A department store
is a retail
establishment which specializes in satisfying
a wide range of the consumer's personal and residential durable goods
product needs; and at the same
time offering the consumer a choice multiple merchandise lines
, at variable
price points, in all product categories. Department stores usually
sell products including apparel
additionally select other lines of products such as paint
, photographic equipment,
. Certain department
stores are further classified as discount department stores.
Discount department stores commonly have central customer checkout
areas, generally in the front area of the
store. Department stores are usually part of a retail chain
of many stores situated around a
country or several countries.
Bainbridge's, in Newcastle upon Tyne, England, Bainbridge
(now John Lewis) in Newcastle upon Tyne, is the world’s oldest
It is still known to many of its customers
as Bainbridge, despite the recent name change to 'John Lewis'. This
much-loved Newcastle institution dates back to 1838 when Emerson
Muschamp Bainbridge was aged 21 when he went into partnership with
William Alder Dunn and opened a draper’s and fashion in Market
In terms of retailing history, one of the most significant facts
about the Newcastle Bainbridge shop, is that as early as 1849
weekly takings were recorded by department, making it the earliest
of all department stores. This ledger survives and is kept in the
John Lewis archives who bought the Bainbridge store in 1952.
John Lewis retained its original name of Bainbridge until 2002,
when the store was rebranded as John Lewis Newcastle.
That it sorted goods out into Departments in 1849, three years
before Le Bon Marche in Paris did the same, there is a strong case
for Bainbridge being the world's original department store.
Boucicaut founded Le Bon Marché in Paris in 1838, and
by 1852 it offered a wide variety of goods in "departments" inside
Goods were sold at fixed prices, with
guarantees allowing exchanges and refunds. By the end of the 19th
century, Georges Dufayel, a French credit merchant, had served up
to three million customers and was affiliated with La Samaritaine, a large French department store established in
1870 by a former Bon Marché executive.
As Le Bon
Marché evolved into a department store in the early 1850s, Delany's
New Mart opened in 1853 in Dublin, Ireland on Sackville
Street (now O'Connell
What made Delany's different from most
stores of its time was its purpose-built nature; unlike others it
had not evolved gradually from a smaller shop on site. Constructed
to a lavish standard on the city's principal street, it was
designed to rival the biggest and best in Europe. Acquired by the
Clery family in the late 19th century, both the store and Imperial
Hotel located in its upper floors were completely destroyed in the
1916 Easter Rising
. However the store
reopened in 1922, this time across numerous floors, as the famous
department store that stands today,
housed in a striking modern neoclassical building based on Selfridges
David Jones (Australia) was started by David Jones, a Welsh
merchant who met Hobart businessman Charles Appleton in London.
Appleton had established a store in Sydney in 1825 and Jones
subsequently established a partnership with Appleton, moved to
Australia in 1835, and the Sydney store became known as Appleton
& Jones. When the partnership was dissolved in 1838, Jones
moved his business to premises on the corner of George Street
and Barrack Lane,
Sydney. Jones survived the depression of the 1840s, and by 1856 had
retired from active management of the business. A few years later
when the firm failed he returned to manage its affairs and in a few
years had fully discharged all obligations to his creditors. By
1887, the George Street store had been rebuilt and a mail order
facility introduced. A factory was opened in Marlborough Street,
Sydney to reduce reliance on imported goods.David Jones also makes
a claim to be the oldest department store in the world still
trading under its original name.
Lewis's (United Kingdom) may have been the first most progressive
department store group.
By 1956 it had the largest stores in
the provinces of the UK and had brought the idea of department
selling across the country. It started in Liverpool in 1856 and
catered for all classes aiming to have the highest quality and
lowest prices. David Lewis may have been the catalyst to making tea
easily available to the working classes. (Lewis's 2/- tea).
this by buying the tea direct from the shippers from its home in
Liverpool and cutting out the middle man.
experimented in new ways of advertising (such as flooding the
basement of the Manchester store to create a mini Venice.) Its
grottos always are well known through generations of people from
it had stores in Manchester (1877), Liverpool (1856), Birmingham , Glasgow, Liverpool (The Bon Marche), Leeds, Hanley, London (Selfridges),Bristol and Leicester .
The group's first and final store, in
Liverpool, went into administration in 2007 and was purchased as a
going concern by Vergo Retail
Enabling the store to continue trading under the Lewis's
City in 1846, Alexander Turney Stewart
established the "Marble
Palace" on the east-Broadway, between Chambers and Reade streets.
retail merchandise at fixed
prices on a variety of dry goods, and advertised a policy of
providing "free entrance" to all potential customers. Though it was
clad in white marble to look like a Renaissance palazzo
building's cast iron
permitted large plate glass
1862 Stewart built a department store on a full city block at
Broadway and 9th Street, opposite Grace Church, with eight floors
and nineteen departments of dress goods and furnishing materials,
carpets, glass and china, toys and sports equipment, ranged around
a central glass-covered court. Within a couple of decades, New York's retail center had moved uptown, forming a stretch
of retail shopping from "Marble Palace" that was called the
"Ladies' Mile". In 1858 Rowland Hussey Macy founded Macy's as a dry
goods store. Benjamin Altman and Lord & Taylor soon competed with
Stewart as New York's first department stores, later followed by
"McCreary's" and, in Brooklyn, "Abraham & Straus."
(The Straus family
would be in the management of both Macy's and A&S.)
developments were under way in London (with
Whiteleys), in Paris (with
Samaritaine) and in
Chicago, where department stores sprang up along State
Street, notably Marshall Field and Company, which was the second-largest department store in
the world prior to converting to Macy's. In 1877, Wanamaker's opened in Philadelphia.
Philadelphia's John Wanamaker
performed a 19th century
to the former Pennsylvania Railroad
terminal in that
city and eventually opened a modern day department store in the
1, 1869 Zion's
Cooperative Mercantile Institution was opened in Salt Lake
City as a new community store that became the first
incorporated department store in America in 1870.
3-story brick and iron store was built in 1876, noted for its
unique architecture and striped awnings. This store was replaced by
an enclosed shopping center in 1973, and the new Zion department
store preserved the gilt-edged ornate facade of the old store.
the May Department Stores
bought a 14-store ZCMI chain and changed its name to "Meier &
Frank", a May property with eight stores in Oregon and Washington. Subsequently May Department Stores completed a
merger with Federated
Department Stores and the Meier & Frank brand ZCMI stores
have become Macy's stores,
effective late 2006.
In 1881, Joseph Lowthian
opened a small men's clothing store in Detroit. After 10
years he had 8 stores in the midwest and was the most profitable
clothing retailer in the country. In 1893 he began construction of
the immense department store at Gratiot and Farmer streets in
Detroit. The 25-story tower was added in 1928, and a 12-story
addition in 1946, giving the entire complex of floor space. In 1954
the company became a suburban shopping center pioneer when it built
Northland northwest of Detroit. In 1969 it merged with the Dayton
Corporation to create Dayton-Hudson headquartered in Minneapolis.
George Dayton had founded his Dayton's Daylight store in
Minneapolis in 1902 and the AMC cooperative in 1912, built the
Southdale Shopping Center in 1956, and started the Target discount
store chain in 1962. The new corporation closed the flagship Hudson
department store in downtown Detroit in 1983, but expanded its
other retail operations. It acquired Mervyn's in 1978, Marshall
Field's in 1990, and renamed itself the Target Corporation in
By 1890 a new world of retailing had been created as department
stores had a clear market position as universal providers. General stores
eventually became department
stores as small towns became cities. The most prominent department
stores emerged from small shops. The department store created
several of North America's
businesses. The department store is also largely responsible for
the standard store design seen today, because of its size it
required new building materials, glass technology and new heating,
amongst other architectural innovations. The store layouts made
shopping easier for consumers regardless of their social or
economic background. The department store also offered new customer
services never before seen such as restaurants, restrooms, reading
rooms, home delivery, wrapping services, store hours, bridal registries
, new types of merchandise
displays and so forth.
department stores leased space to individual merchants, similar to
the changes in late 17th-century London, but by 1900
the smaller merchants were purchased or eventually replaced by the
In this way they were very similar to our
modern malls, where the property owner has no direct interest in
the actual department store itself, other than to collect rent and
provide utilities. Today only the most specialized departments are
leased out, such as photography, photo finishing, automotive
services or financial services. However, today this is rare, as
most departments—even a store's restaurant—is usually run by the
the 1950s, the department store held an eminent place in both
Canada and Australia, during both the Great Depression and World War II.
Since then, they have
suffered from strong competition from specialist stores
. Most recently the
competition has intensified with the advent of larger-scale
superstores (Jones et al.
1994; Merrilees and Miller
1997). Competition was not the only reason for the department
stores' weakening strength; the changing structure of cities also
affected them. The compact and centralized 19th century city with
its mass transit lines converging on the downtown was a perfect
environment for department store growth. But as residents moved out
of the downtown areas to the suburbs, the large, downtown
department stores became inconvenient and lost business to the
newer suburban shopping malls. In 2003, U.S. department store sales
were surpassed by big-box store
for the first time.
In Buenos Aires, upscale department stores came during the early
years of the 20th century. Gath &
Chávez opened in 1905 and Harrods Buenos
Aires was established in 1912. Today, the Chilean department store Falabella
is one of the most prominent in the country, with branches in
Buenos Aires, Córdoba, San Juan, Mendoza, and Rosario.
Although there were a number of department stores in Australia for
much of the 20th Century, today Myer
, located nationally,
are practically the national department stores duopoly
in Australia. Other retail chain stores such
and Big W
located nationally, are considered to be Australia's discount
department stores. Harris Scarfe
(trading under the Allens
brand in New South Wales and the ACT), though only operating in
four states and one territory, is a department store using both the
large full-line and small discount department store formats. Most
department stores in Australia have their own credit card
companies, each having their own benefits while the discount
department stores do not have their own credit card rights.
From its origins in the fur trade
Hudson's Bay Company
largest department store operator in Canada, and the oldest
corporation in North America
locations across the country. It also owns Zellers
, another major Canadian department store.
department stores in Canada are: Sears
Canada, Walmart Canada, Canadian Tire
and Holt Renfrew.
department stores were a significant component in Canadian economic
life, and chain stores such as Eaton's
, and Woodward's
were staples in their respective
communities. Department stores in Canada are similar in design and
style to department stores in the United States.
relatively small, the domestic Chilean retail market has proved fiercely competitive with
several department stores sprouting in Santiago and then expanding north and south of the
Leading department stores today include Falabella
, Almacenes París
, and Corona. Fallabella, founded in
1889, has opened branches in Argentina, Colombia, and Peru, with
París -its main Chilean competitor- coming on its heels.
Department stores first appeared in China at the
beginning of the 20th Century, the concept said to be introduced by
expatriate Chinese living in Australia.
Before 1949, there were four
main department stores in Shanghai
and Yat Sun
the first two still exist today.
During World War II
in China had led to the formation of a number of department stores
specializing in locally-made merchandise. These types of stores
became the mainstay in China after the formation of the Communist
state in 1949.
types of department stores have long had branches in Hong Kong; however Japanese department stores began to appear in the 1960s, and
within a generation's time became the dominant force in the
of the late 1990s had resulted in the closures
of some of these stores, but on the whole Hong Kong still has one
of the world's most competitive retail markets.
Since the opening policy in 1979, the Chinese department stores
also develops swiftly along with the fast growing economy. There
are different department store groups dominate different areas of
China, for example, INTIME department store has the biggest market
presence in Zhejiang province, while Jinying department stores
dominate Jiangsu Province. Besides, there are many other department
store groups, such as Pacific,PARKSON,Wangfujing，New World，etc.,
many of them are expanding quickly by listing in the financial
The most famous department store chain in Cyprus is Debenhams
In Denmark you find three department store chains: Magasin
).Magasin is by far
the largest with 6 stores all over the country, with the flagship
store being Magasin du Nord on Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen. Illums
only store on Amagertorv in Copenhagen has the appearance of a
department store with 20% run by Magasin, but has individual
shopowners making it a shopping centre. But in peoples mind it
remains a department store.Salling has two stores in Jutland with
one of these being the reason for the closure of a magasin store
due to the competition.
The most famous department store chains in Finland are Stockmann
, a listed company, and Sokos
, owned by a nationwide retailing cooperative.
department store in central Helsinki is the biggest department store in the entire
Nordic countries and a famous
landmark of Helsinki.
major upscale department stores are Galeries Lafayette and Le
both have flagship stores on Boulevard Haussmann in Paris and branches
around the country. The oldest department store in France (and in
the world) is Le Bon
Marché in Paris, owned by
the luxury goods conglomerate LVMH. La Samaritaine, another upscale department store also owned by
LVMH, closed in 2005. Mid-range department
stores chains also exist in France such as the BHV (Bazar de
l'Hotel de Ville), part of the same group as Galeries
In Germany there are a number of department stores. There are three big
department store companies, Karstadt (part
of Arcandor AG, also operating the
KaDeWe and two
Wertheim department stores in Berlin and the Alsterhaus in Hamburg), Hertie and Kaufhof (part of the Metro AG).
There are also some smaller
independent department stores. Some department stores only sell
clothing. The biggest clothing department store chain is C&A
. Larger department stores in Germany usually
contain a self-service restaurant, clothing departments, a toy
department, a department for computer and electronics, a small book
department (for bestsellers), a department for newspapers and
magazines and a food department (like a supermarket).
the most famous department stores in Germany is the Kaufhaus des
Westens (KaDeWe, German for "department store of the
west") which is located in Berlin.
Indonesia's largest department store chain is Ramayana
with over ninety branches across the
country. The same group also operates under Robinsons
, all targeting the lower income sectors.
Other local department store is Matahari
now owned by Lippo Group
. The group previously
managed to trade under Mega M, Galeria, JC Penney, Parisian and Walmart brands, all of which have been progressively
The middle up segment is mainly occupied by Metro
Department Store originated
from Singapore and Sogo
. In 2007 saw the
re-opening of Jakarta's Seibu, poised to be the largest and
second most upscale department store in Indonesia after Harvey Nichols, which will be opened in 2008
at the same shopping centre, the Grand Indonesia Shopping Town.
department stores include Debenhams
Marks & Spencer
, Marks &
are all operated by PT. Mitra
largest and newest department store chain is Shahrvand with
fourteen stores, all located in Tehran.
The other chains are ROLEX
which have stores throughout the
Originally the Republic of
Ireland had two department stores, Clerys and Arnotts,
the latter considered to be one of the five largest stores in
Britain and Ireland.
However, several large retailers now
own chains of department stores, such as:
The most upmarket chain is undoubtedly Brown Thomas, founded as a
haberdasher's in 1849 on Dublin's Grafton Street. The company
(which belongs to the same group as the UK's Selfridges or Canada's
Holt Renfrew) bought its long time competitor across the street,
Switzers, in 1995. BT then moved to the larger site. It also
acquired and re-branded the former Switzer stores in Cork (formerly
Cash's), Limerick (formerly Todd's) and Galway (formerly
There are also many self-owned department stores around the
country, especially in rural towns.
The British department store, Debenhams, purchased the Roches Stores
chain in 2006, closed two stores
and rebranded the others. The opening of Dundrum Town
Centre in Dublin's suburbs saw the arrival of two more
British stores, House of Fraser and
Some of the largest department stores in Japan include Daimaru
(H2O Retailing), Hanshin
(H2O Retailing), Isetan
(Isetan Mitsukoshi Holdings), Marui
(J. Front Retailing), Matsuya, Mitsukoshi
(Isetan Mitsukoshi Holdings), Printemps Ginza, Seibu
(Millennium Retailing), Sogo (Millennium
Retailing), Takashimaya, Tobu, and Tokyu (109).
Many are owned
and operated in conjunction with private railway companies.
Recently, business integration has been successive.
well-known department store in Kuwait is
Department stores in Lebanon include
Group, Bazar de
l'Hôtel de Ville, The Sultan
Center, Aïshti and Spinneys.
In Malaysia, companies such as AEON Jusco, Parkson, Metrojaya, The
Store, Isetan and Sogo are considered department stores, while
retail brands such as Tesco, Giant and Carrefour are discount
department stores combines supermarket.
Mexico has a number of department stores, including the Mexican
, El Palacio de Hierro
, Sanborns, Sears
, Saks 5th Avenue
. There are also foreign
stores such as JCPenney
The most well-known department stores in The Netherlands are
Maison de Bonneterie
Vroom & Dreesmann
In New Zealand, the most prominent chains are The Warehouse
, but these are largely seen to be
discount chains. There are more upmarket department stores
located regionally, such as Smith
& Caugheys in Auckland, Kirkcaldie
& Stains in Wellington, and Ballantynes in Christchurch.
Panama's first department stores such as Bazaar Francés, La Dalia
and La Villa de Paris started as textile retailers at the turn of
the nineteenth century. Later on in the twentieth century these
eventually gave way to stores such as Felix B. Maduro, Sarah
Panamá, Figali, Danté, Sears, Gran Morrison and smaller ones such
as Bon Bini, Cocos, El Lider, Piccolo and Clubman among others. Of
these only Felix B. Maduro (usually referred to as Felix by locals)
and Danté remain strong. All the others have either folded or
declined although Cocos has managed to secure a good position in
the market. Today major department stores aside from these two
include Steven's and Collin's. There are also many discount
department stores such as Conway which includes a furniture and
decoration department named Conway Design, La Onda, Dorian's, Saks,
Madison Store and El Titan among others.
One of the first department stores in the Philippines were located
in Metro Manila and established by SM Prime
and Rustan's . Since it’s debut in the 1950s, they now
hold more than 100 department stores to date. At present, due to
the huge success of shopping malls, department stores in the
Philippines usually serve as part of an anchor tenant insid.
and Robinsons Malls
are two of the country's
most prominent mall chains, all of which has Department Store
Currently Portugal has only two department stores, both operated by
El Corte Inglés
, one in
Lisbon Metropolitan Area
other in Porto Metropolitan
. This small number of department stores can be explained
by the wide spread presence throughout the country of shopping malls
and supermarket chains like
Modelo, owned by Sonae
owned by Jeronimo Martins
which are more akin to the local taste.
popular department stores in Thailand are Central
Department Store which are managed by Central Group. These are the list of
department stores in Thailand
the most famous Department store in Russia is the GUM in Moscow, Central
Universal Store (TsUM) or the Petrovsky Passage.
Other popular stores are Mega (shopping
malls), Stockmann, Marks & Spencer. Media Markt, M-video,
Technosila, White Wind (Beliy Veter) sell large number of
electronic devices. In Saint Petersburg The
Passage has been popular since the 1840s.
department stores are clustered around Orchard Road in Singapore.
The most well-known department stores in
Singapore are BHG
(formally known as Seiyu
, John Little
, Marks & Spencer
, Robinson & Co.
of their branch outlets can also be found in the sub-urban shopping
The three most prevalent chains are Hyundai
, and Shinsegae
, which opened in 1930 as Mitsukoshi
Gyeongseong store and is the oldest
department store chain.Lotte
is the largest, operating more than 20 stores. TheSeoul Sampoong department store collapsed in 1995 during shopping
hours and many people died.Shinsegae
Centum City in Haeundae-gu, Busan is the
world's largest department store.
Following the 2002 closure by the Australian group Partridges of
(Sociedad Española de Precios
Unicos) department store chain, which in fact was Spain's oldest,
the market is now dominated by El
, founded in 1934 as a drapery store. El Corte Inglés
stores tend to be vast
buildings, selling a very broad range of products and the group
also controls a number of other retail formats including
supermarket chain 'Supercor' and hypermarket chain 'Hipercor'.
Other competitors such as 'Simago' and 'Galerías Preciados' closed
in the 1990s, however El Corte
, faces major competition from French discount operators
such as Carrefour
The largest department store chain in Sweden is Åhléns
, which operates stores throughout
the country. Its flagship Stockholm store, Åhléns
City, is the largest department store in Sweden.
large stores are Nordiska Kompaniet in Stockholm and Gothenburg, and PUB in
The Swiss retail market is dominated by two consumers' cooperatives
which also run department stores. Migros operates 12 upscale
department stores and 34
mid-range Migros MMM centers across the country. Since the
acquisitions of EPA in 2002, Coop operates its mid-range department
stores under the brand Coop City. Manor
operates department stores
throughout the country. Jelmoli and Loeb operate upscale department
stores in Zurich and Berne
the early department stores in London started out
as small drapery stores which bought up
neighbouring stores and increased their range of
The exterior of Harrods in
Kendals in Manchester can lay claim to being the oldest
department store in the UK and perhaps in the world.
- Whiteleys in Westbourne Grove was first to grow to department store size.
By 1867 it consisted of 17 departments and by 1890 it was operating
in a purposely built department store and had over 6,000 staff
employed in the business.
- Barkers in Kensington can be defined as a department store by 1880, when
it encompassed 15 neighbouring stores, and in 1889 the company
moved into a new, large building. This was eventually taken
over by House of Fraser and closed
for business in 2006.
- Peter Jones in Sloane
Square had grown to department store size by
- Harrods was reborn as a proper department store in 1889,
after a devastating fire in 1883.
- John Lewis
- Selfridges was opened in 1909 by the
American entrepreneur Harry
Gordon Selfridge, and thus became London's seventh department
- House of Fraser owns and
operates several department stores across the UK.
- Harvey Nichols of Sloane Street,
Knightsbridge is Harrods' closest competitor.
- Debenhams is one of the UK's most
popular department stores.
Beginning as a small shop owned by S. and J. Watts in 1796, its
sold a variety of goods. Kendal Milne and Faulkner purchased the
business in 1835. Expanding the space, rather than use it as a
typical warehouse simply to showcase textiles, it became a vast
bazaar. Serving Manchester's upmarket clientel for over 200 years,
it was recently purchased by the House of Fraser - although most
Mancunians still refer to it as Kendals.
Edinburgh, Jenners saw a similar development.
It starting as a
drapery store in 1838, which by 1890 had grown into Scotland's
largest retail store by gobbling up all the small stores in the
neighbourhood. In 1895, after a devastating fire, a new
ultra-modern building opened, with lavish electrical lighting,
hydraulic lifts and air conditioning. Four hours after the grand
opening, 25,000 people had already visited the store.
UK the term
"department store" still refers to the traditional, classic
department store, which has a wide range of independent departments
with their own staff and their own till.
Large discount stores with the
tills located by the entrance are not regarded as department stores
in the UK, although the owners may call them that. Such stores as
Marks & Spencer
largest clothes retailer would therefore not be included in the
British definition of a department store.
States, companies such as Saks
5th Avenue, Neiman Marcus,
Bloomingdale's, Nordstrom, Lord &
Taylor, Macy's, Dillard's, JC Penney, and
Sears are considered department stores, while
retail brands such as Target,
Kmart, and Wal-Mart are discount department stores. T.J. Maxx
, and Burlington Coat Factory
that sell designer goods at lower prices. Stores that carry a
and other product lines similar to those of department stores are
considered warehouse clubs or supercenters. Warehouse clubs require
a nominal annual membership fee, while supercenters do not.
, and Sam's Club
examples of warehouse clubs.
Types of department stores
Upscale department store
Characteristics of a typical upscale department store may include:
upscale department stores that operate in the United States include
national chains like Barneys New
York, Bloomingdale's, Lord & Taylor, Neiman Marcus, Nordstrom, and Saks Fifth
Avenue, as well as regional retailers such as Bergdorf
Goodman, Halls and
Von Maur. In the United
Kingdom, department stores making up the high-end include Harvey Nichols, Harrods and Fortnum and Mason.
- Sale of brand name perfumes and beauty supplies, like Burberry, Calvin Klein
or M•A•C at the main entrance, with
specialists in cosmetics there to assist customers with applying
and selecting makeup.
- General sale of name brand clothes above an average price
level, such as Dior, Chanel, Versace, Lacoste, etc.
- When items are discounted, the price resembles that of an
average priced item at a lower scale department store.
- Sale of small household appliances like blenders, or small electronic items such as
- Specialized services or subset businesses such as personal
shopping assistance, salons, restaurants, and/or travel
In Indonesia, the most upscale department
stores includes Sogo
from Japan, Debenhams
and Harvey Nichols
Kingdom (all managed by PT. Mitra Adiperkasa Tbk.) In Australia,
the two main upscale department stores are David Jones
Mid-range department store
Characteristics of a mid-range department store may include:
- Sale of cosmetics.
- Sale of some brand names, with greater emphasis on private label brands.
- Sale of accessories.
- Sale of some small household appliances.
- Sale of furniture in larger locations.
Comparison to upscale department store
- Sale of cosmetics but generally not brand name. Fragrances and
beauty supplies may be placed further into the interior of the
store, without cosmetic specialists at the counters.
- Greater proportion of moderately-priced brand names.
- Accessories and purses aren't upscale brand names, with greater
proportion of lesser-known or private label branded items.
Mid-range department stores that operate in the United States
include national chains JCPenney
. Regional chains such as Gottschalks
in the western United States and
and associated stores in the
northern part of the country are also among this grouping of
As noted in details of upscale department stores, Macy's, Dillard's
and Belk vary in price points and relative consideration as upscale
or mid-range versus local competitors, depending upon location.
Some larger locations in affluent areas often carry significant
selections of brand name products including brand name accessories
kept in glass cases, and
usually have cosmetic specialists in the beauty department. Brands
at above-average price points, if offered at all, are generally
limited and full product lines of such brands are not typically
available. Smaller and more remote store locations — often, the
legacy of acquisitions of smaller retailers — may concentrate
squarely on moderately-priced merchandise. California-based Gottschalks mirrors these chains, though in a
specific region with little presence in major metropolitan
areas. Macy's are typically the anchors of upscale
malls and are situated among other high-end department stores such
Domain in Austin.
Nationally known JCPenney has
incorporated elements of upscale stores such as salons and custom
home decorating services, along with offering optical shops,
portrait photography studios and designer-produced private
The national chain Sears
is also in this category, but often is considered a lower grade
mid-range department store due to marketing a higher proportion of
private label and lesser-known label goods in apparel and
housewares segments. Sears differs from most mid-range department
store chains in its common inclusion of departments for hardware,
garden and outdoor equipment, automotive service, and large
appliances and electronics — product segments more typical of
discount or so-called "big box" retailers.
Discount department store/super-store
- Sells cosmetics, generally not name brand.
- Generally doesn't sell name brands.
- Sells accessories, generally not name brand.
- Sells small household appliances.
- Sells toys, electronics and video games.
- Sells household necessities.
- The "super-store" variant usually sells food products and has a
"one stop shop" vibe.
Comparison to mid-range department stores
discount department stores that operate in the United States
include: Shopko, Kmart
- Sells fewer major brand names.
- Offers a wider variety of products.
- More likely to anchor a power
centre than an indoor shopping
Although Shopko and Kmart are more upscale
than Wal-Mart; further, Wal-Mart could be considered a "super
discount department store". Target
is also in this category but may
be considered a more upscale Discount Department Store because it
puts a greater emphasis on current fashion and on special
merchandise lines from well-known designers such as Isaac Mizrahi
and Thomas O'Brien.
- Most products are name-branded.
- Products may be over-runs, seconds, or last season's stock
liquidated from department stores.
- Product mix typically emphasizes women's clothing and may
include men's clothing, children's clothing, shoes, accessories,
perfume, toys, housewares, or packaged gourmet food.
- Stores are most frequently located in power centres but may also appear in shopping malls.
Off-price retail department stores include T.J. Maxx
, Factory 2-U
, Century 21
, Gabriel Brothers
, Ross Dress For Less
, Burlington Coat Factory
parent company of Marshalls and TJ Maxx, has been experimenting
superstores that carry a
larger range and variety of housewares, including furniture.
- Brigg's, Asa: Friends of the people (The Centenary History of
- Shopping at Downtown Crossing Radio Boston, 14
- About Home Goods Retrieved June 16, 2007
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Shoplifters in the Victorian Department Store. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1989.
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Rise of Modern City Culture in Nineteenth-Century America. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
- Benson, Susan Porter. Counter Culture: Saleswomen, Managers
and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890-1940.
Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1988. ISBN
- Ershkowicz, Herbert. John Wanamaker, Philadelphia
Merchant. New York: DaCapo Press, 1999.
- Gibbons, Herbert Adams. John Wanamaker. New York:
Harper & Row, 1926.
- Hendrickson, Robert. The Grand Emporiums: The Illustrated
History of America's Great Department Stores. New York: Stein
and Day, 1979.
- Leach, William. Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the
Rise of a New American Culture. New York: Pantheon, 1993. ISBN
- Parker, K. (2003). "Sign Consumption in the 19th-Century
Department Store: An Examination of Visual Merchandising in the
Grand Emporiums (1846 – 1900)." Journal of Sociology 39
- Schlereth, Thomas J. Victorian America: Transformations in
Everyday Life, 1876-1915. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.
- Sobel, Robert. "John Wanamaker: The
Triumph of Content Over Form," in The Entrepreneurs:
Explorations Within the American Business Tradition New York:
Weybright & Talley, 1974). ISBN 0-679-40064-8.
- Spang, Rebecca L. The Invention of the Restaurant: Paris
and Modern Gastronomic Culture. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 2000. 325 p.
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Department Store Fashioned the Middle Class. New York: St.
Martin's Press, 2006. ISBN 0-312-32635-1.
Under One Roof The death and life of the New York department
store.by Adam Gopnik ]