film director and composer collaborations) with the exception of The Dead Zone (1983), which was scored by Michael Kamen. Other regular collaborators include actor Robert Silverman, art director Carol Spier, sound editor Bryan Day, film editor Ronald Sanders, his sister, costume designer Denise Cronenberg, and, from 1979 until 1988, cinematographer Mark Irwin. In 2008, Cronenberg directed Howard Shore's first opera, The Fly.

Since 1988's Dead Ringers, Cronenberg has worked with cinematographer Peter Suschitzky on each of his films (see List of noted film director and cinematographer collaborations). Suschitzky was the director of photography for Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, and Cronenberg has repeatedly said that Suschitzky's work in that film made it the most beautiful sci-fi film he had ever seen, which was a motivating factor to work with him on Dead Ringers.

Having worked with an impressive list of Hollywood stars, Cronenberg says that he didn't get to make a film with an actor he wanted to work with for a long time, Burt Reynolds. Coupled with the loyalty he shows to his key personnel, Cronenberg remains a staunchly Canadian filmmaker, with nearly all of his films (including major studio vehicles The Dead Zone and The Fly) having been filmed in his home province Ontario. Notable exceptions include M. Butterfly and Spider, most of which were shot in China and England, respectively. Also, Rabid and Shivers were shot in and around Montrealmarker. Most of his films have been at least partially financed by Telefilm Canada, and Cronenberg is a vocal supporter of government-backed film projects, saying "Every country needs [a system of government grants] in order to have a national cinema in the face of Hollywood".

Cronenberg has also appeared in the films of other directors as an actor. Most of his roles are cameo appearances, as in Into The Night, Jason X, To Die For, and Alias, but on occasion he has played major roles, as in Nightbreed or Last Night. He has not played major roles in any of his own films, but he did put in a brief appearance as a gynecologist in The Fly; he can also be glimpsed among the sex-crazed hordes in Shivers; he can be heard as an unseen car-pound attendant in Crash; his hands can be glimpsed in eXistenZ; and he appeared as a stand-in for James Woods in Videodrome for shots in which Woods' character wore a helmet that covered his head.In the year 2008 Cronenberg realized two extra-cinematographic projects: the exhibition Chromosomes at the Rome Film Fest and the opera "The Fly" at the LaOpera in Los Angeles and Theatre Châtelet in Paris.

He is currently set to direct the film version of The Matarese Circle with Tom Cruise.

Cronenberg plans to write and direct a film adaptation of Don Delillo's Cosmopolis.

Honours

He received the Special Jury Prize at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival for Crash.

In 1999, Cronenberg was inducted onto Canada's Walk of Fame. In 2002, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada, and in 2006 he was awarded the Cannes Film Festivalmarker's lifetime achievement award, the Carrosse d'Or.

Cronenberg has appeared on various "Greatest Director" lists. In 2004, Science Fiction magazine Strange Horizons named him the 2nd greatest director in the history of the genre, ahead of better known directors such as Steven Spielberg, James Cameron, Jean-Luc Godard and Ridley Scott. In the same year, The Guardian listed him 9th on their list of "The world's 40 best directors". In addition, in 2007, Total Film named him as the 17th greatest director of all-time.

In 2006, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, the senior national body of distinguished Canadian scientists and scholars.

In 2009 Cronenberg received the LĂ©gion d'honneur from the government of France. CBC

Filmography as director

Feature films



Short films



Television series



Television spots

  • Jim Ritchie Sculptor (1971)
  • Letter from Michelangelo (1971)
  • Tourettes (1971)
  • Don Valley (1972)
  • Fort York (1972)
  • Lakeshore (1972)
  • Winter Garden (1972)
  • Scarborough Bluffs (1972)
  • In the Dirt (1972)


Commercials

  • Hydro
    • Client: Ontario Hydro
    • Product: Energy conservation
    • Agency: Burghardt Wolowich Crunkhorn
    • Production company: The Partners' Film Company Ltd.
    • Format: 4 x 30-second commercials
    • Titles: Hot Showers, Laundry, Cleaners, Timers


  • Caramilk
    • Client: William Neilson Ltd.
    • Product: Cadbury Caramilk
    • Agency: Scali McCabe, Sloves (Canada) Ltd.
    • Production company: The Partners' Film Company Ltd.
    • Format: 2 x 30-second commercials
    • Titles: Bistro, Surveillance


  • Nike
    • Client: Nike Internationalmarker
    • Product: Nike Air 180
    • Agency: Wieden and Kennedy
    • Production company: The Partners' Film Company Ltd.
    • Format: 1 x 15-second/4 x 30-second commercials
    • Title: Transformation


Filmography as producer



Filmography as actor



Further reading

  • Mark Browning (2007): David Cronenberg: Author or Filmmaker? (ISBN 9781841501734)
  • Thomas J. Dreibrodt (2000): Lang lebe das neue Fleisch. Die Filme von David Cronenberg — von 'Shivers' bis 'eXistenZ'. (academic; in German) (ISBN 3-932872-05-3)
  • Serge GrĂĽnberg, ed. (2006): David Cronenberg (interviews) (ISBN 0-85965-376-5)
  • Piers Handling (1983): The Shape of Rage: The Films of David Cronenberg (ISBN 0-7736-1137-1)
  • Kim Newman (1989): Nightmare Movies: A Critical History of the Horror Film 1968–1988 (ISBN 0-517-57366-0)
  • Drehli Robnik, Michael Palm, eds. (1992): Und das Wort ist Fleisch geworden. Texte ĂĽber Filme von David Cronenberg. Vienna, PVS: 1992. ISBN 3-901196-02-1
  • Chris Rodley, ed. (1996): Cronenberg on Cronenberg (ISBN 0-571-19137-1)


Bibliographies



References

External links




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