(19 March 1813–1 May 1873) was a
pioneer medical missionary
London Missionary Society
. He was the first recorded European to see the
Falls, to which he gave the English name in honour of his
His meeting with H. M. Stanley
gave rise to the popular
quotation, "Dr Livingstone, I
Perhaps one of the most popular national heroes of the late 19th
century in Victorian
Livingstone had a mythic status, which operated on a number of
interconnected levels: that of Protestant missionary martyr, that
of working-class "rags to riches" inspirational story, that of
scientific investigator and explorer, that of imperial reformer,
anti-slavery crusader, and advocate of commercial empire.
His fame as an explorer helped drive forward the obsession with
discovering the sources of the River Nile
that formed the culmination of the classic period of European
geographical discovery and colonial penetration of the African
continent. At the same time his missionary travels, "disappearance"
and death in Africa, and subsequent glorification as posthumous
national hero in 1874 led to the founding of several major central
African Christian missionary initiatives carried forward in the era
of the European "Scramble for
Livingstone was born on March 19, 1813 in the mill town of Blantyre, beside the bridge crossing into Bothwell, Lanarkshire, Scotland, into a Protestant family believed to be a descended from
the highland Livingstones, a
clan that had been previously known as
the Clan MacLea.
Born to Neil
Livingstone (1788–1856) and his wife Agnes (1782–1865), David,
along with many of the Livingstones, was at the age of ten employed
in the cotton mill of H. Monteith – David and brother John working
12-hour days as "piecers," tying broken cotton threads on the
spinning machines. The mill offered their workers schooling of
which David took advantage.
Livingstone's father Neil was very religious, a Sunday School
teacher and teetotaller
who handed out Christian tracts on
his travels as a door to door tea salesman, and who read books on
, travel and missionary
enterprises. This rubbed off on the young David, who became an avid
reader, but he also loved scouring the countryside for animal,
plant and geological
specimens in local
limestone quarries. Neil Livingstone had a fear of science books as
undermining Christianity and attempted to force him to read nothing
but theology, but David's deep interest in nature and science led
him to investigate the relationship between religion and
. When in 1832 he read Philosophy of a Future
by the science teacher, amateur astronomer and church minister Thomas Dick
, he found the rationale he needed to
reconcile faith and science, and apart from the Bible
this book was perhaps his greatest philosophical
Other significant influences in his early life were Thomas Burke, a
and David Hogg, his
Sunday School teacher. At age nineteen David and his father left the
Scotland for a local Congregational church, influenced by
preachers like Ralph Wardlaw who
denied predestinatarian limitations
Influenced by American revivalistic
teachings, Livingstone's reading of
the missionary Karl Gützlaff
"Appeal to the Churches of Britain and America on behalf of China"
enabled him to persuade his father that medical study could advance
Posthumous portrait of David
Livingstone by Frederick Havill
Livingstone's experience from age 10 to 26 in H. Montieth's
Blantyre cotton mill, first as a piecer and later as a spinner
, was also important. Necessary
to support his impoverished family, this work was monotonous but
gave him persistence, endurance, and a natural empathy with all who
labour, as expressed by lines he used to hum from the egalitarian
Rabbie Burns song
man to man, the world o'er / Shall brothers be for a' that".
Livingstone attended Blantyre village school along with the few
other mill children with the endurance to do so, but a family with
a strong, ongoing commitment to study also reinforced his
education. After reading Gutzlaff's appeal for medical
missionaries for China in 1834, he began saving money and in 1836
entered Anderson's College in
Glasgow, founded to bring science and technology to ordinary folk,
and attended Greek and
theology lectures at the University of Glasgow.
In addition, he attended divinity lectures
by Wardlaw, a leader at this time of vigorous anti-slavery
campaigning in the city. Shortly after he applied to join the
London Missionary Society
(LMS) and was accepted subject to missionary training. He continued
his medical studies in London while training there and in Essex to
be a minister under LMS. Despite his impressive personality, he was
a poor preacher and would have been rejected by the LMS had not the
Director given him a second chance to pass the course.
Livingstone hoped to go to China as a
missionary, but the First Opium War broke
out in September 1839 and the LMS suggested the West Indies instead. In 1840, while continuing his medical studies
in London, Livingstone met LMS missionary Robert Moffat, on leave from Kuruman, a
missionary outpost in South Africa, north of the Orange River.
Excited by Moffat's vision of expanding
missionary work northwards, and influenced by abolitionist T.F. Buxton
's arguments that the African
slave trade might be destroyed through the influence of "legitimate
trade" and the spread of Christianity; Livingstone focused his
ambitions on Southern Africa
. He was
deeply influenced by Moffat's judgment that he was the right person
to go to the vast plains to the north of Bechuanaland
, where he had glimpsed "the smoke
of a thousand villages, where no missionary had ever been".
Missionary work in southern Africa
Livingstone was assigned to Kuruman by the LMS and sailed in
December 1840, arriving at Moffat's mission, now part of South
Africa, in July 1841. Upon arrival, Livingstone was disappointed at
the unexpectedly small size of the village and an indigenous
Christian population, after Moffat's twenty years of work, of only
about forty communicants and a congregation of 350. Reasoning that
conversions would be more likely if the missionaries were
themselves indigenous converts, Livingstone rapidly attached
himself to the plans of missionary Rogers Edwards to found a
mission farther north in territory increasingly disturbed by
traders, hunters, and African settlers. Setting up the new mission
at Mabotswa among the Kgatla people in 1844, he was mauled by a
lion which might have killed him if it had not been distracted by
the African teacher Mebalwe, who was also badly injured. Both
recovered but Livingstone's arm was partially disabled and caused
him pain for the rest of his life.
Dr. Robert Moffat arrived in Kuruman with his family in December
1843, and shortly afterward Livingstone married Moffat's eldest
daughter Mary on January 2 1845. She was also Scottish but had
lived in Africa since she was four. After falling out with Edwards
he moved to an out-station at Chonuane among the Kwena under Chief
Sechele, and finally moved with the Kwena to Kolobeng
in 1847 under pressure of drought. Mary
travelled with Livingstone for a brief time at his insistence,
despite her pregnancy and the protests of the Moffats. She gave
birth to a daughter, Agnes, in May 1847, and at Kolobeng began an
infant's school while Livingstone worked on a philological analysis
of the Setswana
language, in which he had
become fluent. The only Christian convert of Livingstone's career
was made in Kolobeng when Sechele was baptized after renouncing all
but his senior wife, although he was later denied communion after
he took back one of his previous wives. Livingstone always
emphasized the importance of understanding local custom and belief
as well as the necessity of encouraging Africans to proselytize,
however he always had acute difficulties finding converts he
considered suited for training to be missionaries. Livingstone grew
increasingly frustrated with settled missionary strategies and more
willing to imagine more unconventional missionary methods. As
Livingstone began to plan for new missionary initiatives, he
recognized the difficulties presented by his growing family, and in
1849 he sent his family (now including daughter Agnes and sons
Robert and Thomas) back to Kuruman as he planned further inland
travels. Later Mary and David's family returned to England, but
came to Africa again on the Zambezi Expedition.
Exploration of southern and central Africa
Kolobeng mission had to be closed because of drought, he explored
the African interior to the north, in the period 1852–56, and was
the first European to see the Mosi-oa-Tunya ("the smoke that
thunders") waterfall (which he renamed Victoria Falls after his monarch, Queen Victoria).
Livingstone was one of the first Westerners to make a transcontinental journey
across Africa, Luanda on the
Atlantic to Quelimane on the Indian Ocean near the mouth of the Zambezi, in
Despite repeated European attempts, especially by
the Portuguese, central and southern Africa had not been crossed by
Europeans at that latitude
owing to their
susceptibility to malaria
and sleeping sickness
prevalent in the interior and which also prevented use of draught animals
(oxen and horses), as well as
to the opposition of powerful chief
tribes, such as the Lozi
, and the
of Mwata Kazembe
The qualities and approaches which gave Livingstone an advantage as
an explorer were that he usually traveled lightly, and he had an
ability to reassure chiefs that he was not a threat. Other
expeditions had dozens of soldiers armed with rifles and scores of
hired porters carrying supplies, and were seen as military
incursions or were mistaken for slave-raiding parties. Livingstone
on the other hand traveled on most of his journeys with a few
servants and porters, bartering for supplies along the way, with a
couple of guns for protection. He preached a Christian message but
did not force it on unwilling ears; he understood the ways of local
chiefs and successfully negotiated passage through their territory,
and was often hospitably received and aided, even by Mwata
Livingstone was a proponent of trade and Christian missions to be
established in central Africa. His motto, inscribed in the base of
the statue to him at Victoria Falls, was "Christianity
." At this time he
believed the key to achieving these goals was the navigation of the
River as a Christian commercial highway into the
He returned to Britain to try to garner support
for his ideas, and to publish a book on his travels which brought
him fame as one of the leading explorers of the age.
Believing he had a spiritual calling for exploration rather than
mission work, and encouraged by the response in Britain to his
discoveries and support for future expeditions, in 1857 he resigned
from the London Missionary Society after they demanded that he do
more evangelizing and less exploring. With the help of the
Geographical Society's president, Livingstone was appointed as Her
Majesty's Consul for the East Coast of Africa.
The British government agreed to fund Livingstone's idea and he
returned to Africa as head of the Zambezi Expedition
to examine the natural
resources of southeastern Africa and open up the River Zambezi.
Unfortunately it turned out to be completely impassible to boats
past the Cabora Bassa
rapids, a series
that Livingstone had failed to explore
on his earlier travels.
The expedition lasted from March 1858 until the middle of 1864.
Livingstone was an inept leader and incapable of managing a
large-scale project. He was secretive, self righteous, moody and
could not tolerate criticism which severely strained the expedition
and led to his physician, John
, later recording in 1862, "I can come to no other
conclusion than that Dr. Livingstone is out of his mind and a most
". The artist Thomas
was dismissed from the expedition on charges (which he
vigorously denied) of theft. The expedition became the first to reach
Malawi and they explored it in a four oared gig.
In 1862 they returned to the coast
to await the arrival of a steam boat
specially designed to sail on Lake Malawi. Along with the boat Mary
Livingstone, who by now was an alcoholic which caused added strain,
also arrived. She died on 29 April 1863 of malaria
and Livingstone continued his explorations.
to navigate the Ruvuma
River failed because of the continual fouling of the
paddle wheels from the bodies thrown in the river by slave traders
and Livingstone's assistants gradually died or left him.
eventually returned home in 1864 after the government ordered the
recall of the Expedition because of its increasing costs and
failure to find a navigable route to the interior. The Zambezi
Expedition was castigated as a failure in many newspapers of the
time, and Livingstone experienced great difficulty in raising funds
further to explore Africa. Nevertheless, the scientists appointed
to work under Livingstone, John
, Charles Meller, and Richard Thornton did contribute large
collections of botanic, ecological, geological and ethnographic
material to Scientific Institutions in the UK.
January 1866, Livingstone returned to Africa, this time to Zanzibar, from where he set out to seek the source of the
Francis Burton, John Hanning
Speke and Samuel Baker had
(although there was still serious debate on the matter) identified
either Lake Albert or Lake Victoria as the source (which was partially correct, as the
Nile "bubbles from the ground high in the mountains of Burundi halfway between Lake Tanganyika and Lake
Livingstone believed the source was further
south and assembled a team of freed slaves, Comoros Islanders, twelve Sepoys and
two servants, Chuma and Susi, from
his previous expedition to find it.
Setting out from the mouth of the Ruvuma river Livingstone's
assistants began deserting him. The Comoros Islanders had returned
to Zanzibar and informed authorities that Livingstone had died. He
reached Lake Malawi on 6 August, by which time most of his
supplies, including all his medicines, had been stolen. Livingstone
then traveled through swamps in the direction of Lake Tanganyika.
health declining he sent a message to Zanzibar requesting supplies
be sent to Ujiji and he then
headed west. Forced by ill health to travel with slave
traders he arrived at Lake
Mweru on 8 November 1867 and continued on, traveling
south to become the first European to see Lake Bangweulu. Finding the Lualaba
River, Livingstone decided it was the "real" Nile, but in fact
it flows to the Upper Congo
In March 1869 Livingstone, suffering from pneumonia
, arrived in Ujiji to find his supplies
stolen. Coming down with Cholera
on his feet he was
again forced to rely on slave traders to get him as far as Bambara
where he was caught by the wet season. With no supplies,
Livingstone had to eat his meals in a roped off open enclosure for
the entertainment of the natives in return for food. Following the
end of the wet season he returned to Ujiji arriving on 23 October
Livingstone was wrong about the Nile, he discovered for western
science numerous geographical features, such as Lake Ngami, Lake
Malawi, and Lake Bangweulu in addition to Victoria Falls mentioned
above. He filled in details of Lake
Tanganyika, Lake Mweru and the course of many rivers, especially the upper
Zambezi, and his observations enabled large regions to be mapped
which previously had been blank. Even so, the furthest
north he reached, the north end of Lake Tanganyika, was still south
of the Equator and he did not penetrate the
rainforest of the River
Congo any further downstream than Ntangwe near
Livingstone was awarded the gold medal of
Geographical Society of London and was made a fellow of the society, with which he had a strong
association for the rest of his life.
Illness, pain and death
Henry Morton Stanley meets David
Livingstone completely lost contact with the outside world for six
years and was ill for most of the last four years of his life.
of his 44 letter dispatches made it to Zanzibar. Henry Morton
Stanley, who had been sent to find him by the New York Herald newspaper in 1869,
found Livingstone in the town of Ujiji on the
shores of Lake
Tanganyika on 27
October 1871, greeting him with the now famous words "Dr.
Livingstone, I presume?" to which he responded "Yes, and I feel
thankful that I am here to welcome you."
These famous words
may be a fabrication, as Stanley has torn out the pages of this
encounter in his diary. Even Livingstone's account of this
encounter does not mention these words. However, the phrase appears
in a New York Herald
editorial dated 10 August 1872 and
the Encyclopaedia Britannica
and the Oxford Dictionary
of National Biography
both quote it without questioning its
Burundi claim the famous meeting took place 12 km
south of Bujumbura at the spot marked by the Livingstone-Stanley
Monument, Mugere, but that marks a visit they made 15 days
after their first meeting – see linked article for references – on
their joint exploration of the north end of Lake Tanganyika, which
ended when Stanley left in March the next year.
Despite Stanley's urgings, Livingstone was determined not to leave
Africa until his mission was complete. His illness made him
confused and he had judgment difficulties at the end of his life.
explored the Lualaba and failing to find connections to the Nile,
returned to Lake
Bangweulu and its
swamps to explore possible rivers flowing out
Livingstone died in that area in Chief Chitambo's village at Ilala
southeast of Lake Bangweulu in Zambia, on 1 May
1873 from malaria and internal bleeding
caused by dysentery.
He took his
final breaths while kneeling in prayer at his bedside. (His journal
indicates that the date of his death would have been 1 May, but his
attendants noted the date as 4 May, which they carved on a tree and
later reported; this is the date on his grave.) Britain wanted the
body to give it a proper ceremony, but the tribe would not give his
body to them. Finally they relented, but cut the heart out and put
a note on the body that said, "You can have his body, but his heart
belongs in Africa!" Livingstone's heart was buried under a Mvula
tree near the spot where he died, now the site of the Livingstone
Memorial. His body together with his journal was
carried over a thousand miles by his loyal attendants Chuma and Susi, and was returned to Britain
for burial in Westminster Abbey.
Livingstone and slavery
Livingstone's letters, books, and journals did stir up public
support for the abolition of slavery; however, he became
humiliatingly dependent for assistance on the very slave-traders
whom he wanted to put out of business. Because he was a poor leader
of his peers, he ended up on his last expedition as an
individualist explorer with servants and porters but no expert
support around him. At the same time he did not use the brutal
methods of maverick explorers such as Stanley
to keep his retinue of porters
in line and his supplies secure. For these reasons from 1867
onwards he accepted help and hospitality from Mohamad Bogharib and
Mohamad bin Saleh (also known as Mpamari), traders who kept and
traded in slaves
, as he recounts in his
journals. They in turn benefited from Livingstone's influence with
local people, which facilitated Mpamari's release from bondage to
Livingstone was also furious to discover some of the replacement
porters sent at his request from Ujiji were slaves.
By the late 1860s Livingstone's reputation in Europe had suffered
owing to the failure of the missions he set up, and of the Zambezi
Expedition; and his ideas about the source of the Nile were not
supported. His expeditions were hardly models of order and
His reputation was rehabilitated by Stanley and his newspaper, and
by the loyalty of Livingstone's servants whose long journey with
his body inspired wonder. The publication of his last journal
revealed stubborn determination in the face of suffering.
He had made geographical discoveries for European knowledge. He
inspired abolitionists of the slave trade, explorers and
missionaries. He opened up Central Africa to missionaries who
initiated the education and health care for Africans, and trade by
the African Lakes Company
was held in some esteem by many African chiefs and local people and
his name facilitated relations between them and the British.
Partly as a result, within fifty years of his death, colonial rule
was established in Africa and white settlement was encouraged to
extend further into the interior.
On the other hand, within a further fifty years after that, two
other aspects of his legacy paradoxically helped end the colonial
era in Africa without excessive bloodshed. Livingstone was part of
an evangelical and nonconformist movement in Britain which during
the 19th century changed the national mindset from the notion of a
divine right to rule 'lesser races', to ethical ideas in foreign
policy which, with other factors, contributed to the end of the
British Empire. Secondly, Africans educated in mission schools
founded by people inspired by Livingstone were at the forefront of
national independence movements in central, eastern and southern
While Livingstone had a great impact on British Imperialism, he did
so at a tremendous cost to his family. In his absences, his
children grew up fatherless, and his wife Mary (daughter of Mary
and Robert Moffat
) eventually became
an alcoholic and died of malaria trying to follow him in Africa. He
had six children: Robert reportedly died in the American Civil War
; Agnes, Thomas,
Elizabeth (who died two months after her birth), William (nicknamed
Zouga for the river along which he was born) and Anna Mary. His one
regret in later life was that he did not spend enough time with his
The archives of David Livingstone are maintained by the Archives of the University
Places named in his honor and other memorials
Memorial in Ilala, Zambia marks where
city of Livingstone,
Zambia which includes a memorial in front of the Livingstone Museum and a new statue
erected in 2005.
Rhodes–Livingstone Institute in Livingstone and Lusaka, Zambia,
1940s to 1970s, was a pioneering research institution in urban
- David Livingstone Teachers Training College, Livingstone,
David Livingstone Memorial statue at Victoria
Falls, Zimbabwe, erected in 1954 on the western bank of the
- A new statue of David Livingstone was erected in November 2005
on the Zambian side of Victoria Falls.
- A plaque was unveiled in November 2005 at Livingstone Island on
the lip of Victoria Falls marking where Livingstone stood to get
his first view of the falls.
town of Livingstonia, Malawi.
city of Blantyre,
Malawi is named for his birthplace in Lanarkshire, Scotland, and includes a memorial.
- The David Livingstone Scholarships for students at the
University of Malawi, funded
through Strathclyde University, Scotland.
Range in south-west Tanzania at the north-eastern end of
Malawi is also called the Livingstone
- Livingstone Falls on the River Congo, named by Stanley.
Mission, a Baptist mission to the Congo Free State 1877–1884, located in what is now Kinshasa.
memorial in Ujiji commemorates
his meeting with Stanley.
Monument, Mugere, Burundi marks a spot that Livingstone and Stanley visited
on their exploration of Lake Tanganyika, mistaken by some as the
first meeting place of the two explorers.
- Scottish Livingstone hospital in Molepolole 50 km west of
is a memorial to Livingstone at the ruins of the Kolobeng Mission,
40 km west of Gaborone, Botswana.
church tower of the Catholic Holy Ghost Mission in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, is called
Livingstone Tower because his body was laid down there for one
night before it was shipped to London.
- Livingstone House in Stone Town, Zanzibar, provided by the Sultan for Livingstone's use,
January to March 1866, to prepare his last expedition; the house
was purchased by the Zanzibar government in 1947.
- Plaque commemorating his departure from
Mikindani on his final expedition on the wall of the house
that has been built over the house he reputedly stayed
Livingstone Primary School in Harare, Zimbabwe.
Livingstone Secondary School in Ntabazinduna about 40 km from
In New Zealand
- Livingstone Street in Westmere, Auckland
statue stands near the base of the Scott Monument in the Princes
Street Gardens, Edinburgh, Scotland.
David Livingstone Centre in
Scotland, is a museum in his honour.
- David Livingstone Memorial Primary School in
his birthplace, Blantyre, Lanarkshire, Scotland.
- David Livingstone Memorial Church of the Church of Scotland, in
Blantyre, Lanarkshire, Scotland.
bust of David Livingstone is among those of famous Scotsmen in the
William Wallace Memorial near Stirling, Scotland.
- Strathclyde University,
Glasgow (successor to Anderson's University), commemorates him in
the David Livingstone Institute for International Development
Studies, the David Livingstone Centre for
Sustainability, and Livingstone Tower.
David Livingstone (Anderson College) Memorial Prize in
Physiology commemorates him at the University of
grave is marked in Westminster Abbey, London.
Geographic Society has a statue of Livingstone in the hall of their
- The London Missionary Society named their headquarters
Livingstone House, in Carteret St, London SW1.
- Livingstone Cottage, Hadley Green, London
Borough of Barnet, London, where he lived in 1857
Livingstone Primary School, Thornton Heath, London.
- Livingstone Primary School, New Barnet, London.
- Livingstone Primary School, Mossley, Tameside.
In the USA
From 1971–1998 Livingstone's image was portrayed on £10 notes
issued by the
. He was originally
shown surrounded by palm tree leaves with an illustration of
on the back.
issue showed Livingstone against a background graphic of a map of
Livingstone's Zambezi expedition, showing the River Zambezi, Victoria
Nyasa and Blantyre, Malawi; on the reverse, the African figures were replaced
with an image of Livingstone's birthplace in Blantyre, Scotland.
In popular culture
- According to a probably apocryphal story, perhaps Stanley's
invention, Stanley told Livingstone what had occurred in Europe and
America during his expedition; among other things he said that the
1872 U.S. presidential election campaign had begun and the Democratic Party had
nominated Horace Greeley. Allegedly,
Livingstone stopped Stanley there; he said, "You have told me
curious things and wonderful, but there is a limit–when you tell me
the Democrats have nominated Greeley for President I am hanged if I
will believe it."
- In the film The Hitchhiker's
Guide to the Galaxy, Arthur
Dent dresses up as Dr Livingstone at a fancy dress party.
- A 1936 British film David Livingstone.
- In 1939, a popular film called Stanley and Livingstone was
released, with Cedric Hardwicke as
Livingstone and Spencer Tracy as
Stanley, portraying the works Livingstone did in Africa.
- "Dr. Livingstone, I Presume" is a song written by Artie Shaw and recorded by Artie Shaw & His
Orchestra in the early 1940s.
- A different song entitled "Dr. Livingstone, I Presume"
appears on the 1968 Moody Blues album,
In Search of the Lost
- Mountains of the
Moon is a 1990 film in which Livingstone is portrayed by
- "What about Livingstone" is a song by Swedish pop
group ABBA on the album
- Livingstone appears on the album cover for The Beatles' Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts
Club Band. The cover was a collage made by artist Peter Blake. Livingstone appears in the
- In 1997, a made for television movie called "Forbidden
Territory: Stanley's Search for Livingstone" was produced by
National Geographic. Stanley was portrayed by Aidan Quinn and
Livingstone was portrayed by Nigel Hawthorne.
- "Doctor Livingstone" is a song by Crowded House which is on their Afterglow album
- The fish seen in the background of Captain Picard's ready room
in the popular television series Star Trek The Next
Generation is named Livingston after the famous
- The fifth season episode of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine
is entitled: Doctor
Bashir, I Presume? where we learn that Dr. Julian Bashir received genetic enhancements as
a young boy.
- In the Get Smart reunion movie,
"Get Smart Again", Max says "Dr.
Hottentot I Presume".
- A video game was released for the Nintendo Entertainment System
entitled "Stanley and the Search for Dr. Livingston."
- A video game was released for the ZX
Spectrum and other 8-bit computers called "Livingstone Supongo"
("Livingstone, I presume" in its UK release).
- In the video game Far Cry 2 a
trophy/achievement called "Dr Livingstone, I presume" is awarded
for entering every square kilometer of the map of a fictional
region of Africa.
- In Wilbur Smiths action/adventure book The Falcon Flies Dr
Livingstone is portrayed as Fuller Balyntine the great explorer of
the interior of Africa
- In the Telex song "Cafe De La Jungle" from the album Looking
For Saint Tropez, the words "Dr Livingstone , I presume?" are
- In the Garfield Comics, the line "Dr.
Livingstone I presume" is often used in coincidence with Garfield
running amok amongst Jon's plants.
- The 2009 History Channel reality
series, Expedition Africa,
documents a group of explorers attempting to traverse the route of
Stanley's expedition in search of Livingstone.
- John M. Mackenzie, "David Livingstone: The Construction of the
Myth," in Sermons and Battle Hymns: Protestant Popular Culture
in Modern Scotland, ed. Graham Walker and Tom Gallagher
(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990).
- The National Trust for Scotland: David Livingstone
Centre, Birthplace Of Famous Scot, website accessed 22
- Ross, Andrew C., David Livingstone: Mission and Empire
(London: Hambledon, 2002), 6.
- Blaikie, William Garden (1880): The Personal Life Of David
Livingstone. Project Gutenberg Ebook #13262, release date:
23 August 2004].
- A.D. Roberts, "Livingstone, David (1813–1873)," Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University
- Blaikie (1880). This sentiment today would be expressed along
the lines of: "all people, worldwide, are brothers and sisters,
- University of Glasgow: Biography of David
Livingstone. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
- Tim Jeal, Livingstone (London: Heinemann, 1973),
- Tim Jeal, Livingstone (London: Heinemann, 1973), 56–57,
- Tim Holmes: "The History" in: Spectrum Guide to
Zambia. Camerapix International Publishers, Nairobi. 1996
- 'Into Africa: The Epic Adventures of Stanley and Livingstone'
(2003), Martin Dugard
- "Map of Livingstone's travels". National Museums
of Scotland. The map is online at www.scran.ac.uk but a
subscription to the site is required to view it.
- ["Into Africa: The Epic Adventures of Stanley and Livingstone"
by Martin Dugard, 2003.
- David Livingstone & Horace Waller (Ed): The Last Journals
of David Livingstone in Central Africa from 1865 to his Death. Two
Volumes. John Murray, London, 1874.
- BBC.co.uk/History Historic Figures: "David
Livingstone" accessed on 1 February 2007
- Corelli Barnett: The Audit of War: The Illusion and Reality of
Britain as a Great Nation (Macmillan, 1986)
- Richard Seymour Hall: "Kaunda, founder of Zambia". Longman,
- Niall Ferguson: "Empire: The rise and demise of the British
world order and the lessons for global power". Basic Books,
- The Times of Zambia online: "David
Livingstone remembered", 15 November 2005 – 23 November 2005.
Website accessed 26 April 2007.
- Presidential Elections by Paul F. Boller,
- Butcher, Tim (2007). Blood
River:A Journey To Africa's Broken Heart. London : Chatto
& Windus. ISBN 0-701-17981-3
- Eynikel, Hilde (2005). Mrs. Livingstone: een
biografie. Leuven: Davidsfonds. ISBN 90-5826-347-9
- Holmes, Timothy (1993). Journey to Livingstone: Exploration
of an Imperial Myth. Edinburgh: Canongate Press. ISBN
- Livingstone, David and James I. Macnair (ed.) (1954).
Livingstone's Travels. London: J.M. Dent.
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the Zambezi Expedition, 1858–1864. London: Chatto &
Windus. ISBN 9780701115272
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Trail Blazer for God. Mountain View: Pacific Press Publication
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Livingstone: An Odyssey of Silence. Stratford: The Mercury
Press. ISBN 9780920544884
- Ross, Andrew C. (2002). David Livingstone: Mission and
Empire. London and New York: Hambledon and London. ISBN
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Leicester: Inter-Varsity. ISBN 9780851111704