During the Delhi Sultanate
, several Turkic
dynasties ruled from Delhi, including
the Mamluk dynasty
(1206-90), the Khilji dynasty
(1290-1320), the Tughlaq dynasty
(1320-1413), the Sayyid dynasty
(1414-51), and the Lodi dynasty
(1451-1526). In 1526 the Delhi Sultanate was absorbed by the
emerging Mughal Empire
The second Muslim invader, Muhammad of
, had political ambitions. He fought the two Battles of Tarain with Prithviraj Chauhan and by winning the
second battle,and by killing Prithviraj, established control.He
appointed Qutubuddin Aibak,his
slave, as his governor,who started
independent rule after the death of his master.The Mamluk dynasty
is also known as the Slave Dynasty as most of the rulers were
former slaves of Muhammad Ghori.Aibek began the construction of
Minar, which was completed by Iltutmish, his successor & son-in-law.Aibek's
actual successor was his son Aramshah, but the nobles preferred
Iltutmish,the Subedar of Badaun.Iltutmish
was followed by Razia Sultana,his
daughter,who was a good administrator and the first female ruler
from the Muslim world.
But she died in a war, after 3 and
succeeded her and could
rule till 1286 AD. Many infamous and inefficient rulers followed.
Faced with revolts by conquered territories and rival families, the
Mamluk dynasty came to an end in 1290.
Khalji or Khilji dynasty, who had established
themselves as rulers of Bengal in the time
of Muhammad Ghori, took control of the empire in a coup which
eliminated the last of the Mamluks. The Khaljis conquered
Gujarat and Malwa, and sent the first
expeditions south of the Narmada River, as far south as Tamil Nadu. The Delhi Sultanate rule continued to extend
into southern India, first by the Delhi Sultans, then by the
breakaway Bahmani Sultanate of
Gulbarga, and, after
the breakup of the Bahmani state in 1518, by the five independent
kingdom of Vijayanagar
southern India and arrested the Delhi Sultanate's expansion for a
time, until its eventual fall to the Deccan Sultanates in
The Sayyid dynasty
ruled the Delhi
Sultanate from 1414 to 1451, succeeding the Tughlaq dynasty.
dynasty was established by Khizr Khan,
who was deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan (Punjab).
Khizr Khan took Delhi from
Daulat Khan Lodi
on May 28, 1414
and founded the Sayyid dynasty.
was a Ghilzai
dynasty, who ruled over the Delhi
Sultanate during its last phase, displacing the Sayyid dynasty.
Founded by Bahlul Lodi, it ruled from 1451 to 1526. The last ruler
of this dynasty, Ibrahim Lodi, was defeated and killed by Babur
in the first Battle of Panipat on April 20,
1526. Sikander Lodi is considered the greatest rule of the
A coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq
In the first half of the 14th century, the Sultanate introduced a
in the provinces
) and districts (parganas
) that had been
established and founded a network of market centers through which
the traditional village economies were both exploited and
stimulated and drawn into the wider culture. State revenues
remained based on successful agriculture, which induced Sultan
Muhammad bin Tughluq
to have village wells dug, to offer seed to the peasants, and to
encourage cash crops like sugarcane
(Braudel 1984, pp 96f, 512ff).
Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Sultanate was its
temporary success in insulating the subcontinent from the potential
devastation of the Mongol invasion from Central Asia
in the thirteenth century.
However, the invasion of Timur
significantly weakened the Delhi Sultanate. The Delhi Sultanate
revived briefly under the Lodis before it was conquered by the
Fall of Sultanate
The last Lodi ruler, Ibrahim Lodi was greatly disliked in his court
and subjects alike, being considered overly ambitious. Daulat Khan, the
governor of Punjab and Alam Khan, his
uncle, sent an invitation to conquer Delhi to Babur, the ruler of Kabul.
The first Battle of Panipat
(April 1526) was fought between the forces of Babur
and the Delhi Sultanate. Ibrahim Lodi was killed
on the battleground. By way of superior generalship, vast
experience in warfare, effective strategy, and appropriate use of
artillery, Babur won the First battle of Panipat and
subsequently occupied Agra and Delhi.
new Mughal dynasty
was to rule India
for another 300 years.
Female sultana Razia Sultana
The Delhi Sultanate is the only sultanate of India to be ruled by a
female, Princess Razia Sultana
(1236-1240). While her reign was short, she is regarded well in the
eyes of historians. Princess Razia Sultana was very popular and
considered more intelligent than her brothers. She ruled from
Delhi in the east, to Peshawar in the west, and from Kashmir in the north
to Multan in the
Rebels including Malik
, forced her into battle. Forced to marry Altunia to
save her life, both she and Altunia were was killed during a battle
to reclaim the sultanate from her brother.
The Sultans of Delhi enjoyed cordial, if superficial, relations
with other Muslim rulers in the Near East
but owed them no allegiance. The Sultans based their laws on the
and the sharia
and permitted non-Muslim subjects to practice their own religion if
they paid jizya
, or head tax. The Sultans
ruled from urban center, while military camps and trading posts
provided the nuclei for towns that sprang up in the
The Sultanate ushered in a period of cultural renaissance. The
resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion left lasting monuments in
architecture, music, literature, and religion. Due to the sacking of
Delhi in 1398 by Timur (Tamerlane),
other independent Sultanates were established in Awadh, Bengal, Jaunpur, Gujarat and Malwa.
- Fernand Braudel The
Perspective of the World, vol. III of Civilization and
Capitalism (Harper & Row), 1984.
- Peter Jackson The Delhi Sultanate. A Political and
Military History (Cambridge) 1999
- Majumdar, R. C. (ed.), The History and Culture of the
Indian People, Volume VI, The Delhi Sultanate,
(Bombay) 1960; Volume VII, The Mughal Empire, (Bombay)
- Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad Some Aspects of Religion and Politics
in India in the Thirteenth Century (Delhi) 1961 (Revised
Edition Delhi 2002)
- Memoir of the Emperor Timur (Malfuzat-i Timuri)
Timur's memoirs on his invasion of India. Compiled in the book:
History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians.
The Muhammadan Period", by Sir H. M. Elliot, Edited by John
Dowson; London, Trubner Company; 1867–1877
- Dietmar Rothermund,
Geschichte Indiens Vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, C.H.
- Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John.
The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians.
The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company
1867–1877. (Online Copy: The History of India, as Told by Its Own
Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner
Company 1867–1877 - This online Copy has been posted by:
The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in
Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and