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The decathlon is an athletic event consisting of ten track and field events. Events are held over two consecutive days and the winners are determined by the combined performance in all. Performance is judged on a points system in each event, not by the position achieved. The decathlon is contested mainly by male athletes, while female athletes contest the heptathlon.

Traditionally, the title of "World's Greatest Athlete" has been given to the man who wins the decathlon. This began when King Gustav V of Sweden told Jim Thorpe, "You, sir, are the World's Greatest Athlete" after Thorpe won the decathlon at the Stockholm Olympics in 1912. The current holder of the title is Americanmarker Bryan Clay, the gold medal winner of the event at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, who took the title from Athens Olympics champion Roman Šebrle.

The word decathlon is of Greek origin (from δέκα deka [ten] and αθλος athlos [contest]).

Events

The modern event is a set combination of athletic disciplines, testing an individual's strength, speed, stamina, endurance, and perseverance; it includes five events on each of two successive days. The emphasis of the first day is on speed, explosive power, and jumping ability; the second emphasizes technique and endurance.

Day 1
Day 2


Origins

The event developed from the ancient pentathlon. Pentathlon competitions were held at the ancient Greek Olympics. Pentathlons involved five disciplines – long jump, discus throw, javelin, sprint and a wrestling match. Introduced in Olympia during 708 BC, the game was extremely popular for many centuries. By the sixth century BC, pentathlons had become part of religious games.

Gorgos, from Elis, a town near Olympiamarker, was a four-time pentathlon winner during the period. Another key player was Lampis, a young Spartanmarker who was the first Olympic winner. Automedes was also a known player of the time. The last recorded game winner was Publius Asklepiades of Corinth in AD 241. Roman Emperor Theodosius I officially put an end to the game in AD 393 by closing down all the sanctuaries including Olympia.

From the mid 1700s various versions of the competition emerged. The 1948 Olympics endorsed a new implication to the game . Seventeen-year-old Bob Mathias emerged as the then decathlon winner, banishing the myth that decathlon was a game for the old and the experienced. Mathias still remains the youngest decathlon sports champion in Olympic history.

Modern standardization

In 1964 the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF; now the International Association of Athletics Federations) laid out new scoring tables and brought about some standardization in the sport. The 1970s saw the game spreading to the Eastern European nations, mainly the Soviet Union, Poland and East Germany.

The Amateur Athletic Union held "all around events" from the 1880s. One was held at the 1904 Olympic Games.

The first decathlon competition was held in just one single day, October 15, 1911, in Gothenburgmarker, Swedenmarker. This was technically not the first decathlon, but one of the first two, as Germany also held a decathlon on the very same day. The Germans contested their events in the same order but with a different scoring table to the one in Sweden. So, the first decathlon world-record holder was the winner of the first completed meet. Karl Hugo Wieslander, a Swede, and Karl Ritter von Halt, a German, were announced world-record holders, although neither was ratified as a world record; that would have to wait until 1922, when Aleksander Klumberg-Kolmpere of Estoniamarker was declared the first official record-holder for a performance in 1920.

The decathlon was added to the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholmmarker. After experience, the following order was chosen: 100 m run, long jump, shot put, high jump, and 400 m run on the first day; 110 m hurdles, discus, pole vault, javelin, and 1500 m run on the 2nd day. The Swedes also developed a set of scoring tables, based on the 1908 Olympic records. After the 1912 Stockholm Games, the tables were updated to include many new Olympic records.

The 1912 Olympic decathlon has become legend because of the presence of Jim Thorpe. Thorpe had a terrific 1912 spring track season, winning as many as six events per meet. Thorpe made the U.S. Olympic team in four events: decathlon, pentathlon, high jump, and long jump. The Russian czar donated a Viking ship as a prize for the decathlon champion. Thorpe won the decathlon by almost 700 points over his closest opponent, Hugo Wieslander of Sweden. Because of the unexpected large number of entries, the decathlon was held over 3 days. The first day they held the 100 m run, long jump, and shot put. The second day consisted of the high jump, 400 m run, discus, and 110 m hurdles. The third and final day consisted of the pole vault, javelin, and 1500 m run. Thorpe’s 8412 points converts to 6564 points on the current tables, still a very respectable score three quarters of a century later. Swedes Wieslander, Charles Lomberg, and Gösta Holmér captured the next three spots.

Thorpe’s score was not beaten for another 15 years. In his absence, there was little decathlon activity for the remainder of the decade. Only in Sweden was the decathlon often contested. The Swedes managed to stay neutral during World War I, which forced the cancellation of the games of Berlin in 1916. Fascinatingly, decathlons were held as part of the Far Eastern Games in 1913, 1915, 1917, and 1919.

The average good decathlete competes at most three or four times a year, the less talented even fewer. Bill Toomey’s nine great efforts back in 1969 were very unusual. The decathlon is the Olympic event least commonly seen in non-Olympic meets.

The decathlete does not have to be amazing in all events to be a champion in the sport itself. But he must range from adequate in his weak events to good or better in the other skills. Because he must do well in the four runs and six field events, he has little opportunity to perfect any one event. A decathlete trying to improve performance in one specific event is likely to deteriorate in another, because the physical demands of the various events are conflicting. His training is necessarily different as he strives to improve all techniques, gain strength without losing speed, and acquire the stamina to perform through a competition that lasts anywhere from 4 to 12 hours per day during the Olympics. As a reference point, a performance in the (non-decathlon) world record class would give somewhere between 1100 and 1400 points per event, totaling over 12500 points for a full record-breaking decathlon. When compared to the 6-7000 points that a good decathlete would usually get, or the world record of slightly over 9000 points, this illustrates how much specialization must be sacrificed to become a good all-round athlete.

The decathlon is one of the few events with an arbitrary scoring system and thus the only one in which personal performance and records can be broken as new scoring tables are adopted. Under the original scoring tables adopted in 1912, Akilles Järvinen of Finland finished second in both the 1928 and 1932 Olympics, but the new scoring system introduced in 1934 gave Jarvinen higher converted totals than both the men he lost to. World-record holder C.K. Yang lost 1032 points when his 1963 performance was converted late in 1964 to the new tables first used in the 1964 Olympics. His top rivals lost only 287 and 172 points when their bests were converted, and Yang dropped from the favorite to third on the pre-Games ranking, finishing a disappointing fifth.

The arbitrary nature of the scoring tables can work in the opposite direction as well. In 1984, at the Los Angeles Olympic Games, Great Britain’s Daley Thompson missed the world record by one point on then-used 1962/77 tables. The tables were changed a year later and Thompson’s score in Los Angeles converted to a best-ever mark.

Traditionally, all decathletes who finished the event do a round of honour together after the competition.

Points system

The 2001 IAAF points tables use the following formulae:
  • Points = INT(A*(B-P)C) for track events
  • Points = INT(A*(P-B)C) for field events


A, B and C are parameters that vary by discipline, as shown in the table below, while P is the performance by the athlete, measured in seconds (running), metres (throwing), or centimetres (jumping).

Event A B C
100 m 25.4347 18 1.81
Long Jump 0.14354 220 1.4
Shot Put 51.39 1.5 1.05
High Jump 0.8465 75 1.42
400 m 1.53775 82 1.81
110 m Hurdles 5.74352 28.5 1.92
Discus Throw 12.91 4 1.1
Pole Vault 0.2797 100 1.35
Javelin Throw 10.14 7 1.08
1500 m 0.03768 480 1.85


The decathlon tables should not be confused with the scoring tables compiled by Bojidar Spiriev, to allow comparison of the relative quality of performances by athletes in different events. On those tables, for example, a decathlon score of 9006 points equates to 1265 "comparison points", the same number as a triple jump of 18.00 m.

Benchmarks

Split evenly between the events, the following table shows the benchmark levels needed to earn 1000, 900, 800, and 700 points in each sport.

Event 1000 pts 900 pts 800 pts 700 pts Units
100m 10.395 10.827 11.278 11.756 Seconds
Long Jump 7.76 7.36 6.94.1 6.51 Meters
Shot Put 18.4 16.79 15.16 13.53 Meters
High Jump 2.20 2.10 1.99 1.88 Meters
400m 46.17 48.19 50.32 52.58 Seconds
110m Hurdles 13.8 14.59 15.419 16.29 Seconds
Discus Throw 56.17 51.4 46.59 41.72 Meters
Pole Vault 5.28 4.96 4.63 4.29 Meters
Javelin Throw 77.19 70.67 64.09 57.45 Meters
1500m 233.79 247.42 261.77 276.96 Seconds
The total decathlon score for all world records in the respective events would be 12,545. The total decathlon score for all the best performances achieved during decathlons is 10,485.

World records (WR) compared to Decathlon bests (DB)
Event WR–World record/

Athlete Record Score Difference
100m
WR Usain Bolt 9.58 s 1203
DB Chris Huffins 10.22 s 1042 −161
Long Jump
WR Mike Powell 8.95 m 1312
DB Erki Nool 8.22 m 1117 −195
Shot Put
WR Randy Barnes 23.12 m 1295
DB Edy Hubacher 19.17 m 1048 −247
High Jump
WR Javier Sotomayor 2.45 m 1244
DB Rolf Beilschmidt &

Christian Schenk
2.27 m 1061 −183
400m
WR Michael Johnson 43.18 s 1156
DB Bill Toomey 45.68 s 1025 −131
110m Hurdles
WR Dayron Robles 12.87 s 1126
DB Frank Busemann 13.47 s 1044 −82
Discus Throw
WR Jürgen Schult 74.08 m 1383
DB Bryan Clay 55.87 m 993 −390
Pole Vault
WR Sergey Bubka 6.14 m 1277
DB Tim Lobinger 5.76 m 1152 −125
Javelin Throw
WR Jan Železný 98.48 m 1331
DB Peter Blank 79.80 m 1040 −291
1500m
WR Hicham El Guerrouj 3 m 26.00 s 1218
DB Robert Baker 3 m 58.70 s 963 −255
Total World record 12545
Decathlon 10485


Women's decathlon

At major championships, the women's equivalent of the decathlon is the seven-event heptathlon; prior to 1980 it was the five-event pentathlon. However, in 2001 the IAAF approved scoring tables for women's decathlon; the current world record holder is Austra Skujytė of Lithuaniamarker. Women's disciplines differ from men's in the same way as for standalone events: the shot, discus and javelin weigh less, and the sprint hurdles uses lower hurdles over 100 m rather than 110 m. The points tables used are the same as for the heptathlon in the shared events. The schedule of events differs from the men's decathlon, with the field events switched between day one and day two; this is to avoid scheduling conflicts when men's and women's decathlon competitions take place simultaneously.

One hour decathlon

One hour decathlon is a special type of decathlon, in which the athletes have to start the last of ten events (1500 m) within sixty minutes after the start of the first event. The world record holder is a Czechmarker decathlete Robert Změlík, who achieved 7897 points at a meeting in Ostravamarker, Czechoslovakiamarker in 1992.

World records

The first world record in the men's decathlon was recognized by the International Association of Athletics Federations in 1922.

As of June 21, 2009, 35 world records have been ratified by the IAAF in the event. The first score in the following table indicates the score using the tables in use at the time, the second score is based on tables currently in use.

Points Adjusted
points
Athlete Nation Date Place
7485.61 6087 Aleksander Klumberg-Kolmpere 1922-09-22 Helsinkimarker
7710.775 6476 Harold Osborn 1924-07-12 Parismarker
7820.93 6460 Paavo Yrjölä 1926-07-18 Viipurimarker
7995.19 6566 Paavo Yrjölä 1927-07-17 Helsinkimarker
8053.29 6587 Paavo Yrjölä 1928-08-04 Amsterdammarker
8255.475 6087 Akilles Järvinen 1930-07-20 Viipurimarker
8462.235 6736 James Bausch 1932-08-06 Los Angelesmarker
8790.46 7147 Hans-Heinrich Sievert 1934-07-08 Hamburgmarker
7900 7254 Glenn Morris 1936-08-08 Berlinmarker
8042 7287 Bob Mathias 1950-06-30 Tularemarker
7887 7592 Bob Mathias 1952-07-26 Helsinkimarker
7985 7608 Rafer Johnson 1955-06-11 Kingsburgmarker
8014 7653 Vasili Kuznetsov 1958-05-18 Krasnodarmarker
8302 7989 Rafer Johnson 1958-07-28 Moscowmarker
8357 7839 Vasili Kuznetsov 1959-05-17 Moscowmarker
8683 7981 Rafer Johnson 1960-07-09 Eugenemarker
9121 8010 Yang Chuan-Kwang 1963-04-28 Walnutmarker
8230 8120 Russ Hodge 1966-07-24 Los Angelesmarker
8319 8235 Kurt Bendlin 1967-05-14 Heidelbergmarker
8417 8310 Bill Toomey 1969-12-11 Los Angelesmarker
8454 8466 Nikolay Avilov 1972-09-08 Munichmarker
8524 8420 Bruce Jenner 1975-08-10 Eugenemarker
8538 8454 Bruce Jenner 1976-06-26 Eugenemarker
8618 8634 Bruce Jenner 1976-07-30 Montrealmarker
8622 8648 Daley Thompson 1980-05-15 Götzismarker
8649 8667 Guido Kratschmer 1980-06-14 Filderstadt-Bernhausen
8704 8730 Daley Thompson 1982-05-23 Götzismarker
8723 8741 Jürgen Hingsen 1982-08-15 Ulmmarker
8743 8774 Daley Thompson 1982-09-08 Athensmarker
8779 8825 Jürgen Hingsen 1983-06-05 Filderstadt-Bernhausen
8798 8832 Jürgen Hingsen 1984-05-09 Mannheimmarker
8798 8847 Daley Thompson 1984-08-09 Los Angelesmarker
8891 8891 Dan O'Brien 1992-09-05 Talencemarker
8994 8994 Tomáš Dvořák 1999-07-04 Praguemarker
9026 9026 Roman Šebrle 2001-05-27 Götzismarker


The first world record in the women's decathlon was recognized by the International Association of Athletics Federations in 2004.

As of June 21, 2009, 2 world records have been ratified by the IAAF in the event.

Points Athlete Nation Date Place
8150 Marie Collonvillé 2004-09-26 Talencemarker
8366 Austra Skujytė 2005-04-15 Columbia, Missourimarker


NOTE: Skujyte's marks total 6333 using the men's scoring tables

National records

  • As of September 2, 2009.
POINTS NATION ATHLETE DATE PLACE
9026 Roman Šebrle 2001-04-27 Götzismarker
8891 Dan O'Brien 1992-09-05 Talencemarker
8847 Daley Thompson 1984-08-09 Los Angelesmarker
8832 Jürgen Hingsen 1984-06-09 Mannheimmarker
8815 Erki Nool 2001-08-07 Edmontonmarker
8735 Eduard Hämäläinen 1994-05-29 Götzismarker
8730 Eduard Hämäläinen 1997-08-06 Athensmarker
8725 Dmitriy Karpov 2004-08-24 Athensmarker
8709 Aleksander Apaichev 1984-06-03 Neubrandenburgmarker
8698 Grigori Degtyaryov 1984-06-22 Kievmarker
8654 Leonel Suárez 2009-07-04 Havanamarker
8644 Maurice Smith 2007-09-01 Osaka
8626 Mike Smith 1996-05-26 Götzismarker
8574 Christian Plaziat 1990-08-29 Splitmarker
8573 Jón Arnar Magnússon 1998-05-31 Götzismarker
8566 Sebastian Chmara 1998-05-17 Murciamarker
8554 Attila Zsivóczky 2000-06-04 Götzismarker
8526 Francisco Javier Benet 1998-05-17 Murciamarker
8490 Jagan Hames 1998-09-18 Kuala Lumpurmarker
8447 Robert de Wit 1988-05-22 Eindhovenmarker
8445 Ramil Ganiyev 1997-08-06 Athensmarker
8437 Ryszard Malachowskis 1988-07-02 Staiki
8406 Nicklas Wiberg 2009-08-20 Berlinmarker
8359 Simon Poelman 1987-03-22 Christchurchmarker
8334 Stephan Niklaus 1983-07-03 Lausannemarker
8320 Gernot Kellermayr 1993-05-30 Götzismarker
8291 Tito Steiner 1983-06-23 Provo, Utahmarker
8290 Qi Haifeng 2005-05-29 Götzismarker
8288 Valeri Kachanov 1980-06-21 Moscowmarker
8271 Janis Karlivans 2007-05-27 Götzismarker
8266 Pedro da Silva Filho 1987-04-23 Walnut, Californiamarker
8213 Mario Anibal Ramos 2001-07-01 Kaunasmarker
8206 Yang Chuan-Kwang 1963-04-28 Walnut, Californiamarker
8199 Atanas Andonov 1981-06-21 Sofiamarker
8171 Larbi Bouraada 2009-08-20 Berlinmarker
8169 Beniamino Poserina 1996-10-06 Formiamarker
8160 Benjamin Jensen 1999-08-01 Greve
8146 Willem Coertzen 2009-08-20 Berlinmarker
8142 Frédéric Xhonneux 2008-05-11 Desenzano del Gardamarker
8069 Prodromos Korkizoglou 2000-07-02 Ibachmarker
8057 Saša Karan 1990-07-01 Ljubljanamarker
8023 Hamdi Dhouibi 2005-08-10 Helsinkimarker
7995 Munehiro Kaneko 1993-05-14 Shanghai
7994 Lars Warming 1988-06-19 Götzismarker
7882 Carlos O'Connell 1988-06-05 Emmitsburg, Marylandmarker
7846 Igor Sobolevski 1982-07-16 Leningradmarker
7843 Vasile Bogdan 1975-06-07 Parismarker
7824 Kim Kun-Woo 2006-05-26 Gongju
7802 Yeorgios Andreou 2000-08-12 Volosmarker
7799 Peter Soldos 2001-06-10 Arlesmarker
7777 Victor Houston 1997-08-06 Athensmarker
7757 Alper Kasapoğlu 1996-04-19 Azusa, Californiamarker
7756 Juri Dyachkov 1968-06-16 Tbilisimarker
7734 Douglas Fernández 1983-08-27 Caracasmarker
7730 Ahmad Hassan Moussa 2004-06-27 Ratingenmarker
7711 Hadi Sepehrzad 2008-07-21 Tehranmarker
7704 Luiggy Llanos 2003-08-06 Santo Domingomarker
7698 Damjan Sitar 2006-05-28 Maribormarker
7659 Joško Vlašić 1983-06-25 Izmirmarker
7632 Dominic Johnson 1998-03-27 Tucsonmarker
7614 Alejandro Cárdenas 1996-05-11 Medellínmarker


Season's best

YEAR POINTS ATHLETE PLACE
2008 8832 Eugenemarker
2007 8697 Kladnomarker
2006 8677 Götzismarker
2005 8732 Helsinkimarker
2004 8893 Athensmarker
2003 8807 Götzismarker
2002 8800 Götzismarker
2001 9026 Götzismarker
2000 8900 Götzismarker
1999 8994 Praguemarker
1998 8755 Uniondalemarker
1997 8837 Athensmarker
1996 8824 Atlantamarker
1995 8695 Göteborgmarker
1994 8735 Götzismarker
1993 8817 Stuttgartmarker
1992 8891 Talencemarker
1991 8812 Tokyomarker
1990 8574 Split marker
1989 8549 Houstonmarker
1988 8512 Talencemarker
1987 8680 Romemarker
1986 8811 Stuttgartmarker
1985 8559 Dresdenmarker
1984 8847 Los Angelesmarker
1983 8825 Bernhausen
1982 8774 Athensmarker
1981 8334 Birminghammarker
1980 8667 Bernhausen
1979 8476 Krefeldmarker
1978 8493 Bernhausen
1977 8400 Rigamarker
1976 8634 Montrealmarker
1975 8429 Eugenemarker
1974 8229 Montrealmarker
1973 8163 Bonnmarker
1972 8466 Munichmarker


See also



Other multiple event contests



References



External links




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