The Full Wiki

Demographics of Moldova: Map

Advertisements
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Moldovamarker, including distribution, ethnicity, languages, religious affiliation and other statistical data.

Overview of the demographic statistics

The CIA World Factbook July 2008 estimate places the population of Moldovamarker at 4,324,450.

According to the 2004 Moldovan Census, 3,383,332 people lived in the areas controlled by the central government of Moldovamarker. According to the 2004 Census in Transnistria, 555,347 people lived in the breakaway Transnistriamarker, the city of Bender/Tighina, and the other localities de facto controlled by Tiraspol. Thus, the total population of the country in 2004 amounted to 3,938,679.

Ethnic composition of the main part of Moldova, according to the 2004 census, was:



Ethnic composition of Moldova in 2004, including territories under the control of Tiraspol, was:



Note: 1 There is an ongoing controversy, whether Romanians and Moldovans should be counted together. At the census, every citizen could only declare him/herself Moldovan or Romanian, but one could not declare oneself both Moldovan and Romanian (consider oneself Moldovan as a subset of Romanian).





Urban-rural distribution of population

By district

no type name population urban rural
population % cities population % communes
1 municipality Chişinăumarker 712,218 644,204 90.45% 7 68,014 9.55% 12
2 municipality Bălţimarker 127,561 122,669 96.16% 1 4,892 3.84% 2
3 auton.territ.unit Găgăuziamarker 155,646 58,190 37.39% 3 97,456 62.61% 23
4 district Anenii Noimarker 81,710 8,358 10.23% 1 73,352 89.77% 25
5 district Basarabeascamarker 28,978 11,192 38.62% 1 17,786 61.38% 6
6 district Bricenimarker 78,027 14,230 18.24% 2 63,797 81.76% 26
7 district Cahulmarker 119,231 35,488 29.76% 1 83,743 70.24% 36
8 district Cantemirmarker 60,001 3,872 6.45% 1 56,129 93.55% 26
9 district Călăraşimarker 75,075 14,516 19.34% 1 60,559 80.66% 27
10 district Căuşenimarker 90,612 21,941 24.21% 2 68,671 75.79% 25 (out of 28)
11 district Cimişliamarker 60,925 12,858 21.10% 1 48,067 78.90% 22
12 district Criulenimarker 72,254 7,138 9.88% 1 65,116 90.12% 24
13 district Donduşenimarker 46,442 9,801 21.10% 1 36,641 78.90% 21
14 district Drochiamarker 87,092 16,606 19.07% 1 70,486 80.93% 27
15 district Dubăsari 43,015 - - - 34,015 100% 11
16 district Edineţmarker 81,390 23,065 % 2 58,325 % 30
17 district Făleştimarker 90,320 14,931 % 1 75,389 % 32
18 district Floreştimarker 89,389 17,086 % 3 17,086 % 37
19 district Glodenimarker 60,975 10,465 % 1 50,510 % 18
20 district Hînceştimarker 119,762 15,281 % 1 104,481 % 38
21 district Ialovenimarker 97,704 15,041 % 1 82,663 % 24
22 district Leovamarker 51,056 14,411 % 2 36,645 % 23
23 district Nisporenimarker 64,924 12,105 % 1 52,819 % 22
24 district Ocniţamarker 56,510 19,270 % 3 37,240 % 18
25 district Orheimarker 116,271 25,641 % 1 90,630 % 37
26 district Rezinamarker 48,105 10,196 % 1 37,909 % 24
27 district Rîşcanimarker 69,454 13,351 % 2 56,103 % 26
28 district Sîngereimarker 87,153 15,760 % 2 71,393 % 24
29 district Sorocamarker 94,986 28,362 % 1 66,624 % 34
30 district Străşenimarker 88,900 19,633 % 2 69,267 % 25
31 district Şoldăneştimarker 42,227 6,304 % 1 35,923 % 22
32 district Ştefan Vodămarker 70,594 7,768 % 1 62,826 % 22
33 district Taracliamarker 43,154 13,756 % 1 29,398 % 14
34 district Teleneştimarker 70,126 6,855 % 1 63,271 % 30
35 district Unghenimarker 110,545 35,311 % 2 75,234 % 31
Subtotal control by central government 3,383,332 1,305,655 38.59% 54 2,077,677 61.41% 844
36 territorial unit Transnistriamarker 439,528 280,6401 63.85% 10 158,8881 36.15% 69
37 municipality Bender marker 100,169 97,027 96.86% 1 3,142 3.14% 1
10 parts of district Căuşenimarker 14,935 - - - 14,935 100% 3 (out of 28)
15 parts of district Dubăsari 715 - - - 715 100% parts of 1
Subtotal control by breakaway Tiraspol 555,347 377,667 68.01% 11 177,680 31.99% 73
Total 3,938,679 1,683,322 42.74% 65 2,255,357 57.26% 917
Note: 1The breakaway Transnistrian authorities count as rural the population of the towns of Crasnoemarker, Maiacmarker, and Tiraspolul Noumarker. Since their exact population isn't available, so does this table.

Tiraspol-controlled areas

Population urban rural
population cities population communes
Tiraspolmarker 158,069 158,069 1 - -
Camenca sub-district 27,284 10,323 1 16,961 12
Rîbniţa sub-district 82,699 53,648 1 29,051 22
Dubăsari sub-districtmarker 36,734 23,650 1 13,084 9
Grigoriopol sub-district 48,000 11,4731 2 36,5271 14
Slobozia sub-district 86,742 23,4772 4 63,2652 12
Subtotal Transnistriamarker 439,528 280,640 10 158,888 69
Tighinamarker (w/o Proteagailovca) 97,027 97,027 1 - -
Proteagailovcamarker 3,142 - - 3,142 1
Gîscamarker 4,841 - - 4,841 1
Chiţcanimarker (incl. Mereneşti and Zahorna) ~9,000 - - ~9,000 1
Cremenciug 1,094 - - 1,094 1
Roghimarker 715 - - 715 parts of 1
Subotal other localities 115,819 97,027 1 18,792 4
Total Tiraspol-controlled areas 555,347 377,667 11 177,680 73


Note:

1 The breakaway Transnistrian authorities have counties as urban only the population of the town of Grigoriopol, while that of the town of Maiacmarker was counted as rural.

2 The breakaway Transnistrian authorities have counties as urban only the population of the towns of Slobozia and Dnestrovscmarker, while those of the towns of Crasnoemarker and Tiraspolul Noumarker were counted as rural.


Ethnic groups

Ethnic map of Moldova (2004 data)


Urban-rural distribution

In the part of Moldova under the central government control:

ethnic group total population urban rural
population % population % population %
Moldovans (Romanians) 2,638,125 77.98% 870,445 66.67% 1,767,680 85.08%
Ukrainians 282,406 8.35% 145,890 11.17% 136,516 6.57%
Russians 201,218 5.95% 166,395 12.74% 34,823 1.68%
Gagauzians 147,500 4.36% 53,613 4.11% 93,887 4.52%
Bulgarians 65,662 1.94% 29,447 2.26% 36,215 1.74%
Gypsies 12,271 0.36% 8,139 0.62% 4,132 0.20%
Jews 3,608 0.11% 3,509 0.27% 99 0.01%
Poles 2,383 0.07% 2,019 0.15% 364 0.02%
others and undeclared 30,157 0.89% 26,197 2.01% 3,960 0.19%
Total 3,383,332 100% 1,305,655 100% 2,077,677 100%


By birthplace

Declared birthplace for the current inhabitants of the part of Moldova under the central government control:

ethnic group total population urban rural
total Moldovamarker former USSRmarker other countries non-declared total Moldova former USSR other countries non-declared total Moldova former USSR other countries non-declared
Moldovans (Romanians) 2,638,125

100%
2,604,051

98.71%
30,360

1.15%
3,345

0.13%
369

0.01%
870,445

100%
848,554

%
19,501

%
2,081

%
309

%
1,767,680

100%
1,755,497

%
10,859

%
1,264

%
60

%
Ukrainians 282,406

100%
227,750

80.65%
54,036

19.13%
598

0.21%
22

0.01%
145,890

100%
103,039

%
42,318

%
514

%
19

%
136,516

100%


%
11,718

%
84

%
3

%
Russians 201,218

100%
129,664

64.44%
70,380

34.98%
1,096

0.54%
78

0.04%
166,395

100%
106,580

%
58,739

%
1,011

%
65

%
34,823

100%
23,084

%
11,641

%
85

%
13

%
Gagauzians 147,500

100%
144,268

97.81%
3,101

2.10%
120

0.08%
11

0.01%
53,613

100%
51,586

%
1,941

%
76

%
10

%
93,887

100%
92,682

%
1,160

%
44

%
1

%
Bulgarians 65,662

100%
59,489

90.60%
5,968

9.09%
199

0.30%
6

0.01%
29,447

100%
25,215

%
4,071

%
156

%
5

%
36,215

100%
34,274

%
1,897

%
43

%
1

%
others 34,401

100%
22,702

65.99%
10,797

31.39%
894

2.60%
8

0.02%
26,058

100%
16,973

%
8,358

%
722

%
5

%
8,343

100%
5,729

%
2,439

%
172

%
3

%
non-declared 14,020

100%
13,894

99.10%
12

0.09%
28

0.20%
86

0.61%
13,807

100%
13,668

%
9

%
27

%
83

%
213

100%
206

%
3

%
1

%
3

%
Total 3,383,332

100%
3,201,818

94.64%
174,654

5.16%
6,280

0.19%
580

0.02%
1,305,655

100%
1,165,635

89.28%
134,937

10.33%
4,587

0.35%
496

0.04%
2,077,677

100%
2,036,183

98.00%
39,717

1.91%
1,693

0.08%
84

0.004%


By district

Population Moldovans1 Ukrainians Russians Gagauzians Bulgarians Romanians1 Jews Poles Gypsies others
Chişinăumarker 712,218 481,626 58,945 99,149 6,446 8,868 31,984 2,649 834 507 21,210
Bălţimarker 127,561 66,877 30,288 24,526 243 297 2,258 411 862 272 1,527
Gagauziamarker 155,646 7,481 4,919 5,941 127,835 8,013 38 17 28 486 888
Anenii Noimarker 81,710 68,761 6,526 4,135 235 481 857 17 28 228 442
Basarabeascamarker 28,978 20,218 1,948 2,568 2,220 1,544 70 13 5 216 176
Bricenimarker 78,027 55,123 19,939 2,061 59 45 314 84 10 187 205
Cahulmarker 119,231 91,001 7,842 7,702 3,665 5,816 2,095 40 29 238 803
Cantemirmarker 60,001 52,986 969 710 519 3,736 910 - 11 43 117
Călăraşimarker 75,075 69,190 2,799 947 54 47 1,490 21 11 378 138
Căuşenimarker 90,612 79,432 2,469 3,839 653 1,108 2,844 8 9 30 220
Cimişliamarker 60,925 52,972 3,376 2,371 278 1,341 331 7 10 95 144
Criulenimarker 72,254 67,046 2,692 1,008 49 72 1,170 6 6 36 169
Donduşenimarker 46,442 37,302 5,893 2,714 31 36 247 12 15 68 124
Drochiamarker 87,092 74,369 9,849 1,641 44 33 675 14 10 272 185
Dubăsari 34,015 32,652 521 611 45 16 102 9 2 - 57
Edineţmarker 81,390 58,749 16,084 5,084 143 91 446 23 26 499 245
Făleştimarker 90,320 75,863 10,711 3,064 39 32 306 6 20 57 222
Floreştimarker 89,389 75,797 8,023 4,633 45 51 433 19 29 120 239
Glodenimarker 60,975 46,317 11,918 1,693 32 44 329 8 174 303 157
Hînceştimarker 119,762 108,189 6,218 1,463 99 212 3,046 19 16 305 195
Ialovenimarker 97,704 91,379 1,117 1,112 95 935 2,608 5 12 197 244
Leovamarker 51,056 43,673 1,245 1,167 432 3,804 471 8 9 105 142
Nisporenimarker 64,924 60,774 223 339 17 28 2,329 1 4 1,147 62
Ocniţamarker 56,510 32,491 17,351 2,764 79 60 104 14 43 3,417 187
Orheimarker 116,271 100,469 4,520 2,216 113 90 8,253 46 23 221 320
Rezinamarker 48,105 44,721 1,691 1,093 34 40 375 30 5 13 103
Rîşcanimarker 69,454 50,391 15,632 1,726 60 61 777 8 42 602 155
Sîngereimarker 87,153 74,139 8,456 3,029 47 43 1,162 10 48 56 163
Sorocamarker 94,986 84,728 4,752 2,601 53 48 931 65 17 1,564 227
Străşenimarker 88,900 83,368 985 1,576 70 109 2,542 13 14 24 199
Şoldăneştimarker 42,227 40,354 1,055 376 9 14 299 2 - 74 44
Ştefan Vodămarker 70,594 65,318 2,182 1,918 64 145 562 1 4 219 181
Taracliamarker 43,154 5,980 2,646 2,139 3,587 28,293 29 2 9 218 251
Teleneştimarker 70,126 67,309 879 537 16 16 1,262 4 1 6 96
Unghenimarker 110,545 97,805 7,743 2,766 90 93 1,627 16 17 68 320
Subtotal controlled by central government 3,383,332 2,564,850 282,406 201,218 147,500 65,662 73,276 3,608 2,383 12,271 30,157


1There is an ongoing controversy over whether Moldovans are a subset of Romanians, or a distinct ethnic group. At the 2004 Moldovan Census, citizens could declare only one nationality. Consequently, one could not declare oneself both Moldovan and Romanian.

Population Moldovans (Romanians) Ukrainians Russians Gagauzians Bulgarians Gypsies Jews Poles others non-declared
Transnistriamarker 439,528 147,416 140,241 117,138 2,907 10,515 368 867 1,589 18,487  
Bender marker 100,169 25,130-25,135 18,006 43,431 1,091 3,164 132-137 385 190-202 8,618-8,640  
  
parts of Căuşenimarker 14,935 4,484-4,389 1,822 8,109 98 179 2-7 7 0-12 312-334  
  
parts of Dubăsari 715 700 15  
  
Subtotal Tiraspol-controlled areas 555,347 177,635 160,069 168,678 4,096 13,858 507 1,259 1,791 27,454  
  
Total 3,938,679 2,815,760 442,475 369,896 151,596 79,520 12.778 4,867 4,174 57,613  
  


Tiraspol-controlled areas

Population Mold.

(Rom.)
Russians Ukrainians Gagauzes Bulg. Gyps. Jews Poles Belor. Germ. Armen. others,

non-decl.
Tiraspolmarker 158,069  23,790

 65,928

 52,278

 1,988

 2,450

 116

 573

 324

 1,712

 701

 360

 7,849
Camenca sub-district 27,284 13,048

1,880

11,610

43

59

9

10

447

85

26

16

51

Rîbniţa sub-district 82,699 24,729

14,237

37,554

149

309

51

177

528

412

150

81

4,322

Dubăsari sub-districtmarker 36,734 18,080

7,125

10,594

92

134

46

46

53

185

63

126

190

Grigoriopol sub-district 48,000 31,118

7,332

8,333

123

240

13

26

100

187

327

62

139

Slobozia sub-district 86,742 36,651

20,636

19,872

512

7,323

133

35

137

475

496

140

332

Subtotal Transnistriamarker 439,528 147,416

117,138

140,241

2,907

10,515

368

867

1,589

3,056

1,763

785

12,883

Tighinamarker 97,027 24,374

41,949

17,348

1,066

3,001

132

383

190

713

258

173

7,440

Proteagailovcamarker 3,142 756-761

1,482

658

25

163

0-5

2

0-12

19

6

0-16

0-31

Gîscamarker 4,841 819-824

2,956

719

91

168

0-5

7

0-12

8

22

0-16

13-44

Chiţcanimarker ~9,000 ~3,100

~4,800

~900

















~200

Cremenciug 1,094 465

353

203

7

11

2

-

-

15

22

6

10

Roghimarker 715 ~700





















~15

Subotal other localities 115,819 30,219

51,540

19,828

1,189

3,343

139

392

202

755

308

195

7,709

Total Tiraspol-controlled areas 555,347 177,635

168,678

160,069

4,096

13,858

507

1,259

1,791

3,811

2,071

980

20,592



Notes:
  • The exact numbers in the above table are taken from the data published by the Transnistrianmarker breakaway authorities after the 2004 Census in Transnistria, except the population of Roghi, which was taken from website of the Dubăsari sub-districtmarker of Transnistria.
  • The number of inhabitants of Slobozia sub-district + that of the commune Chiţcanimarker was given by Transnisrian authorities as 95,742. Other sources indicate ~9,000 for Chiţcani. In this table it is assumed there are 9,000 inhabitantts in Chiţcani, and 86,742 in Slobozia sub-district. Should the exact data of the census for Chiţcani be available, the entries in the lines of Slobozia sub-district and of Chiţcani should be corrected accordingly.
  • Transnistrian authorities have published the ethnic composition for the combined population of the Dubăsari sub-districtmarker and the village of Roghi in Molovata Nouămarker commune. Other sources indicate that the latter is almost entirely Moldovan (Romanian). In this table it is assumed that of the 715 inhabitants of this village, 700 are Moldovan (Romanian) and 15 are others. Should the exact ethnicity data of the census for Roghi be available, the entries for ethnicities in the lines of Dubăsari sub-district and of Roghi should be corrected accordingly.
  • Percentages are calculated from the absolute numbers


Languages

Romanian is the official language of Moldova. In political contexts it is sometimes also called Moldovan.

Native language

Currently, 2,588,355 people or 76.51% of the inhabitants of right bankmarker Moldova (proper) have Moldovan/Romanian as native language, of which 2,029,847 (60.00%) declared it Moldovan and 558,508 (16.51%) declared it Romanian. 380,796 people or 11.26% have Russian as native language, 186,394 or 5.51% - Ukrainian, 137,774 or 4.07% - Gagauz, 54,401 or 1.61% - Bulgarian, 21,504 or 0.63% - another language, and 14,108 or 0.41% did not declare one.

First language in daily use

According to the 2004 census, 2,543,354 people or 75.17% of the inhabitants of Moldova (proper) have Moldovan/Romanian as first language, of which 1,988,540 (58.77%) declared it Moldovan and 554,814 (16.40%) declared it Romanian. 540,990 people or 15.99% have Russian as first language, 130,114 or 3.85% - Ukrainian, 104,890 or 3.10% - Gagauz, 38,565 or 1.14% - Bulgarian, 11,318 or 0.34% - another language, and 14,101 or 0.41% did not declare one.

Ethnic group \ First language Romanian Russian Ukrainian Gagauzian Bulgarian other language did non declare Total
Moldovans/Romanians
Moldovans
Romanians
2,495,977

2,424,444

71,533
129,909

128,372

1,537
9,251

9,170

81
804

799

5
1,117

1,113

4
1,067

951

116
-

-

-
2,638,125

2,564,849

73,276
Russians 11,657 187,526 1,224 329 344 138 - 201,218
Ukrainians 21,649 141,206 118,699 427 294 131 - 282,406
Gagauzians 3,365 40,445 413 102,395 821 61 - 147,500
Bulgarians 5,698 23,259 188 673 35,808 36 - 65,662
other ethnic groups 4,961 18,610 339 262 181 9,856 192 34,401
did non declare 47 35 - - - 29 13,909 14,020
Total by language of first use 2,543,354

75.17%
540,990

15.99%
130,114

3.85%
104,890

3.10%
38,565

1.14%
11,318

0.34%
14,101

0.41%
3,383,332

100%


Usage of own language by the ethnic groups of Moldova

ethhnic group own language Romanian Russian
Moldovans/Romanians 94.62% - 4.92%
Russians 93.20% 5.79% -
Ukrainians 42.03% 7.66% 50.00%
Gagauzians 69.42% 2.28% 27.42%
Bulgarians 54.53% 8.68% 35.42%
others up to 28.65% 14.42% 54.10%


Urban areas

ethhnic group own language Romanian Russian
Moldovans/Romanians 87.23% - 12.56%
Russians 95.85% 3.82% -
Ukrainians 13.06% 6.56% 80.19%
Gagauzians 40.10% 2.19% 57.23%
Bulgarians 36.81% 7.93% 54.45%
others up to 28.11% 8.35% 62.05%


Rural areas

ethhnic group own language Romanian Russian
Moldovans/Romanians 98.25% - 1.16%
Russians 80.52% 15.25% -
Ukrainians 72.99% 8.85% 17.74%
Gagauzians 86.16% 2.33% 10.40%
Bulgarians 68.95% 9.29% 19.95%
others up to 30.34% 33.39% 29.25%


Soviet era data

Ethnic map of Moldova (1989 data)
In the Soviet census of 1989 members of most of the ethnic groups in Moldavian SSR claimed the language of their ethnicity as their mother tongue: Moldovans (95%), Ukrainians (62%), Russians (99%), Gagauz (91%), Bulgarians (79%), and Romani people (82%). The exceptions were Jews (26% citing Yiddish), Belarusians (43%), Germans (31%), and Poles (10%).

In the Soviet census of 1989, 62% of the total population claimed Moldovan as their native language. Only 4% of the entire population claimed Moldovan as a second language.

In 1979, Russian was claimed as a native language by a large proportion of Jews (66%) and Belarusians (62%), and by a significant proportion of Ukrainians (30%). Proportions of other ethnicities naming Russian as a native language ranged from 17% of Bulgarians to 3% of Moldovans (Russian was more spoken by urban Moldovans than by rural Moldovans). Russian was claimed as a second language by a sizeable proportion of all ethnicities: Moldovans (46%), Ukrainians (43%), Gagauz (68%), Jews (30%), Bulgarians (67%), Belarusians (34%), Germans (53%), Roma (36%), and Poles (24%).

Religion

According to the 2004 census, the population of Moldova has the following religious composition:
Religion Adherents % of total
Eastern Orthodox Christians 3,158,015 93.3%
Newer Protestant faiths
Baptists
Seventh-day Adventists
Pentecostal
Brethren Assemblies 

32,754

13,503

9,179

5,075
1.79%

0.97%

0.40%

0.27%

0.15%
Traditional Protestant
Confessional Evangelicals
Refomed
Evangelical Synod-Presbyterians

1,429

1,190

3,596
0.19%

0.04%

0.04%

0.11%
Old-Rite Christians  5,094 0.15%
Roman Catholics 4,645 0.14%
Other religions 29,813 0.88%
Non-religious 33,207 0.98%
Atheists 12,724 0.38%


Notes: 75,727 (2.24% of population) did not answer that question.

a Known as Creştini după Evanghelie.

b Traditionally Orthodox Lipovans.

History

In 1940-1941, and 1944-1991, the Soviet government strictly limited the activities of the Orthodox Church (and all religions) and at times sought to exploit it, with the ultimate goal of abolishing it and all religious activity altogether. Most Orthodox churches and monasteries in Moldova were demolished or converted to other uses, such as administrative buildings or warehouses, and clergy were sometimes punished for leading services. Still, many believers continued to practice their faith.

People in the independent Moldova have much greater religious freedom than they did in Soviet times. Legislation passed in 1992 guarantees religious freedom, but requires all religious groups to be officially recognized by the government.

Orthodox Christians

In 1991, Moldova had 853 Orthodox churches and eleven Orthodox monasteries (four for monks and seven for nuns). In 1992 construction or restoration of 221 churches was underway, but clergy remained in short supply. As of 2004, Chistian Orthodox constitute the vast majority of the population in all districts of Moldova.

In the interwar period, the vast majority of ethnic Moldovans belonged to the Romanian Orthodox Church (Bucharest Patriarchate), but today both Romanian and Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) have jurisdiction in Moldova, with the latter having more parishes. According to the local needs, liturgy is performed in Romanian, Russian, and Turkic (Gagauz). After the revival of religious activity in the last 20 years, a minority of the clergy and the faithful wanted to return to the Bucharest Patriarchate (Metropolis of Bessarabia). Because higher-level church authorities were unable to resolve the matter, Moldova now has two episcopates, one for each patriarchate. After the Soviet occupation in 1940, the Metropolis was downgraded to a Bishopric. In late 1992, the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia issued a decree upgrading its eparchy of Chişinău and Moldova to a Metropolis.

Greek Catholics

Moldova also has a Greek Catholic minority, mainly among ethnic Ukrainians, although the Soviet government declared the Greek Catholic Churches illegal in 1946 and forcibly united them with the Russian Orthodox Church. However, the Greek Catholic Churches had survived underground until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Roman Ctholics

Half of Moldova's Roman Catholics are in Chişinău, and 1/5 in Bălţi.

Old Believers

In addition, the Old Russian Orthodox Church (Old Believers) had fourteen churches and one monastery in Moldova in 1991.

Half of Moldova's Old Believers are in Floreşti district, and 1/5 in Sîngerei district.

Judaism

Despite the Soviet government's suppression and harassment, Moldova's practicing Jews managed to retain their religious identity. About a dozen Jewish newspapers were started in the early 1990s, and religious leaders opened a synagogue in Chişinău; there were six Jewish communities of worship throughout the country. In addition, Moldova's government created the Department of Jewish Studies at Chişinău State University, mandated the opening of a Jewish high school in Chişinău, and introduced classes in Judaism in high schools in several cities. The government also provides financial support to the Society for Jewish Culture.

Protestants

There are around 65,000 Protestants of all sects in Moldova today. There are more than 1,000 Baptists in the cities of Chişinău and Bălţi, in Cahul, Făleşti, Hînceşti, Sîngerei, Ştefan Vodă, and Ungheni districts, and in Găgăuzia. There are more than 1,000 Seventh-day Adventists in Cahul, Hînceşti and Sîngerei districts, and in Găgăuzia, there are more than 1,000 Penticostals in Chişinău and in Briceni district. There are more than 1,000 members of Brethren assemblies only in Chişinău. There are more than 1,000 Evangelical Synod-Presbyterians only in Chişinău.

Others

Other religious denominations in Moldova include:


Analysis

Moldova's territory is generally ethnically homogeneous. Moldovans (Romanians) form majorities in 33 of the 37 first-tier territorial units (including over 90% in 15 districts, between 80% and 90% in 9 districts, between 70% and 80% in 7 administrative units, and between 50% and 60% in 2 units), and a 33.5% plurality in Transnistriamarker, where there are 32% Ukrainians and 27% Russians. Gagauzians represent a 82% majority in the autonomous territorial unit of Gagauziamarker, with only 5% Moldovans (Romanians). Bulgarians represent a 66% majority in the Taraclia districtmarker, with 14% Moldovans (Romanians). Finally, Russians represent a 43% plurality in the municipality of Bender marker, with 25% Moldovans(Romanians). Ukrainians represent between 20% and 30% minorities in four units with Moldovan (Romanian) majority: Bălţimarker, Bricenimarker, Ocniţamarker, and Rîşcanimarker, and one with Moldovan plurality (Transnistria). Elsewhere, the ethnic populations are less than 20% district-wise (generally much less).

Although before 1991 Moldovamarker was the most densely populated of the former Soviet republics (129 inhabitants per square kilometer in 1990, compared with 13 inhabitants per square kilometer for the Soviet Unionmarker as a whole), it had and has only few large cities.

The largest and most important of these is Chişinăumarker, the country's capital and its most important industrial center, with a population of 712,218 in 2004. The city's population is 72.11% Moldovan (Romanian), 13.92% Russian, 8.28% Ukrainian, and 5.69% others (Bulganians, Gagauzians, Jews, Poles, Gypsies, etc). The proportion of Russophones living in Moldova decreased in the years immediately after 1989 because of the emigration to Russia, after an immigration from Russia had taken place during the Soviet period.

The second largest city in the country, Tiraspolmarker, had a population of 184,000 in 1990. Located in Transnistriamarker, with a population of 158,069 in 2004, it is the major city in the breakaway Transnistriamarker. In contrast to Chişinǎu, Tiraspol has only some 15% Moldovans (Romanians), with Russians comprising 41.7%, and Ukrainians 33%. Due to deportations by the breakaway authorities, and emigration during and after the 1992 War of Transnistria, it has been reported that the Moldovan (Romanian) population has gone down by up to 10,000 since 1990.

Other important cities include Bălţimarker, with a population of 162,000 in 1990, and 127,561 in 2004, and Bender marker, with a population of 132,000 in 1990 and 100,169 in 2004. Other major cities include Rîbniţamarker, population 53,648, Cahulmarker, population 35,488, Unghenimarker, population 32,530, Sorocamarker, population 28,362, and Orheimarker, population 25,641.

Traditionally a predominantly rural country, Moldova gradually began changing its character in the 20th century. As urban areas became the sites of new industrial and intellectual jobs and amenities such as hospitals, the population of cities and towns grew. The Soviets kept the population of Moldova under control with the famous Soviet policy of propiska, which forbid a person to live in another locality than the one written in his/her identity documents without approval of Soviet authorities. The new residents Moldova's cities during the Soviet era were not only Moldovans, who had moved from the nearby rural areas, but also many Russians and Ukrainians who had been recruited to fill positions in industry and government, moving in from other parts of the Soviet Unionmarker.

Many people have emigrated to Romania in 1940 (estinated at 200,000) and 1944 (estimated at more than 200,000), and others had lost their lives during the war (over 100,000 as Soviet soldiers in 1944-1945, and up to 50,000 as Romanian soldiers before 1944, including as Soviet POWs in 1944-1945), in Stalinist persecutions (over 8,000 executed, ca. 50,000 sent to Gulag, over 200,000 deported), and during the 1946-1947 famine (216,000 deceised). During 1940s, Soviets have also recruited thousands of young people to work in large-scale Soviet construction projects. Then, as a consequence of industrial growth after 1956, there was significant immigration to the Moldavian SSR by representatives of other ethnic groups, especially Russians and Ukrainians.

At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest ethnic group, Moldovans, numbered 2,795,000, accounting for 64.5 % of the population. The other major ethnicities were Ukrainians, about 600,000 (14%); Russians, about 562,000 (13.0%); Gagauz, about 153,000 (4%); Bulgarians, about 88,000 (2%); and Jews, about 66,000 (2.0%). There were also smaller but appreciable numbers of Poles and Gypsies in the population. In Transnistria ethnic Moldovans accounted for only 40% of the population in 1989, followed by Ukrainians (28%), and Russians (25%). In the early 1990s, there was significant emigration from the republic, primarily from urban areas and mainly by non-Moldovan minorities. Moldovans made up a sizable proportion of the urban population in 1989 (about half the population of Chişinǎu and other cities), as well as a large proportion of the rural population (over 85%), but only 23% of the ethnic Moldovans lived in the republic's ten largest cities, with the rest of the community being predominantly rural.

Unlike Moldovans, Russians tend to be urban dwellers in Moldova; more than 72% of them lived in the ten largest cities in 1989. Many of them came to the Moldova after it was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940. Some of them came to alleviate the postwar shortage of qualified labor in the Moldavian SSR, which was created by the rapid industrialization, but also by the loss of human life during the war, deportations, and famine. Ethnic Russians settled mainly in Chişinǎu, Bălţi, Bender, and in the cities of the eastern bank of the Dniestermarker, such as Tiraspol, Rîbniţa, and Dubăsari. Only about 25% of Moldova's Russians lived in Transnistria in 1990, as many as in Chişinǎu alone.

In 1990, Moldova's divorce rate of 3.0 divorces per 1,000 population had risen from the 1987 rate of 2.7 divorces per 1,000 population. The usual stresses of marriage were exacerbated by a society in which women were expected to perform most of the housework in addition to their work outside the home. Compounding this were crowded housing conditions (with their resulting lack of privacy) and the growing economic crisis.

See also



References

Inline:General:

External links




Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message