Dayton is a city in Liberty
County, Texas, United States.
The population was 5,709 at the 2000
Dayton is located at (30.056383, -94.895500) .
According to the United
States Census Bureau
, the city has a total area of
11.0 square miles (28.6 km²), all of it land.
As of the census
of 2000, there were 5,709
people, 2,129 households, and 1,517 families residing in the city.
The population density
people per square mile (199.7/km²). There were 2,371 housing units
at an average density of 214.8/sq mi (82.9/km²). The racial
makeup of the city was 71.08% White
, 19.69% African American
, 0.04% Pacific Islander
, 6.67% from
, and 1.40%
from two or more races. Hispanic
of any race were 10.53% of the
There were 2,129 households out of which 37.4% had children under
the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples
living together, 16.4% had a female
householder with no husband present, and 28.7% were non-families.
25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had
someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average
household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.18.
In the city the population was spread out with 30.0% under the age
of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to
64, and 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was
33 years. For every 100 females there were 89.3 males. For every
100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $37,401, and the
median income for a family was $47,250. Males had a median income
of $39,075 versus $21,068 for females. The per capita income
for the city was
$16,139. About 16.3% of families and 21.3% of the population were
below the poverty line
, including 33.6%
of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over.
Dayton, on U.S. Highway 90 six miles west of
southwestern Liberty County, was first called West Liberty and was considered
part of the original town of Liberty, founded in 1831.
River divided the two parts of the town: Liberty was on
its east bank, and West Liberty was on a hill three miles west of
A new road and a ferry directly connected the
parts of the town were located on the four-league Mexican land grant
appropriated for the capital of the old municipality of Santísima
Trinidad de la Libertad, which later became known as
The postmaster of West Liberty from March 25, 1839,
through September 15, 1841, was A. Thouvenin, probably the same man as Arnold
Thouvenin, who obtained a quarter-league Mexican land grant in
County in April 1835.
The West Liberty post office
was apparently discontinued after a few years. Land was designated
for a school in 1847. The schoolhouse was accepted on December 31,
1853, by the board of trustees of the Corporation of the Town of
Liberty. Also in 1853, A. N. B. Thompson was authorized to survey
and plat the town of West Liberty. During the Civil War
, thirty-three ladies of West
Liberty wrote to Governor Francis
in January 1863,
petitioning him to relieve Mr. Sol Andrews of his military duties
so that he might continue his vocation of manufacturer of looms and
spinning wheels, as cloth for clothing was desperately
Sometime after 1854, West Liberty also became known as Day's Town,
for I. C. Day, a wealthy landowner who resided just to the south of
the town on the Munson league. The flag stop for the Texas and New
Orleans Railroad, completed in 1860, was known variously as West
Liberty, Days Station, and Dayton Station. The name Dayton was
applied to the local post office in 1877, though the official name
of the town remained West Liberty until the mid-1880s. In 1885
Dayton reported a population of sixty, and in 1890 a post office, a
school, and two churches served its 239 residents. Lumbering and
cattle raising were the chief industries until James E. Berry
helped establish a drainage system to make rice a major crop.
governor Marion Price Daniel, Sr., was
born in Dayton on October 10, 1910; his brother Bill Daniel, governor of the United States Territory of Guam from 1961
through 1963, was born in Dayton on November 20, 1915.
1910, the town had a bank, two cotton gins, a weekly newspaper, and
2,500 inhabitants. Dayton was recorded as an incorporated
municipality on May 3, 1911. The mayor was W. M. Babcock, and
aldermen were W. T. Jamison, J. H. Marshall, J. A. Coleman, and J.
D. Spear. Town records indicate that the community was
reincorporated in 1925. Oil development during the 1920s brought
new industries. By 1940 Dayton reported 1,207 residents and seventy
businesses and was listed as a railroad center. The population
increased steadily from 3,367 in 1965 to 6,201 in 1988. In 1989 the
largest school population in the county made the Dayton Independent School
the major employer in the city. At that time Dayton
operated under a mayor-council form of city government. In 1990
Dayton had a population of 5,151, and in 2000 the population was
The major route traveling through Dayton is U.S. Highway
90, traveling west towards Crosby and Houston and east
into East Texas to Beaumont and onward to Louisiana. SH
321 connects Dayton to Cleveland.
Within the city of Dayton, SH 321 is
referred to as North Cleveland Street, passing through residential
Dayton as a four-lane urban highway, before narrowing back down to
a two-lane rural State Highway going north to Cleveland.
SH 146 provides Dayton with a
connection to Baytown, and FM 1960
connects Dayton to the northern reaches of Houston as well as
Humble and Huffman.
Dayton is the meeting point of two rail lines. One is a north/south
line that comes out of
Baytown called the UP Baytown Subdivsion. The other is the
east/west UP Lafayette Subdivision line that roughly follows US 90.
to operate its trains on the Baytown Subdivision from Dayton to
just west of Baytown and has a rail yard just south of Dayton.
Another rail line runs through the northern edge of the city,
called the UP Beaumont Subdivsion. A study is being performed by
the Texas Department of Transportation regarding a
Dayton-to-Cleveland single mainline rail corridor consisting of
approximately 40 miles of track connecting the UP Lufkin
Subdivision and the BNSF Conroe Subdivision near Cleveland to the
UPRR Baytown Subdivision south of Dayton.
The city of Dayton is served by the Dayton Independent School
Dayton was the site of a reported UFO incident in 1980, in which
three people insist they were irradiated by a UFO.