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The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotlandmarker's status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. It is in the form of a letter submitted to Pope John XXII, dated 6 April 1320. Sealed by fifty-one magnates and nobles, the letter is the sole survivor of three created at the time. The others were a letter from the King of Scots, Robert I, and a letter from four Scottish bishops which all presumably made similar points.


The Declaration was part of a broader diplomatic campaign which sought to assert Scotland's position as a kingdom, rather than being a feudal land controlled by England, as well as lift the excommunication of Robert the Bruce. The Pope had recognised Edward I of England's claim to overlordship of Scotland in 1305 and Bruce was excommunicated by the Pope for murdering John Comyn on the altar in Greyfriars Church in Dumfries in 1306.

The Declaration made a number of much-debated rhetorical points: that Scotland had always been independent, indeed for longer than Englandmarker; that Edward I of England had unjustly attacked Scotland and perpetrated atrocities; that Robert the Bruce had delivered the Scottish nation from this peril; and, most controversially, that the independence of Scotland was the prerogative of the Scots people, rather than the King of Scots. In fact it stated that the nobility would choose someone else to be king if the current one did anything to threaten Scotland's independence.

While this last point is often interpreted as an early expression of 'popular sovereignty' – that kings could be chosen by the population rather than by God alone – it can also be argued to have been a means of passing the responsibility for disobeying papal commands from the king to the people. In other words, Robert I was arguing that he was forced to fight an illegal war (as far as the Pope was concerned, since they were meant to be fighting against the Infidel, not each other) or face being deposed. However, the context suggests that this claim was made to bolster Bruce’s position as the legitimate ruler of Scotland. A justification had to be given for the rejection of King John in whose name William Wallace and Andrew de Moray rebelled in 1297. The reason given in the Declaration is that Bruce was able to defend Scotland from English aggression whereas, by implication, King John could not .
To this man, in as much as he saved our people, and for upholding our freedom, we are bound by right as much as by his merits, and choose to follow him in all that he does.
The idea of a contract between King and people was therefore advanced to the Pope in order to excuse Bruce's coronation whilst John de Balliol still lived in Papal custody.

Whatever the true motive, the fact remains that this 14th century document is one of the earliest expressions of a form of Scottish national consciousness yet found and one of the earliest documents in European history to imply that the king is chosen by the people.

Written in Latin, it is believed to have been drafted by Bernard, abbot of Arbroath Abbeymarker (often wrongly identified with Bernard de Linton), who was the Chancellor of Scotland at the time; and by bishop Alexander Kininmund. While dated to 6 April 1320 at Arbroath Abbeymarker, there was in fact no meeting of nobles there by whom the document was drafted. Instead the document may have been discussed at a council meeting at Newbattle Abbeymarker, Midlothianmarker, in March 1320, though firm evidence for such a debate is lacking. Arbroath was simply the location of the royal chancery, Abbot Bernard's writing office, and the date provides evidence only for his part in proceedings.

The seals of eight earls and as many as forty-one other Scottish nobles were appended to the document, probably over the space of some weeks and months, with nobles sending in their seals to be used. The Declaration was then taken to the papal court at Avignon by bishop Kininmund, Sir Adam Gordon and Sir Odard de Maubuisson.

The Pope seems to heed to the arguments contained by the Declaration, although its contemporary influence should not be overstated. It was in part due to his intervention that a short-lived peace treaty between Scotland and England, the Treaty of Northampton, renouncing all English claims to Scotland, was finally signed by the English king, Edward III, on the 1 March 1328.

The original copy of the Declaration that was sent to Avignon is lost. A copy of the Declaration survives among Scotland's state papers, held by the National Archives of Scotlandmarker in Edinburghmarker. The most widely known English language translation was created by Sir James Fergusson, formerly Keeper of the Records of Scotlandmarker, from text that he reconstructed using this extant copy and early copies of the original draft. One passage in particular is often quoted from the Fergusson translation:


The stirring rhetoric of the Declaration has made it famous both in Scotland and internationally, and historian Linda MacDonald-Lewis believes it influenced the drafters of the United States Declaration of Independence. Debate still rages about the contemporary relevance of the document – whether it represented the genuine thoughts of the nobility regarding independence, sovereignty and the proto-democratic right of the people to choose a king, or whether it was above all a piece of royal propaganda and special pleading, drafted strictly under the control of the chief royal minister, Abbot Bernard. However, it is not disputed that the document subsequently played an influential role in the history of Scottish national identity and the creation of the common belief (whether based in legal reality or not) that in Scotland it is the 'people' that are sovereign, rather than the monarch or parliament, as in England.

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