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The demographics of India is remarkably diverse. India's population of approximately 1.17 billion people (estimate for July, 2009) consists of approximately one-sixth of the world's population. India has more than two thousand , and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as a language isolate (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtramarker).

Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.

Salient features

Indiamarker occupies 2.4% of the world's land area and supports over 17.5% of the world's population. India has more arable land area than any country except the United States, and more water area than any country except Canada and the United States. Indian life, therefore revolves mostly around agriculture and allied activities in small villages, where the overwhelming majority of Indians live. As per the 2001 census, 72.2% of the population lives in about 638,000 villages and the remaining 27.8% lives in more than 5,100 towns and over 380 urban agglomerations.

Religious demographics

Table 1: 2001 Religious Data Composotion
Religious Composition Population (%)
Hindus 827,578,868 80.50%
Muslims 138,188,240 13.4%
Christians 24,080,016 2.3%
Sikhs 19,215,730 1.9%
Buddhists 7,955,207 0.8%
Jains 4,225,053 0.4%
Other Religions & Persuasions 6,639,626 0.6%
Religion not stated 727,588 0.1%
Total* 1,028,610,328 100.0%
* Excludes figures of Paomata, Mao Maram and Purul sub-districts of Senapati district of Manipur state.

India is home to the third-largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesiamarker (209m)& Pakistanmarker (169 m). India also contains the majority of the world's Zoroastrians, Sikhs, Hindus, Jains and Bahá'í. Other religious groups include Jews.

Religious majorities vary greatly by state. Jammu and Kashmirmarker and Lakshadweepmarker are Muslim majority states; Nagalandmarker, Mizorammarker and Meghalayamarker are Christian majority; Punjabmarker is mostly Sikh; It is to be noted that while participants in the Indian census may choose to not declare their religion, there is no mechanism for a person to indicate that he/she does not adhere to any religion. Due to this limitation in the Indian census process, the data for persons not affiliated with any religion may not be accurate.

The table below summarizes the findings of the 2001 census with regards to religion in India:

  1. All figures in %.
  2. Gender Ratio*: no of females/1000 males
  3. Others including Bahá'ís, Jews, and Parsis.
  4. Tribal Animists (and non religious) are grouped under Others after 1926 (1931 census onwards)


Table 2: Census information for 2001
Composition Hindus Muslims Christian Sikhs Buddhist Jains Others
% total of population 2005 80.5% 13.4% 2.3% 1.9% 0.8% 0.4% 0.6%
10-Yr Growth % (est '91–'01) 20.3% 29.5% 22.6% 18.2% 24.5% 26.0% 103.1%
Sex ratio* (avg. 944) 935 940 1009 895 955 940 1000
Literacy rate (avg. 79.9) 75.5 60.0 90.3 70.4 73.0 95.0 50.0
Work Participation Rate 40.4 31.3 39.7 37.7 40.6 32.9 48.4
Rural sex ratio 944 953 1001 895 958 937 995
Urban sex ratio 922 907 1026 886 944 941 966
Child sex ratio (0–6 yrs) 925 950 964 786 942 870 976
α. The data excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipurmarker


β. The data is "unadjusted" (without excluding Assammarker and Jammu and Kashmirmarker); 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir


Linguistic demographics

40% of the Hindus speak Hindi while the rest speak Punjabi, Bangla, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Gujarati, Kannada and other languages. Almost 45% of the Muslims speak Urdu while the rest speak Bangla,Hindi, Kashmiri, Telugu, Malayalam, Tamil, Gujarati and other languages. About one-third of the Christians speak Malayalam, one-sixth speak Tamil while the rest speak a variety of languages. In total, there are 1,652 languages and dialects spoken in India.

2001 census]]
Rank Language Speakers Percentage
1 Hindi dialects 422,048,642 41.03%
2 Bengali 83,369,769 8.11%
3 Telugu 74,002,856 7.37%
4 Marathi 71,936,894 6.99%
5 Tamil 60,793,814 5.91%
6 Urdu 51,536,111 5.01%
7 Gujarati 46,091,617 4.48%
8 Kannada 37,924,011 3.69%
9 Malayalam 33,066,392 3.21%
10 Oriya 33,017,446 3.21%
11 Punjabi 29,102,477 2.83%
12 Assamese 13,168,484 1.28%
13 Maithili 12,179,122 1.18%
15 Bhili/Bhilodi 9,582,957 0.95%
14 Santali 6,469,600 0.63%
15 Kashmiri 5,527,698 0.54%
16 Nepali 2,871,749 0.28%
17 Gondi 2,713,790 0.27%
18 Sindhi 2,535,485 0.25%
19 Konkani 2,489,015 0.24%
20 Dogri 2,282,589 0.22%
21 Khandeshi 2,075,258 0.21%
22 Kurukh 1,751,489 0.17%
23 Tulu 1,722,768 0.17%
24 Meitei (Manipuri) 1,466,705* 0.14%
25 Bodo 1,350,478 0.13%
26 Khasi 1,128,575 0.112%
27 Mundari 1,061,352 0.105%
28 Ho 1,042,724 0.103%
29 Sanskrit 14,135 0.001%
* Excludes figures of Paomata, Mao-Maram and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur for 2001.
** The percentage of speakers of each language for 2001 has been worked out on the total population of India excluding the population of Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati district of Manipur due to cancellation of census results.


CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
Chart showing the Total Fertility Rate of Indian states (SRS survey 1996-98)
Total Population:
1,166,079,217 (July 2009 est. CIA)1,028.7 million (2001 Census final figures, March 1 enumeration and estimated 124,000 in areas of Manipur that could not be covered in the enumeration)

Map showing the population density of each district in India


Rural Population:
72.2%, male: 381,668,992, female: 360,948,755 (2001 Census)

Urban Population:

Age structure:

0–14 years: 30.8%, male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024

15–64 years: 64.3%, male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759

65+ years: 4.9%, male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est.)
The median age of Indians is 25.1 years.

Population growth rate:
1.548% (2009 est.)

Birth rate:
21.76 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

Death rate:
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2009 est.)

Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India


Literacy rate:
61.0%

Percent of the population under the poverty line:
22% (2006 est.)

Unemployment Rate:
7.8%

Net migration rate:
− -0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth:
1.12 male(s)/female
under 15 years:
1.098 male(s)/female
15–64 years:
1.061 male(s)/female
65 years and over:
0.908 male(s)/female
total population:
1.064 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)male: 34.61 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 25.17 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:

total population:
69.89 years
male:
67.46 years
female:
72.61 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.72 children born/woman (2009 est.)The TFR (Total number of children born per women) according to Religion in 2001 was :

Hindus — 2.0Muslims — 2.4Sikhs — 1.6Christians — 2.1Buddhists — 2.1Jains — 1.4Animists and Others — 2.99Tribals — 3.16Scheduled Castes — 2.89

Nationality:

noun:
Indian(s)
adjective:
Indian

Religions:
Hindu 80.5%Muslim 13.4%Christian 2.3%Sikh 1.8%Buddhists 0.8%Jains 0.4%others 0.7%unspecified 0.1% (2001 Census)

.

Scheduled Castes and Tribes:
Scheduled Castes: 16.2% (2001 Census)Scheduled Tribes: 8.2% (2001 Census)

Languages: See Languages of India and List of Indian languages by total speakers.There are 216 languages with more than 10,000 native speakers in India. The largest of these is Hindi with some 337 million (the second largest being Bangla with some 207 million). 22 languages are recognized as official languages. In India, there are 1,652 languages and dialects in total.

2020 Estimate

Table 2: Population Projections (in millions)
Year Under 15 15–64 65+ Total
2000 361 604 45 1010
2005 368 673 51 1093
2010 370 747 58 1175
2015 372 819 65 1256
2020 373 882 76 1331


Source: Based on P.N. Mari Bhat, "Indian Demographic Scenario 2025", Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi, Discussion Paper No. 27/2001.

Ethnic groups

Unlike the United States, United Kingdom, Australian or Census in Canada and Philippines Censuses, the national Census of India does not recognize racial or ethnic groups within India, but recognizes many of the tribal groups as Scheduled Castes and Tribes (see list of Scheduled Tribes in India).

It should be noted that Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Austro-Asiatic are mainly linguistic terms and denote speakers of these linguistic groups.

For a list of ethnic groups in the Republic of India (as well as neighboring countries) see ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent or the tree diagram above.

Genetics

Y-chromosome DNA

Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, The Indian Y-chromosome pool may be summarized as follows where haplogroups R1a, H, R2, L & NOP comprise generally more than 80% of the total chromosomes.

  • H ~ 30%
  • R1a ~ 20%
  • R2 ~ 15%
  • L ~ 10%
  • NOP ~ 10% (Excluding R)
  • Other Haplogroups 15%


Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA represents the female lineage. The Indian mitochondrial DNA, which is primarily made up of Haplogroup M

See also



References

  1. India, a Country Study United States Library of Congress, Note on Ethnic groups
  2. GM Crops Around the World – an accurate picture GM Freeze, Table 3
  3. Rural-Urban distribution Census of India: Census Data 2001: India at a glance >> Rural-Urban Distribution. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved on 2008-11-26.
  4. Number of Villages Census of India: Number of Villages Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved on 2008-11-26.
  5. Rural-Urban distribution Census of India: Census Data 2001: India at a glance >> Rural-Urban Distribution. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved on 2008-11-26.
  6. Urban Agglomerations and Towns Census of India: Urban Agglomerations and Towns. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved on 2008-11-26.
  7. [1]
  8. Mother Tongues of India According to the 1961 Census
  9. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement1.htm
  10. includes Western Hindi, Eastern Hindi, Bihari languages, Rajasthani languages and Pahari languages.
  11. National Population Policy of India
  12. CIA World Factbook -- India
  13. Religious Composition Census of India: Census Data 2001: India at a glance >> Religious Composition. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved on 2008-11-26.
  14. International Religious Freedom Report 2007 — India International Religious Freedom Report 2007. U.S. Department of State.
  15. CIA's The World Factbook — India
  16. Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs — Background Note: India
  17. Rupert Goodwins. Smashing India's language barriers. ZDNet UK.
  18. Kumar, Jayant. Census of India. 2001. September 4, 2006. Indian Census
  19. Hammer et al. 2005, S. Sahoo et al. 2006, R. Trivedi et al. 2007, Zhao et al. 2008
  20. Semino et al. 2000, Kivisild et al. 2003, Metspalu et al 2004, Rajkumar et al. 2005, Chandrasekar et al. 2007, Gonzalez et al. 2007


Further reading



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