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Dearborn is a city in the U.S. state of Michiganmarker. It is located in the Detroit metropolitan area and Wayne Countymarker, and is the tenth largest city in the U.S. state of Michiganmarker. As of the 2000 census, it had a population of 97,775. The city is the hometown of Henry Ford and the world headquarters of the Ford Motor Company. It has a campus of the University of Michiganmarker as well as Henry Ford Community College.

History

The Dearborn area was first settled by Europeans in 1786. The village of Dearborn was established in 1836, named after patriot Henry Dearborn, a General in the American Revolution and Secretary of War under President Thomas Jefferson. Its origins as a city trace back to a January 1929 consolidation vote that established its present-day borders by merging Dearborn and neighboring Fordson (previously known as Springwells), which feared being absorbed into Detroit. The area between the two towns was, and still remains in part, undeveloped.

Once farm land, this was bought by Henry Ford for his estate, Fair Lanemarker and the Ford Motor Company World Headquarters. Later developments in this corridor were the Ford airportmarker (later converted to the Dearborn Proving Grounds), other Ford administrative and development facilities, the Henry Fordmarker Village and Museum, the Henry Ford Centennial Library, Fairlane Town Center, and the Dearborn Civic Center. Some of the land remains open as of 2005. It is planted with sunflowers and often with Henry Ford's favorite soybeans. The crops are never harvested.

Into the late 20th century, some believe that municipal policies to restrict use of Dearborn parks and leasing of facilities such as the civic center to residents were racially motivated. Historically, the city has had a very small African American population.

In the 2000 census, Arab Americans comprised 30% of Dearborn's population. More Iraqi immigrants have been arriving since the continued war in their country. The majority of more recent Arab immigrants are Muslims, in contrast to the predominately Christian Arabs who immigrated to Metro Detroit in the first half of the twentieth century. Lebanesemarker are the largest proportion of Arab Americans in Dearborn.

Historical timeline

European exploration and colonization

  • 1603 French lay claim to unidentified territory in this region, naming it New France.
  • July 24, 1701 Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac and his soldiers first land at what is now Detroitmarker.
  • November 29, 1760 The Britishmarker take control of the area from France.
  • 1780 Pierre Dumais clears farm near what is today's Morningside Street in Dearborn's South End. First non-Native American activity in present-day Dearborn.


Early U.S. history

  • 1783 By terms of the Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolutionary War, Great Britainmarker cedes territory south of the Great Lakesmarker to the United Statesmarker, although the British retain practical control of the Detroit area and several other settlements until 1797.
  • 1786 Agreed year of first permanent settler in present-day Dearborn.
  • 1787 Territory of the US north and west of the Ohio River is officially proclaimed the Northwest Territory.
  • December 26, 1791 Detroit environs become part of Kent County, Ontariomarker
  • 1795 James Cissne becomes first settler in what is now west Dearborn.
  • 1796 Wayne Countymarker is formed by proclamation of the acting governor of the Northwest Territory. Its original area is 2 million square miles, stretching from Clevelandmarker, Ohiomarker to Chicagomarker, Illinoismarker and northwest to Canadamarker.
  • May 7, 1800 Indiana Territory, created out of part of Northwest Territory, although the eastern half of Michigan including the Dearborn area, was not attached to Indiana Territory until Ohiomarker was admitted as a state in 1803.
  • January 11, 1805 Michigan Territory officially created out of a part of the Indiana Territory.
  • June 11, 1805 Fire destroys most of Detroit.
  • November 15, 1815 Current boundaries of Wayne County drawn, county split into 18 townships.
  • January 5, 1818 Springwells Township established by Gov. Lewis Cass
  • October 23, 1824 Bucklin Township created by Gov. Lewis Cass. The area ran from Greenfield to approximately Haggerty and from Van Born to Eight Mile.
  • 1826 Conrad Ten Eyck builds Ten Eyck Tavern at Michigan Avenue and Rouge River.
  • 1827 Wayne County's boundaries changed to its current .
  • April 12, 1827 Springwells and Bucklin townships formally organized and laid out by gubernatorial act.
  • October 29, 1829 Bucklin Township split along what is today Inkster Road into Nankin (west half) and Pekinmarker (east half) townships.
  • March 21, 1833 Pekin Township renamed Redford Townshipmarker.
  • March 31, 1833 Greenfield Township created from north and west sections of Springwells Township, including what is now today east Dearborn.
  • April 1, 1833 Dearborn Township created from southern half of Redford Township south of Bonaparte Avenue (Joy Road).
  • 1833 Detroit Arsenal built.
  • October 23, 1834 Dearborn Township renamed Bucklin Township.
  • March 26, 1836 Bucklin Township renamed Dearborn Township.
  • January 26, 1837 Michigan admitted to the Union as the 26th state. Stevens T. Mason is first governor.
  • 1837 Michigan Central Railroad extended through Springwells Township. Hamlet of Springwells rises along railroad.
  • April 5, 1838 Village of Dearbornville incorporates. Village later unincorporated on May 11, 1846.
  • 1849 Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Brooklyn Street.
  • April 2, 1850 Greenfield Township annexes another section of Springwells Township.
  • February 12, 1857 Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Grand Boulevard
  • March 25, 1873 Springwells Township annexes back section of Greenfield Township south of Tireman
  • May 28, 1875 Postmaster general changes name of Dearbornville post office to Dearborn post office, hence changing the city's name.
  • 1875 Detroit Aresenal closed.
  • 1875 Detroit annexes another section of Springwells Township.
  • 1876 William A. Nowlin writes The Bark Covered House in honor of country's 100th birthday.
  • June 20, 1884 Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Livernois.
  • 1889 First telephone installed in Dearborn at St. Joseph's retreat


Incorporation as village

  • March 24, 1893 Village of Dearborn incorporates.
  • 1906 Detroit annexes another section of Springwells Township.
  • 1916 Detroit annexes more of Springwells Township, forming Dearborn's eastern boundary.
  • 1917 Rouge "Eagle" Plantmarker opens.
  • November 1, 1919 The first house numbering ordinance in Dearborn starts. Residents required to place standard plate number on right side of the main house entrance five feet up.
  • December 9, 1919 Springwells Township incorporates as village of Springwells.
  • October 16, 1922 Springwells Township annexes small section of Dearborn Township east of present-day Greenfield Road.
  • December 27, 1923 Voters approve incorporation of Springwells as a city. It officially became a city April 7, 1924.
  • September 9, 1924 Village of Warrendale incorporates.
  • November 1924 Ford Airport opens.
  • April 6, 1925 Warrendale voters and residents of remaining Greenfield Township approve annexation by Detroit.
  • May 26, 1925 Village of Dearborn annexes large portion of Dearborn Township.
  • December 23, 1925 Springwells changes name to city of Fordson.
  • February 15, 1926 First U.S. airmail delivery made, going from Ford Airportmarker in Dearborn to Cleveland.
  • September 14, 1926 Election approves incorporation of village of Inkstermarker. Unincorporated part of Dearborn Township split into two unconnected sections.
  • October 11, 1926 Only dirigible to ever moor in Dearborn docks at Ford Airportmarker.


Reincorporation as city

  • February 14, 1927 Village of Dearborn residents approve vote to become a city.
  • June 12, 1928 Voters in Dearborn, Fordson and part of Dearborn Township vote to consolidate into one city.
  • January 9, 1929 Clyde Ford elected as first mayor of Dearborn.
  • 1929 Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Villagemarker opens.
  • July 1, 1931 Dearborn Inn opens as one of first airport hotels in world.
  • 1936 John Carey becomes mayor of Dearborn.
  • June 19, 1936 Montgomery Wards opens in Dearborn.
  • May 26, 1937 Harry Bennett's Ford "service" men beat United Auto Workers (UAW) official Richard Frankensteen in the Battle of the Overpass
  • June 21, 1941 Ford Motor Company signs its first union contract.
  • January 6, 1942 Orville L. Hubbard takes office as mayor of Dearborn for first time.
  • April 7, 1947 Henry Ford dies.
  • October 20, 1947 Dearborn City Council approves purchase of land near Milfordmarker, Michiganmarker for what would become Camp Dearborn. First section of camp opens following year.
  • October 21, 1947 Ford Airport officially closes.
  • 1950 First Pleasant Hours senior citizen group formed.
  • 1950 Dearborn Historical Museum formally established.
  • January 1952 Oakwood Hospital formally opened and dedicated.
  • April 22, 1958 Election held to annex part of South Dearborn Township to Dearborn. Proposal fails.
  • 1959 University of Michigan (Dearborn Campus) opens.
  • April 6, 1959 Election held to annex part of North Dearborn Township to Dearborn. Proposal fails.
  • 1962 St. Joseph's retreat closed and razed
  • 1962 New Henry Ford Community College campus dedicated.
  • November 9, 1962 Ford Rotunda burns down
  • 1967 Dearborn Towers in Clearwatermarker, Floridamarker opens.
  • March 2, 1976 Fairlane Town Center opens.
  • 1978 John B. O' Reilly, Sr. becomes mayor of Dearborn
  • November 6, 1981 Cable Television reaches first home in Dearborn, on Abbot Street.
  • December 16, 1982 Orville Hubbard dies.
  • 1986 Michael Guido becomes mayor of Dearborn.
  • 1993 Michael Guido is the first mayor to run unopposed.
  • 2006 Michael Guido dies at the age of 52 during his 6th term, the only mayor to die in office.
  • 2006 John B. O'Reilly, Jr. is to become temporary Mayor. O'Reilly's father was the mayor who had preceded Mayor Guido.
  • 2007 John B. O'Reilly, Jr. is elected mayor of Dearborn winning 93.97% of the vote.
  • 2008 John B. O'Reilly, Sr. dies at the age of 89; he was Mayor of Dearborn (1978–1985) and also served as Chief of Police for 11 years.
  • July 27, 2008 Police Chief Michael Celeski dies from a massive heart attack at the age of 49.


Geography



According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.5 square miles (63.3 km²), of which, 24.4 square miles (63.1 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) of it (0.37%) is water. The River Rouge runs through the city with an artificial waterfall/low head dam on the Henry Ford estate to power his powerhouse. The Upper, Middle, and Lower Branches of the river come together in Dearborn. The river is widened and channeled near the Rouge Plant to allow lake freighter access.

Fordson Island ( ) is an 8.4 acre (33,994 m²) island about three miles inland from the Detroit River on the River Rouge. Fordson Island is the only major island in a tributary to the Detroit River. The island was created in 1922 when engineers dug a secondary trench to reroute the River Rouge to increase navigability for shipping purposes. The island is privately owned, and public access to the island is prohibited. The island is part of the city of Dearborn, which itself has no coast along the Detroit River.

Dearborn is among a small number of municipalities that owns property in other cities (the 626-acre Camp Dearborn in Milfordmarker, Michiganmarker, 35 miles from Dearborn) and is possibly unique in holding property in another state (the Dearborn Towers apartment complex in Clearwatermarker, Floridamarker). These holdings are considered part of the city of Dearborn, and revenues generated by camp admissions and rent collected are used to bolster the city's budget.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 97,775 people, 36,770 households, and 23,863 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,013.2 per square mile (1,549.7/km²). There were 38,981 housing units at an average density of 1,600.0/sq mi (617.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 86.86% White, 1.28% African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.47% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.73% from other races, and 9.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.00% of the population.

33.4% were of Arab ancestry, 10.3% Polish, 9.9% German, 6.5% Irish, and 6.0% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 61.9% spoke English, 29.3% Arabic, 1.9% Spanish, and 1.5% Polish as their first language.

There were 36,770 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.1% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.42.

In the city the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $44,560, and the median income for a family was $53,060. Males had a median income of $45,114 versus $33,872 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,488. About 12.2% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 and over.

Dearborn's population includes 30,000 Arab Americans. It has the largest proportion of Arab Americans for a city of its size (about 100,000). The first Arabs who immigrated here in the early to mid-1900s to work in the automotive industry were chiefly Lebanese Christians. Since then, Arab immigrants from Yemen, Iraq, and the Palestinian Authority, most of whom are Muslim have joined them. Lebanese Americans are still the most numerous group. The city is also the location of the Islamic Center of Americamarker, the largest mosque in North America, and the Dearborn Mosque. The Arab American population has settled primarily on the city's eastern side, though in recent years it has expanded west.

As of the 2006 estimate, Dearborn's population was thought to have fallen to 92,382, a decrease of 5.5% since 2000. Over the same period, though, SEMCOG, the local statistics agency of Metro Detroit Council of Governments, has estimated the city to have grown to 99,001, or an increase of 1.2% since 2000. The Census Bureau estimates the 2005 proportion of African Americans to be 4.1% of the total population of the city.

Dearborn is the site of the Ford River Rouge Plantmarker, built by Henry Ford to make Ford Model T components, and later the former production line of the Ford Mustang. It now produces Ford F150 trucks. At one time, the plant employed 120,000 people and produced finished vehicles from iron ore and sand. Dearborn constructed Fordson High Schoolmarker, the first million-dollar high school within the nation.

Historically, Dearborn has had large communities of mid to late 19th and early 20th century European immigrants and their descendants: Irish, German, and Polish. Dearborn also is the center of a large Armenian-American community, who are Christian. Most of their ancestors immigrated as refugees in the early 20th century as a result of the Armenian Genocide and the subsequent collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

Arab-Americans in Dearborn

After a long history of Arabs immigrating to the Metro-Detroit area, many shops and businesses alike are Arab-owned and operated with services in both English and Arabic. There is a large range of different cultures living amongst each other in Dearborn, historically concentrated in East Dearborn. There is a large population of Iraqi people in Dearborn, as well as individuals from Lebanon, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, The Palestinian Authority, Egypt, Syria, Turkey, Sudan, Ethiopia and other countries.

Rail transportation

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Dearborn, operating its Wolverine three times daily in each direction between Chicagomarker, Illinoismarker and Pontiacmarker, Michiganmarker via Detroitmarker. Baggage cannot be checked at this location; however, up to two suitcases in addition to any "personal items" such as briefcases, purses, laptop bags, and infant equipment are allowed on board as carry-ons. Currently there are two rail stops in Dearborn – the ordinary Amtrak station and a rarely used station at Greenfield Villagemarker.Norfolk southern also operates east and west freight traffic.

Education

Colleges and universities

University of Michigan–Dearbornmarker is located in Dearborn.

Primary and secondary schools

Dearborn residents, along with a small portion of Dearborn Heightsmarker residents attend Dearborn Public Schools, which operates 34 schools including 3 major high schools. Divine Child Elementary School and High School are in Dearborn as well; the high-school is the largest private coed high school in the area. Dearborn Schools operated the Clara B. Ford High School inside Vista Maria, a non-profit residential treatment agency for girls in Dearborn Heights. Clara B. Ford High School became a charter school in the 2007–08 school year.

Economy

Ford Motor Company has its world headquarters in Dearborn. In addition its Dearbon campus contains many research, testing, finance and some production facilities. Ford Land controls the numerous properties owned by Ford including sales and leasing to unrelated businesses such as the Fairlane Town Center shopping mall. DFCU Financial, the largest credit union is Michigan, was created for Ford and related companies' employees. One of the largest employers in Dearborn is Oakwood Healthcare System. Other major employers include auto supplies like Visteon, education facilities like Henry Ford Community College and museums like The Henry Ford. Other businesses which are headquartered in Dearborn include Carhartt (clothing), Eppinger (fishing lures), AAA Michigan (insurance), and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Photo gallery

Image:HenryFordEstateSWSide.jpg|Henry Ford's Fair Lanemarker estate in Dearborn.Image:HenryFordEstateRougeDam.jpg|River Rouge from Henry Ford's estate.

See also



References

Further reading



External links




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